More than 37 million people in the United States have diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and 1 in 4 of them don’t know they have it. Many are millennials. In fact, it’s rising fastest among that group.
- Being overweight.
- Being age 45 or older.
- Having history of gestational diabetes.
- physical inactivity (exercising fewer than three times a week).
The staggering numbers add up to a crisis for America.
A host of complications can accompany diabetes, including nerve damage; skin disorders; eye complications including glaucoma, cataracts and blindness; cardiovascular disease; high blood pressure; stroke, and lower-limb amputations.
Here are the top 5 things to know and do about diabetes.
1. Get educated.
Know the risk factors:
- The first is a body mass index, or BMI, over 30. BMI is the calculated number that correlates your weight with your height. The higher the BMI, the greater the risk. The CDC website has a BMI calculator.
- The second is to understand your family history. People with a first-degree relative – a parent or sibling – with Type 2 diabetes – have an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. If that’s you, ask your provider about a screening test.
- Lastly, age is a factor. The risk of Type 2 diabetes increases with age. The American Diabetes Association recommends screening people after age 45.
Unsure where to start? A primary care physician can help.
The prevalence of diabetes is higher among African Americans and people of Hispanic background. So, if you have a high BMI and you're African American or Hispanic, you're also in a higher risk category and should be screened.
Know myth from reality. The biggest misconception about Type 2 diabetes is that the cause is eating too many sweets. In fact, it's a genetically determined disease.
Type 2 diabetes comes from your genetic predisposition, your weight, your physical activity level and your diet. So just cutting back on sweets won't necessarily eliminate diabetes, although it’s an important part of managing it.
2. Get moving.
Any kind of physical activity can help prevent type 2 diabetes. Nothing is too small. If you’re completely sedentary, walking to the end of the block and back once a day is more than a good start. The American Diabetes Association recommends 150 minutes of moderate activity a week to control both diabetes and decrease risk. Consult with your provider before embarking on a vigorous exercise program.
3. Manage – or lose – weight.
Even a little. Weight management is critical for controlling diabetes, and the better you control your diabetes from the beginning, the better your long-term outcome.
Two things are key: reducing weight and significantly reducing carbohydrate intake.
People on very high-carb diets who drink lots of sugar-sweetened beverages and eat a lot of starchy food can have significant improvement in their diabetes control by making small changes in their diet.
4. Ask your health care provider about medication.
Not everybody needs to go on medication after a diagnosis, but some do. And sometimes that includes insulin. Oftentimes, for people with very high blood sugar elevation, insulin is the only choice to manage their blood sugar. And with time, changes in lifestyle and gradual weight loss, many patients can cut back or even eliminate their insulin therapy – even if they're on it immediately after diagnosis.
5. Take it seriously.
Diabetes that goes unaddressed will result in complications.
Elevated blood sugar that goes on for years has negative effects on the body – potential damage to the eyes, which may result in blindness. And damage to the nerves, particularly in the legs, which can result in loss of sensation. That, in turn, results in not being able to tell if you have an injury or an infection, and that can result in the need for lower extremity amputation.
Diabetes has a negative effect on the kidneys. And decline of kidney function, over time, can result in kidney failure. And then people end up on dialysis. People who have diabetes also have an increased risk of heart attack and stroke.