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Diseases & Conditions : Orthopaedics


    • Bone Cancers in Children

      Detailed information on bone cancer in children, including Ewing sarcoma and osteogenic sarcoma

    • Cast Types and Maintenance Instructions

      The outside of a cast can be made of plaster or fiberglass. Cotton and synthetic materials line the inside of the cast to make it soft and to provide padding around bony areas, such as the wrist or elbow.

    • Clubfoot

      Clubfoot is a deformity of the foot. It’s when one or both feet are turned inward. The condition affects the bones, muscles, tendons, and blood vessels.

    • Congenital and Hereditary Orthopedic Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common congenital and hereditary disorders in children

    • Congenital Limb Defect

      A congenital limb defect is when an arm or leg doesn’t form normally as a baby grows in the uterus. The baby is born with the defect.

    • Crutch Walking

      Hold the top part of the crutch firmly between the chest and the inside of the upper arm. Do not allow the top of the crutch to push up into the armpit. It is possible to damage nerves and blood vessels with constant pressure.

    • Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

      In a normal hip joint, the top (head) of the thighbone (femur) fits snugly into the hip socket. In a child with DDH, the hip socket is shallow. As a result, the head of the femur may slip in and out.

    • Dislocations in Children

      A dislocation is a joint injury. It occurs when the ends of 2 connected bones come apart. Dislocations happen more often among teens.

    • Evaluation Procedures for Children

      Detailed information on evaluation procedures used to diagnosis orthopaedic disorders in children

    • Ewing Sarcoma in Children

      Ewing sarcoma is a rare type of cancer. It’s most common in children and teens between the ages 10 and 19. It usually grows in bone, but it can also grow in soft tissue that’s connected to the bone. This may include tendons, ligaments, cartilage, or muscles.

    • Femoral Anteversion

      Femoral anteversion is an inward twisting of the thighbone (femur). This health problem causes a child’s knees and feet to turn inward. The child may have a pigeon-toed appearance.

    • Fractures in Children

      A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone. When a fracture happens, it is classified as either open or closed.

    • Glossary - Orthopedics

      Glossary of terms relating to orthopedics

    • Growth-Related Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common growth-related disorders in children

    • Heat-Related Illnesses (Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke)

      Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.

    • Home Page - Orthopedics

      Detailed information on orthopedic disorders in children

    • Inflammatory and Infectious Musculoskeletal Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common types of inflammatory and infectious disorders in children

    • Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

      Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a form of arthritis in children. Arthritis causes joint swelling (inflammation) and joint stiffness. JIA is arthritis that affects 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks in a child age 16 or younger.

    • Kyphosis in Children

      Kyphosis is a deformity of the backbone (spine). It’s when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) in the upper back curve outward more than they should.

    • Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease

      Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (or Perthes disease) is a rare hip condition that affects children.

    • Lordosis

      Lordosis is a deformity of the backbone (spine). It’s when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) in the lower back curve inward more than normal.

    • Metatarsus Adductus

      Metatarsus adductus is a common foot deformity noted at birth. It causes the front half of the child’s foot (forefoot) to turn inward.

    • Muscular Dystrophy

      Muscular dystrophy causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time.

    • Nursemaid’s Elbow

      Nursemaid’s elbow is a type of elbow injury. It’s when a forearm bone (radius) slips out of place from where it normally attaches to the elbow joint.

    • Online Resources - Orthopedics

      List of online resources to find additional information on orthopedics

    • Osgood-Schlatter Disease

      Osgood-Schlatter disease is an overuse condition in children. It’s when the tendon in a knee becomes injured and inflamed.

    • Osteogenesis Imperfecta in Children

      Osteogenesis imperfecta is also known as brittle-bone disease because it is characterized by bones that break easily without a specific cause.

    • Osteomyelitis in Children

      Acute osteomyelitis is an infection in the bone. It develops over a short time, usually about 2 weeks. In children, osteomyelitis is more common in the long bones of the arms and legs. But it can affect any bone in the body. Osteomyelitis can happen in children of any age. About half of the time, it happens in children under 5 years of age.

    • Osteosarcoma (Osteogenic Sarcoma) in Children

      Osteosarcoma is cancer of the bone. The cancer (malignant) cells make immature bone cells (osteoid). Osteosarcoma is rare, but it is the most common type of bone cancer in children and teens. It is most common when teens have growth spurts. That is between the ages of 13 and 16.

    • Overuse Injuries

      Detailed information on overuse injuries in children, including jumper's knee, patellar tendonitis, little leaguers' elbow, little leaguers' shoulder, osteochondritis dissecans, Sever's disease, shin splints, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease, spondylolisthesis, and spondylolysis

    • Scoliosis in Children

      Scoliosis is a deformity of the backbone (spine). It’s when the spine has a side-to-side curve. The curve of the spine measures 10 degrees or more.

    • Septic Arthritis (Infectious Arthritis) in Children

      Septic arthritis is an infection in the joint fluid (synovial fluid) and joint tissues. It occurs more often in children than in adults.

    • Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

      Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a condition of the hip joint that affects children. In SCFE, the ball of the thighbone (femoral head) slips off the neck of the thighbone.

    • Sports Injuries and Children

      Detailed information on sports injuries in children, including overuse injuries, sprains, strains, and heat-related illnesses

    • Sports Injury Prevention

      Detailed information on sports safety, including safety gear and equipment

    • Sports Injury Statistics

      Detailed information on sports injuries in children

    • Sprains and Strains in Children

      Sprains and strains are types of injuries. A sprain is an injury to a ligament while a strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon.

    • Tennis Elbow in Children

      Tennis elbow is a repetitive stress injury. It happens when the muscles and tendons in the elbow area are torn or damaged.

    • The Pediatrics Orthopedic Team

      Detailed information on each member of the pediatric orthopedic treatment team

    • Tibial Torsion

      Tibial torsion is an inward twisting of the shinbones. These bones are located between the knee and the ankle. Tibial torsion causes a child’s feet to turn inward.

    • Topic Index - Orthopedics

      Detailed information on orthopaedic disorders in children