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Diseases & Conditions : Cardiovascular Disorders

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    • 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

      22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder marked by hypoparathyroidism, certain heart defects, and a cleft lip or palate.

    • A Child Living with a Pacemaker or Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

      Detailed information on living with a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    • About the Heart and Blood Vessels

      Detailed anatomical description of the heart's blood vessels, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

    • Anatomy and Function of the Electrical System

      Detailed anatomical description of the heart's electrical system, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

    • Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves

      Detailed anatomical description of the heart valves, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

    • Anomalous Coronary Artery in Children

      An anomalous coronary artery (ACA) is a heart defect. This is something your baby is born with (congenital). In ACA, the blood vessels that supply blood to your child’s heart muscle aren’t normal.

    • Aortic Stenosis in Children

      Aortic stenosis means that your child has a heart valve that is too narrow or is blocked.  The aortic valve is 1 of 4 heart valves that keep blood flowing through the heart. The valves make sure blood flows in only one direction. The aortic valve keeps blood flowing from the left ventricle to the aorta.

    • Arrhythmias in Children

      An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart. In an arrhythmia, abnormal electrical signals through the heart muscle may cause the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.

    • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) in Children

      The atrial septum is the wall between the 2 upper chambers of the heart (right and left atria). An atrial septal defect (ASD) is an abnormal hole in this wall. ASD is a heart problem that is present at birth (congenital).

    • Atrioventricular (AV) Canal in Children

      An atrioventricular (AV) canal defect is a congenital heart defect. This means that your child is born with it. These defects may range from partial to complete. These conditions cause oxygen-rich (red) blood and oxygen-poor (blue) blood to mix. This sends extra blood to the child's lungs.

    • Bacterial Endocarditis in Children

      Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart (endocardium), and the heart valves. It does not happen very often, but when it does, it can cause serious heart damage.

    • Blood Tests and Your Child's Heart

      Detailed information on blood tests used to diagnosis heart disease

    • Cardiac Catheterization in Children

      Cardiac catheterization is a procedure in which a long, flexible tube (catheter) is put into a blood vessel. The doctor then guides the catheter into the heart to find and treat heart problems.

    • Cardiomyopathy and Your Child

      Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.

    • Chest X-Ray and Children

      Detailed information on chest x-rays, including reasons for the procedure

    • Coarctation of the Aorta (COA) in Children

      Coarctation of the aorta is a heart defect that is present at birth (congenital). It means the aorta is narrower than it should be.

    • Complex Heart Problems

      Detailed information on complex heart problems

    • Components of Food

      When trying to make heart-healthy changes to your lifestyle and diet, it is helpful to know some basics about nutrition.

    • Congenital Heart Disease

      Heart problems are the most common kind of birth defects. While children with some heart defects can be monitored by a doctor and treated with medicine, others will need to have surgery.

    • Congenital Heart Disease Index

      Detailed information on congenital heart disease, including patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal, tricuspid atresia, pulmonary atresia, transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle, truncus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, aortic stenosis, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    • CT (Computed Tomography) Scan

      Detailed information on CT scan, including how the CT scan is performed and what happens after the procedure

    • Diagnosing and Evaluating Heart Disease in Children

      Detailed information on diagnosing and evaluating heart disease in children

    • Echocardiography in Children

      Echocardiography is an imaging test. It uses sound waves to make detailed pictures of the heart.

    • Eisenmenger Syndrome in Children

      Eisenmenger syndrome is an advanced form of pulmonary artery hypertension. In this condition, the arteries that carry blood from the heart to the lungs narrow. This makes the pressure of blood flow against the walls of the arteries (blood pressure) too high. The heart must work harder to pump blood into the lungs. This causes lung damage.

    • Electrocardiography in Children

      Electrocardiography (ECG) is a simple, fast test to check the electrical activity of your child's heart as blood moves through it.

    • Emotional and Family Issues in Children with Heart Disease

      A child's emotions can be affected by the way his/her family members cope with the illness, as well as other issues including the stress felt by the family.

    • Exercise and Physical Stamina

      Many children with congenital heart disease can play and participate in activities with friends, but may tire faster and will naturally stop when they are tired.

    • Exercise Electrocardiogram (ECG) Testing in Children

      Electrocardiography (ECG) is a simple, fast test to check the electrical activity of your child's heart as blood moves through it. Abnormal ECG results may mean there is a problem with your child's heart.

    • Factors Contributing to Congenital Heart Disease

      In most cases of congenital heart defect, the cause is thought to be a combination of genetics and environment.

    • Fetal Circulation

      Through the blood vessels in the umbilical cord, the fetus receives all the necessary nutrition, oxygen, and life support from the mother through the placenta.

    • Fetal Echocardiography

      Fetal echocardiography (echo) uses sound waves to check the heart of your developing baby.

    • Genetic Disorders Associated with Congenital Heart Disease

      Detailed information on congenital heart disease, including patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal, tricuspid atresia, pulmonary atresia, transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle, truncus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, aortic stenosis, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    • Glossary - Cardiovascular Disorders

      Glossary of terms relating to cardiovascular disorders in children

    • Growth and Development in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

      Children with congenital heart disease often grow and develop more slowly than other children.

    • Heart Defects Causing Obstructions to Blood Flow

      Detailed information on heart defects that cause obstructions in blood flow

    • Heart Defects Causing Too Little Blood Flow Through the Lungs

      Detailed information on heart defects that cause too little blood flow through the lungs

    • Heart Defects Causing Too Much Blood Flow Through the Lungs

      Detailed information on heart defects that cause extra blood flow through the lungs

    • Heart Failure in Children

      Heart failure is when the heart can't pump enough blood to the body. In children, it is often caused by a congenital heart defect.

