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Diseases & Conditions : Neurological Disorders

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    • Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Children

      Many types of trauma can cause an acute spinal cord injury. The more common types occur when the area of the spine or neck is bent or compressed.

    • Anatomy of a Child's Brain

      The brain can be divided into three areas, the cerebrum, the brainstem, and the cerebellum.

    • Anencephaly

      Anencephaly is a type of neural tube defect present at birth. It affects the formation of the brain and the skull bones that surround the head.

    • Brain Abscess

      A brain abscess is a rare infection in the brain caused by viruses or bacteria. Symptoms include fever, severe headache, and nausea or vomiting.

    • Brain Tumors in Children

      A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The brain is part of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS also includes the spinal cord.

    • Cerebral Palsy

      Cerebral palsy is a life-long condition that affects the communication between the brain and the muscles, causing a permanent state of uncoordinated movement and posturing.

    • Chiari Malformation Type I in Children

      A Chiari malformation (CM) is a problem with how the brain sits in the skull. The brain normally sits fully inside the skull. With a Chiari malformation, the lower part of the brain (cerebellum) dips down through a normal opening (foramen magnum) at the bottom of the skull. In some cases, more brain tissue also dips down through this opening.

    • Congenital and Hereditary Neurological Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common congenital and hereditary disorders in children

    • Craniosynostosis

      Craniosynostosis is a condition where one or more of the bones of the skull close too early. This can cause problems with normal brain and skull growth.

    • Diagnostic Tests for Neurological Disorders in Children

      Detailed information on the most common diagnostic tests for neurological disorders in children

    • Electroencephalogram (EEG) for Children

      An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test that measures the electrical activity in the brain. An EEG measures brain waves through small button electrodes that are placed on your child's scalp.

    • Encephalitis in Children

      Encephalitis means inflammation of the brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell. This can lead to mental confusion and seizures.

    • Epilepsy and Seizures in Children

      Epilepsy is a brain condition that causes a child to have seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system.

    • Glossary - Neurological Disorders

      Glossary of terms relating to nervous system

    • Guillain-Barre Syndrome in Children

      Guillain-Barré syndrome is a neurological disorder in which a child's immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. The disorder usually occurs a few days or weeks after the child has had symptoms of a respiratory or gastrointestinal viral infection.

    • Head Injury in Children

      The more common causes of head injury in children are falls, motor vehicle accidents—in which the child is either a passenger or a pedestrian—or a result of child abuse.

    • Headaches in Children

      Many headaches in children may be caused by tight muscles and dilated blood vessels in the head. Other headaches may be caused by an actual problem, such as a tumor or malformation of the brain, although this is much less common.

    • Home Page - Neurological Disorders

      Detailed information on neurological disorders in children

    • Hydrocephalus

      A baby with hydrocephalus has extra fluid around the brain. This fluid is called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Too much CSF can increase the pressure in your baby’s head. This causes the bones in your baby’s skull to expand and separate. The baby's head may look larger than normal.

    • Inflammatory and Infectious Neurological Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common inflammatory and infectious disorders in children

    • Intraventricular Hemorrhage

      If your baby is born prematurely, there are many worries that likely go through your mind. One of the things that can happen is bleeding on the brain. Read on to learn about this and what doctors can do help your baby.

    • Meningitis in Children

      Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. Bacteria or viruses are the more common causes.

    • Microcephaly

      An infant with microcephaly has a head that is much smaller than normal for an infant of that age and gender. Most children with microcephaly also have a small brain and mental retardation.

    • Muscular Dystrophy

      Muscular dystrophy causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time.

    • Myasthenia Gravis in Children

      Myasthenia gravis is a complex, autoimmune disorder that causes problems with the nerves that communicate with muscles, resulting in weakness of the skeletal muscles.

    • Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children

      Neurocutaneous syndrome is a broad term for a group of disorders. These diseases are life-long conditions that can cause tumors to grow inside the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin, and skeletal bones.

    • Neurological Disorders in the Newborn

      Detailed information on the most common neurological disorders in the newborn

    • Neurological Exam for Children

      Is it time for your baby to have a full physical exam? Your pediatrician might want to conduct a “neuro exam.” Don’t worry, this series of tests designed to evaluate your child’s nervous system is painless. Here’s what it entails.

    • Neuromuscular Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common neuromuscular disorders in children

    • Online Resources - Neurological Disorders

      List of online resources to find additional information on nervous system disorders

    • Overview of Diagnostic Tests for Nervous System Disorders in Children

      Evaluating and diagnosing damage to the nervous system can be complicated. Many of the same symptoms occur in different combinations among the different disorders, and many disorders do not have definitive causes, markers, or tests.

    • Overview of Nervous System Disorders in Children

      The most common symptoms of nervous system disorders in children include delays in developmental milestones, an increase or lack of growth in head size, and a lack of coordination.

    • Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL)

      The head is one of the most fragile parts on your baby, especially after birth. Sometimes, damage can occur, particularly if your baby is born prematurely. One type of brain damage is called periventricular leukomalacia. Read on to better understand what this diagnosis means for you and your baby, and what doctors can do to help.

    • Reye Syndrome in Children

      Reye syndrome is a rare but very serious illness that causes brain swelling and liver damage. It can also affect all of the body’s organs.

    • Spina Bifida

      Spina bifida can occur in the early weeks of pregnancy, before you even know you are expecting. That’s why your baby is depending on you to have healthy habits in place from the start. Learn more about the prevention and treatment of this birth defect.

    • Spinal Muscular Atrophy

      Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease that affects the spinal cord and nerves, resulting in muscle wasting and weakness.

    • Spinal Tap or Lumbar Puncture

      A spinal tap, also called lumbar puncture, is done to measure the amount of pressure in the spinal canal and/or to remove a small amount of cerebral spinal fluid for testing.

    • Topic Index - Neurological Disorders

      Detailed information on neurological disorders in children

    • Trauma

      Detailed information on neurological trauma in children