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Diseases & Conditions : Normal Newborn


    • Baby's Care After a Cesarean Delivery

      Because babies born by cesarean may have difficulty clearing some of the lung fluid and mucus, extra suctioning of the nose, mouth, and throat are often needed.

    • Baby's Care After a Vaginal Delivery

      Healthy babies born in a vaginal delivery are usually able to stay with the mother. In many cases, immediate newborn assessments are performed right in the mother's room.

    • Baby's Care After Birth

      Detailed information on baby's care after birth

    • Baby's Care in the Delivery Room

      A newborn baby is wet from the amniotic fluid and can easily become cold. Drying the baby and using warm blankets and heat lamps can help prevent heat loss. Often a knitted hat is placed on the baby's head.

    • Bathing and Skin Care for the Newborn

      Bath time is a great time to bond with your newborn while keeping his or her skin healthy and cuddly soft. Get the facts—and proper supplies—to make these moments safe and enjoyable for both you and baby.

    • Behavior Changes

      Your baby's activity level, appetite, and cries normally vary from day to day, and even hour to hour. But a distinct change in any of these areas may signal illness.

    • Birth Injuries

      Some babies have a more difficult trip through the birth canal than others, resulting in physical injuries. These injuries usually are not serious and clear up or improve within a few days or weeks after the birth.

    • Bottle-Feeding

      Detailed information on bottle-feeding, including information on the different types of baby formulas.

    • Breast Milk Collection and Storage

      Detailed information on breast milk collection and storage

    • Breast Milk Expression

      Most mothers who plan to continue breastfeeding will need to express their breast milk during the work or school day if away from the baby for more than three or four hours.

    • Breastfeeding and Delayed Milk Production

      Detailed information on insufficient or delayed milk production

    • Breastfeeding and Returning To Work

      Detailed information on breastfeeding while at work

    • Breastfeeding at Work

      Discuss your plan to continue to breastfeed, and your need to pump or express breast milk during the workday, with your employer when you are pregnant or before you return to work.

    • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby

      Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the baby, including ineffective latch-on, ineffective sucking, slow infant weight gain, poor infant weight gain, mismanaged breastfeeding, over-active breast milk let down

    • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother

      Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the mother, including sore nipples, low breast milk production, flat nipples, plugged milk ducts, and mastitis

    • Breastfeeding When Returning to Work

      Helpful advice on how to maintain your milk production when going back to work.

    • Breastfeeding Your Baby
    • Breastfeeding: Getting Started

      The first weeks of breastfeeding should be considered a learning period for both you and your baby. Here's what you need to know.

    • Breastfeeding: Returning to Work

      About 2 weeks before you return to work, start pumping or expressing milk for storage to use once you return to work.

    • Breastmilk Is Best

      Your milk contains just the right balance of nutrients in a form most easily used by your baby's immature body systems.

    • Breathing Problems

      If you listen closely, you’ll notice that your baby’s breathing isn’t like yours. Babies breathe much more frequently and with different patterns than adults. Here’s how to recognize normal breathing in your infant—and how to spot signs of respiratory distress.

    • Child Care

      Choosing a childcare provider for your baby is an important decision. Find one who supports your choice to breastfeed and is willing to carry out your plan. Doing so will give you peace of mind and make your transition back to work easier.

    • Childhood Immunizations

      Your little one will need several immunization shots to help protect her from several childhood diseases, some of which can be deadly. Knowing which shots she needs, when, and what to do in the event of a minor reaction is important.

    • Choosing Your Child's Healthcare Provider

      A pediatrician, family practice healthcare provider, physician's assistant, family nurse practitioner, or pediatric nurse practitioner can be your baby's primary care provider. The medical specialty dealing with children is called pediatrics.

    • Circumcision

      Whether you decided to have your baby boy circumcised or not, it’s important to know how to care for his special needs. Find tips for caring for both circumcised and uncircumcised babies.

    • Common Procedures

      Detailed information on the most common procedures performed on newborns

    • Diapers and Diaper Rash

      You have 2choices in diapers—cloth or disposable. Each type has advantages and disadvantages. You must decide which works best for your child and family.

