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Diseases & Conditions : Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

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    • Anatomy of the Urinary System

      Detailed anatomical description of the urinary system, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations

    • Circumcision

      Whether you decided to have your baby boy circumcised or not, it’s important to know how to care for his special needs. Find tips for caring for both circumcised and uncircumcised babies.

    • Dialysis

      Detailed information on dialysis, including peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis

    • Disorders of Sex Development

      When a child's gender is in question at birth, the child has atypical genitalia (ambiguous genitalia). This means that the genitals may not appear to be clearly male or female.

    • Exstrophy of the Bladder and Epispadias

      Detailed information on exstrophy of the bladder, including diagnosis and treatment

    • Glomerulonephritis in Children

      Detailed information on glomerulonephritis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

    • Glossary - Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

      Glossary of terms relating to genitourinary and kidney disorders in children

    • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Children

      Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare condition that can lead to kidney failure. The syndrome harms the small structures and vessels inside the kidneys. HUS causes red blood cells to clog the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys. It may cause damage to the kidney tissues.

    • Home Page - Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

      Detailed information on genitourinary and kidney disorders in children

    • Horseshoe Kidney (Renal Fusion)

      Detailed information on horseshoe kidney, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Hydrocele in Children

      A hydrocele a buildup of fluid in the thin pouch (tunica vaginalis) that holds the testes in the scrotum. Up to 1 in 10 baby boys have a hydrocele at birth. In most cases, it goes away without treatment within the first year.

    • Hypospadias in Children

      Hypospadias is a problem where the opening of the urethra is not at the tip of the penis. With hypospadias, the end of the tube is lower down on the underside of the penis. Or it may be in the scrotum.

    • Inguinal Hernia in Children

      Detailed information on inguinal hernia, including causes, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment.

    • Kidney Transplantation in Children

      Detailed information on kidney transplants, including why a kidney transplant is recommended, what is involved in kidney transplant surgery, and the long-term outlook for a child after a kidney transplant.

    • Male Conditions

      Detailed information on the most common male genitourinary conditions

    • Megaureter in Children

      Megaureter is a ureter that is much wider than normal. A ureter that is wider than 10 mm (3/8 inch) is a megaureter. A megaureter may not drain urine normally. This can lead to infections and kidney damage.

    • Micropenis in Children

      A micropenis is a penis that is smaller than normal. A penis length of less than 1.9 cm (0.75 inches) is considered micropenis.

    • Nephrotic Syndrome in Children

      Detailed information on nephrotic syndrome, including types, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

    • Neurogenic Bladder in Children

      Neurogenic bladder is a general term for bladder problems caused by nerve damage. In children a neurogenic bladder may be caused by a birth defect. Or it may happen later because of a different problem.

    • Nutrition and Nephrotic Syndrome

      Detailed information on nutrition and diet for children with nephrotic syndrome.

    • Nutrition and Renal Failure

      Detailed information on nutrition and renal failure in children

    • Online Resources - Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

      List of online resources to find additional information on genitourinary and kidney disorders in children

    • Overview of Genitourinary Disorders

      Detailed information on genitourinary disorders in children

    • Overview of Kidney Disorders in Children

      Detailed information on kidney conditions, including kidney function, nephrology, kidney problem causes and 1 labeled, full-color anatomical illustration

    • Overview of Renal Failure in Children

      Detailed information on renal failure, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Overview of the Male Anatomy

      The male reproductive anatomy includes the bladder, epididymis, penis, scrotum, and prostate gland.

    • Phimosis and Paraphimosis in Children

      Phimosis and paraphimosis are problems with the foreskin of the penis. Phimosis is when a foreskin can’t be pulled down (retracted) from the tip of the penis. Paraphimosis is when the foreskin is retracted but can’t move back up.

    • Phosphorus Restriction for Children

      Detailed information on controlling phosphorus in your child's diet.

    • Polycystic Kidney Disease

      Detailed information on the different types of polycystic kidney disease, including autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, and acquired cystic kidney disease

    • Posterior Urethral Valves in Children

      Posterior urethral valves are a problem with the urethra in a boy. The valves partly block urine flow because not enough urine can get through them to leave the body. This can harm the urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidneys.

    • Potassium Restriction for Children

      Read on for detailed information to help your child limit or avoid high-potassium foods.

    • Protein Restriction for Children

      Detailed information on limiting protein in your child's diet, when your child has kidney failure.

    • Prune Belly Syndrome

      Detailed information on prune belly syndrome, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Renal Failure

      Detailed information on renal failure, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and diet

    • Sodium and Fluid Restriction for Children

      Detailed information on controlling sodium and fluid in your child's diet

    • Testicular Torsion in Children

      Testicular torsion is a painful twisting of a boy’s testicles and spermatic cord. Torsion causes blood to not flow to the testicles. This can damage them. Treatment needs to be done right away to prevent long-lasting (permanent) injury to the testicles.

    • Topic Index - Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

      Detailed information on genitourinary and kidney disorders in children

    • Undescended Testes in Children

      Undescended testes is when one or both of the male testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. This is a condition seen in some newborn baby boys.

    • Ureterocele and Ureteral Duplication

      Detailed information on ureterocele and ureteral duplication, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Urinary Incontinence (Enuresis) in Children

      In children under age 3, it’s normal to not have full bladder control. As children get older, they become more able to control their bladder. When wetting happens in a child who is old enough to control his or her bladder, it’s known as enuresis.

    • Urinary Tract Infections in Children

      Detailed information on urinary tract infections, including causes, symptom, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)

      Detailed information on vesicoureteral reflux, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.