    • Heart Murmurs in Children

      Heart murmurs are extra or unusual sounds made by blood moving through the heart. Many children have heart murmurs. Some cause no problems or go away over time. Others require treatment.

    • Heart Transplant in Children

      A heart transplant is a surgery to replace a diseased heart with a healthy one from an organ donor. Organ donors are adults or children who have become critically ill, often because because of injury. They will not live because of their illness or injury.

    • Heart-Healthy Eating

      Detailed information on heart healthy eating

    • High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents

      Blood pressures vary depending on the age, height, weight, and gender of your child. Generally, blood pressure is low in infancy and rises slowly as children age.

    • Holter Monitoring in Children

      Holter monitoring is a way to continuously check the electrical activity of the heart. Your child will wear a small device called a Holter monitor for at least 24 to 48 hours. The device constantly checks your child's heart during this time.

    • Home Page - Cardiovascular Disorders

      Detailed information on cardiovascular diseases in children

    • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) in Children

      Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a group of defects of the heart and large blood vessels. A child is born with this condition (congenital heart defect). It occurs when part of the heart doesn't develop as it should during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

    • Kawasaki Disease

      Kawasaki disease causes inflamed blood vessels. It can weaken the walls of blood vessels, including the arteries of the heart. Kawasaki mostly affects infants and young children. It is uncommon in the U.S.

    • Living With Congenital Heart Disease

      Detailed information for children living with a congenital heart disease

    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Children

      Detailed information on magnetic resonance imaging, including how the image is performed and what happens following the procedure

    • Marfan Syndrome in Children

      Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue. Connective tissue holds the body's cells, organs, and other tissue together. Connective tissue is also important in growth and development.

    • Online Resources - Cardiovascular Disorders

      List of online resources to find additional information on cardiovascular disorders in children

    • Pacemaker and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Insertion in Children

      A child with an arrhythmia may need a pacemaker or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). These devices require a simple surgery to implant. They can increase a slow heartbeat or correct a possibly life threatening fast or chaotic beat.

    • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

      Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart defect found in the days or weeks after birth. The ductus arteriosus is a normal part of fetal blood circulation. All babies are born with this opening between the aorta and the pulmonary artery. But it usually closes on its own shortly after birth. If it stays open, it is called patent ductus arteriosus.

    • Pericarditis in Children

      Pericarditis is inflammation or infection of the pericardium. In children, pericarditis is most likely to happen after surgery to repair heart defects.

    • Physical Exam for a Child with Congenital Heart Disease

      Detailed information on childhood physical exam.

    • Problems Affecting the Coronary Arteries and Blood Vessels

      Detailed information on problems affecting the coronary arteries and blood vessels of children

    • Problems Involving Heart Rhythm

      Detailed information on problems involving heart rhythm

    • Pulmonary Atresia

      Pulmonary atresia (PA) is a heart defect. It happens when the fetal heart doesn’t form as it should during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

    • Pulmonary Stenosis in Children

      Pulmonary stenosis is a birth defect of the heart (congenital). It can happen when the pulmonary valve doesn’t develop as it should during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. The pulmonary valve connects the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery.

    • Rheumatic Heart Disease in Children

      Rheumatic heart disease is a condition that causes permanent damage to the heart valves.

    • Stroke in Children

      Stroke is much more common in adults than children, but children get strokes, too. The good news is that a child has a better ability to recover from stoke than an adult because a child's brain is still developing.

    • Syncope in Children

      Syncope is a brief loss of consciousness and muscle tone caused when not enough blood gets to the brain. Syncope is commonly called fainting. In most children, it’s usually harmless. But in a few children, syncope is serious. This is usually because of a heart problem, or less often a neurological problem.

    • Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

      Tetralogy of Fallot is 4 congenital heart defects. This means that your child is born with them. These 4 problems occur together (tetralogy refers to 4).

    • The Heart

      Detailed information on the anatomy of the heart and heart transplantation in children

    • Tilt Table Test for Children

      The tilt table test is done find the cause of fainting (syncope). Tilt table testing is done with a special table or bed that changes a child's position from lying to standing. The child's blood pressure and heart rate are checked while he or she is in the different positions.

    • Topic Index - Cardiovascular Disorders

      Detailed information on cardiovascular diseases in children

    • Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)

      Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a congenital heart defect. This means that your child is born with it.  It happens as the baby’s heart develops during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

    • Transesophageal Echocardiography in Children

      Echocardiography is an imaging test. It uses sound waves to make detailed moving pictures of the heart. It shows the size and shape of the heart, as well as the heart chambers and valves. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) uses a device, called a transducer, that is placed in the esophagus.

    • Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA)

      Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a type of congental heart defect. This means that your baby is born with it. In this condition, the large blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the lungs and body aren’t connected as they should be.

    • Tricuspid Atresia

      Tricuspid atresia (TA) is a heart defect present at birth (congenital). It occurs when the tricuspid valve doesn’t form right during fetal heart development. This happens during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. The tricuspid valve is located between the right upper chamber (atrium) and the right lower chamber (ventricle) of the heart. The defect keeps blood from flowing normally from the right atrium to the right ventricle.

    • Truncus Arteriosus (TA)

      Truncus arteriosus is a heart defect that is present at birth (congenital). It occurs when there is an abnormal connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery. Normally, the aorta and the pulmonary artery are separate.

    • Ultrafast/Electron Beam CT Scan

      Detailed information on ultrafast computed tomography (CT) scan, including reasons for the procedure, risks of the procedure, what to expect, and discharge instructions

    • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

      A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a congenital heart defect. This means that your baby is born with it. A VSD is an opening or hole in the dividing wall (septum) between the 2 lower chambers of the heart (right and left ventricles). VSDs are the most common type of congenital heart defect.