Diseases & Conditions : Growth and Development
The Growing Child: 3-Year-Olds
How much will my child grow?
In 3-year-olds, growth is still slow compared to the first year. Most children have become slimmer and lost the rounded tummy of a toddler. While all children may grow at a different rate, the following indicate the average for 3-year-old boys and girls:
Weight: average gain of about 4 to 6 pounds per year
Height: average growth of about 2 to 3 inches per year
After age 2, children of the same age can noticeably vary in height and weight. As long as the child is maintaining his or her own rate of growth, there should be no reason to worry. A discussion with the child's pediatrician is recommended if there is cause for concern.
What can my child do at this age?
As your child continues to grow, you will notice new and exciting abilities that develop. While children may progress at different rates, the following are some of the common milestones your child may reach in this age group:
Runs and jumps easily
Walks up stairs unassisted
Rides a tricycle
Washes and dries hands
Stacks 10 blocks
Easily draws straight lines and copies a circle
Can stand on tip-toes
Uses spoon well and feeds self
Dresses and undresses self except for buttons and laces
Can concentrate on tasks for 8 or 9 minutes
Has all 20 primary ("baby") teeth
Vision is nearing 20/20
Bladder and bowel control are usually established; uses potty chair or toilet
May sleep 11 to 13 hours total, may still take a short afternoon nap
What can my child say?
Speech development is very exciting for parents as they watch their children begin to speak clearly and interact with others. While every child develops speech at his or her own rate, the following are some of the common milestones in this age group:
Should be able to say about 500 to 900 words
Speech can be understood by others
Speaks in 2- or 3-word sentences and progresses to 4- or 5-word sentences
Can remember simple rhymes or lyrics
Uses "please" and "thank you"
Refers to self by using own name
What does my child understand?
While children may progress at different rates, the following are some of the common milestones your child may reach in this age group:
Understands size differences (such as, big and little)
Understands past tense (yesterday)
Understands long sentences
Understands prepositions (on, under, behind)
Uses pronouns correctly (such as, I, you, he, and me)
Asks "why" constantly
Counts up to 4 objects by 4 years old
Says full name and age
May have fears of certain things (for example, dark, monster under bed, and going down the drain)
Attempts to solve problems
Remembers certain events
Can point to the correct picture when asked a simple question about it.
How does my child interact with others?
While every child is unique and will develop different personalities, the following are some of the common behavioral traits that may be present in your child:
Begins to share and likes to play with other children
Can take turns
Temper tantrums are less often
Begins to show feelings in socially acceptable ways
How to help increase your child's learning and emotional security
Consider the following as ways to foster the emotional security of your 3-year-old:
Spend time allowing your child to talk with you.
Teach your child how things work.
Encourage play with other children.
Encourage your child to tell you stories.
Listen to your child and show that you are pleased by your child's talking.
Let your child do as much as possible for himself or herself when getting dressed, brushing teeth, and combing hair.
Have your child help with simple chores such as picking up toys.
Give your child old clothes for "dress up" and allow him or her to pretend being a mom, dad, healthcare provider, cowboy, and the like. Even old sheets or towels can become skirts, capes, or turbans. You can also pretend you are an elephant, butterfly, robot, or other characters and play with your child.
Sing songs or nursery rhymes and teach your child the words.
Read stories with your child and ask your child to name pictures in the stories or retell part of the story.
Help your child play with crayon and paper or chalk and chalkboard by showing how to draw circles and lines and then put them together to make a stick figure. Make figure faces that are happy, sad, or surprised, and talk about the different feeling shown in each picture.
Let your child build things out of blocks or boxes.
Give your child a safe space to ride a tricycle.
Listen to children's music with your child and dance.
Practice counting with your child.
Give your child the chance to play games with other children. Church groups, YWCA or YMCA recreation centers, or libraries often have preschool programs.
Put puzzles together with your child.
Let your child have pretend playtime with dolls, cars, or toy cooking utensils.
Play hide and seek and follow the leader.
Let your child use his or her imagination by playing with play dough or clay.
Trace your child's hand or whole body and make a picture.
Show your child you are proud of any artwork and hang it up for display.
Teach your child colors.
Play ball with your child. Play different games with the ball, such as tossing a ball into a box or rolling the ball up and down an incline.