    • Difficulty with Latching On or Sucking

      Detailed information on ineffective latch-on or sucking during breastfeeding

    • Effective Sucking

      It’s important for your baby’s health to be able to effectively remove milk from your breast during nursing. To do this, your baby must learn the proper way to suck. But how do you know if your baby is actually getting the nutrition he or she needs? Here’s a guide to help you.

    • Expressing Your Milk - Helpful Equipment

      Hospital-grade, electric breast pumps are the only pumps built for frequent and prolonged use. These pumps automatically cycle suction with release of suction—similar to a baby's sucking action.

    • Eye Medicine/Vitamin K Injection for Newborns

      Newborn babies routinely receive eye medicine and vitamin K injections soon after birth. Both prevent serious conditions.

    • Fever in A Newborn

      The system that controls body temperature is not well developed in a newborn. Here's what you need to know about fever and your baby.

    • Flat or Inverted Nipples

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and flat or inverted nipples

    • Gastrointestinal Problems

      If your baby seems fussy and you’ve fed and changed him, he may have an upset stomach or colic. But don’t worry, there are lots of things you can do to make your little one more comfortable and keep both of you calm.

    • Gestational Age Assessment

      It’s not always easy to tell a newborn’s age by their size. Premature babies are usually small, but full-term and past-term babies can be small, too. That’s when healthcare providers will do a gestational assessment to determine if a newborn needs special treatment.

    • Getting to Know Your New Baby

      Getting to know your new baby is part of a fascinating but relatively simple process called bonding, in which you essentially "fall in love" with each other.

    • Glossary - Normal Newborn

      Glossary of terms relating to newborn care

    • Hearing Screening Tests for Newborns

      Today nearly all newborns are screened for hearing loss. Here's a look at why, and the types of screening tests that are done.

    • Home Page - Normal Newborn

      Detailed information on newborn care

    • How Breast Milk Is Made

      Detailed information on how breast milk is made for breastfeeding

    • Hypoglycemia in a Newborn Baby

      Hypoglycemia is when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too low. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and the body. In a newborn baby, low blood sugar can happen for many reasons. It can cause problems such as shakiness, blue tint to the skin, and breathing and feeding problems.

    • Infant Feeding Guide

      How much, what, and when to feed your baby can seem daunting. But this cheat sheet will give you the information you need to start your baby on the right nutritional path.

    • Low Milk Production

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and low breastmilk production

    • Managing Poor Weight Gain in Your Breastfed Infant

      Detailed information on mismanaged breastfeeding, including information on breastfeeding positions

    • Mastitis

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and mastitis

    • Maternal Nutrition and Breastfeeding

      Women who are breastfeeding should eat a well-balanced, varied diet and drink enough liquids.

    • Maternity Leave

      The length of time given for a paid maternity leave of absence varies among companies. Some women extend their maternity leaves by taking additional weeks of unpaid leave.

    • Measuring a Baby's Temperature

      Most healthcare providers recommend taking a baby's temperature rectally, by placing a thermometer in the baby's anus. This method is accurate and gives a quick reading of the baby's internal temperature.

    • Newborn Appearance

      Newborns have many variations in normal appearance, from their skin color to the shape of their head. Here's a look at some of the normal variations you can expect.

    • Newborn Babies: Getting Ready at Home

      Newborns need just some basic items at first. These include a warm and safe place to sleep, food, clothing, and diapers. Here's a helpful guide to the essentials.

    • Newborn Care

      Detailed information on newborn care

    • Newborn Complications

      Detailed information on the most common types of newborn complications

    • Newborn Crying

      Crying is the way babies communicate. They cry because of hunger, discomfort, frustration, tiredness, and even loneliness.

    • Newborn Health Assessment

      Detailed information on newborn health assessments

    • Newborn Immunizations

      Your newborn is fragile and needs protection from the new world. One of the first steps you can take to protect your baby is to get her vaccinated. Learn about the first scheduled immunization—the hepatitis B vaccine—and how it keeps your baby safe from serious illness.

    • Newborn Measurements

      Your newborn will be weighed in the hospital and at all check-ups. In most cases, metric units are used to record babies' weight. This chart will help you convert the metric unit grams (g) to pounds (lb) and ounces (oz).

    • Newborn Reflexes

      Ever wonder why your baby flings his arms out sideways when startled? This reaction—called the Moro reflex—is one of many natural reflexes your newborn should exhibit. Read on to learn about common newborn reflexes and what they mean.

    • Newborn Screening Tests

      A national program exists to screen all newborns for certain disorders within the first few days of life.

    • Newborn Senses

      Babies are born with all 5 senses—sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Some of the senses are not fully developed.

    • Newborn Sleep Patterns

      New parents are often unsure how long and how often a newborn should sleep. Read on to learn about general newborn sleep patterns, the quiet alert phases, and how to help your baby fall asleep.

    • Newborn Warning Signs

      Most newborns adjust well to the outside world. But it's helpful to know about these warning signs that could indicate a possible problem.

    • Normal Newborn Behaviors and Activities

      Detailed information on normal newborn behaviors and activities

    • Online Resources - Normal Newborn

      List of online resources to find additional information on newborn care

    • Overactive Let-Down

      Many nursing mothers worry if their babies aren’t getting enough milk—but what if the opposite were true? Here’s what you can do to make sure your aren’t overwhelming your baby during feeding time.

    • Overview of Birth Defects

      A "birth defect" is a health problem or physical change that is present in a baby at the time he/she is born.

    • Physical Exam of the Newborn

      A complete physical exam is an important part of newborn care. Each body system is carefully checked for signs of health and normal function.

    • Planning to Be Away from Your Baby: Introducing a Bottle

      You’ve been breastfeeding your baby up until now—but it’s time to return to work. You haven’t given her a bottle with breast milk yet. When should you make the change? Here are tips to make a successful transition from breast to bottle.

    • Plugged Milk Ducts

      For mothers who breastfeed, some may be more susceptible to plugged ducts than others. Get some quick tips on how to avoid and manage this concern, so you can keep you and your baby happy and healthy.

    • Preparing for Your New Baby

      Detailed information on preparing for your new baby

    • Preparing the Family

      Most families soon find ways to adjust to the changes that take place after a baby is born. But it is helpful to prepare some family members for what is ahead.

    • Skin Color Changes

      The color of a baby's skin can often help identify possible problems in another area of the body. Here are some skin color changes to be aware of.

    • Slow or Poor Infant Weight Gain

      Are you concerned that your little one has slow or poor weight gain? Unsure? This article will help you sort out your questions and concerns.

    • Sore Nipples

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and sore nipples

    • Storing Your Breastmilk

      Hard plastic containers or breastmilk storage bags are the best storage containers for human milk, especially if it is to be frozen and stored for weeks or months.

    • Taking Care of Your Breast Pump and Collection Kit

      Moms who bottle feed their babies are always worried about keeping the bottles and nipples clean and sterilized at all times. Likewise, if you’re a breastfeeding mom you have to be concerned with keeping your breast pump and all its parts clean to keep your baby safe from breast milk contamination.

    • Thawing Breast Milk

      Use the oldest milk first, and thaw it by placing the collection container in the refrigerator for several hours or overnight.

    • The New Mother: Taking Care of Yourself After Birth

      You will need plenty of rest, good nutrition, and help during the first few weeks after your baby is born.

    • Thrush

      Thrush is a yeast infection in the mouth and throat of babies. Babies usually contract the organism from the mother's body during delivery and may develop thrush as early as 2 weeks old.

    • Topic Index - Normal Newborn

      Detailed information on newborn care

    • Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

      Transient tachypnea [TACK-up-NEE-uh] of the newborn is a mild breathing problem. It affects babies during the first hours of life. Transient means it is short-lived. Tachypnea means fast breathing rate. The problem usually goes away without treatment in about 3 days.

    • Umbilical Cord Care

      In a few weeks, your baby will have the cutest little belly button. But right now the healing remains of his umbilical cord need special care. Here’s how to make sure the cord remainder stays infection-free.

    • Using a Breast Pump

      A breast pump is an important piece of equipment for the breastfeeding mom who wants to increase her supply or store pumped breastmilk. While it seems like a simple thing to sit down and pump out milk, there are things you can do to make pumping more effective.

    • When a Baby Has Difficulty After Birth

      Some babies may have difficulty at birth. These include babies who are born prematurely, have a difficult delivery, or have birth defects.

    • When to Call Your Child's Healthcare Provider

      Detailed information on when to call your baby's physician

    • Your Baby and Breastfeeding

      Think there’s only one way to breastfeed? You can position your baby in several ways during feeding time that can be comfortable for both of you.