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Diseases & Conditions : Adolescent Medicine


    • Acne in Children

      Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Hair follicles are the areas around the base or root of each hair. Sebaceous glands are the tiny glands that release oil (sebum) into the hair follicles. The sebum moistens the skin and hair. The sebum and hair get to the skin surface through tiny holes called pores.

    • Adjustment Disorders

      Adjustment disorders are quite common in children and teens. They are characterized by an excessive reaction to stress.

    • Adolescent Growth and Development

      Detailed information on adolescent growth and development

    • Adolescent Health Problems and Injuries

      Detailed information on adolescent health problems and injuries, including acne, asthma, breast conditions, breast self-examination, diabetes, eye care, eye safety, gynecological conditions, menstrual conditions, gynecologic problems, pap test, vaginitis, vulvitis, menstrual disorders, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), high blood pressure, infectious mononucleosis, obesity, oral health, orthodontics, braces, wisdom teeth extraction, periodontal disease, orthopedic problem

    • Adolescent Mental Health

      Detailed information on adolescent mental health disorders, including schizophrenia, mood disorders, major depression, dysthymia, manic depression (bipolar disorder), teen suicide, anxiety disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, behavior disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, substance abuse/chemical depende

    • Adolescent Mental Health Overview
    • Adolescents and Diabetes Mellitus

      Detailed information on special considerations for teenagers with diabetes

    • Amenorrhea in Teens

      Amenorrhea is a menstrual condition in which a woman's menstrual periods are absent for more than three monthly cycles. Pregnancy is one possible cause of amenorrhea.

    • Anatomy of the Breasts

      Each breast has 15 to 20 sections (lobes), which are arranged like the petals of a daisy. Each lobe has many smaller lobules, which end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk.

    • Anatomy of the Female Pelvic Area

      Detailed anatomical description of the female pelvis, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations

    • Anorexia Nervosa in Children

      Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that is a form of self-starvation. A child or teen with anorexia has abnormally low body weight, a distorted body image, and an intense fear of gaining weight.

    • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents

      Detailed information on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Behavior Disorders

      Detailed information on behavior problems in adolescents, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder

    • Bicycle, In-Line Skating, Skateboarding Safety - Injury Statistics and Incidence Rates

      Most child and teen bicycle crashes occur between May and August and between the hours of 3 and 6 p.m.

    • Bicycle, In-Line Skating, Skateboarding Safety--Identifying High-Risk Situations

      Most skateboard crashes occur because of irregular riding surfaces or because of inexperience. Sprains and fractures of the wrist are the most common results of a fall.

    • Bipolar Disorder in Adolescents

      Manic depression, also known as bipolar disorder, is a type of affective disorder that goes beyond the day's ordinary ups and downs. It is becoming an important health concern in this country.

    • Breast Conditions in Young Women

      Some breast changes or conditions are related to a young woman's menstrual cycle, but others may occur at any time. Most breast conditions are benign.

    • Breast Self-Examination

      Become familiar with how your breasts usually look and feel so that you may notice any change from what is normal for you.

    • Bulimia Nervosa in Adolescents

      Bulimia nervosa is defined as uncontrolled episodes of overeating (bingeing) usually followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, enemas, or medications in an attempt to control weight.

    • Care of the Uncircumcised Penis in Teens

      In an uncircumcised boy, the foreskin will begin to separate from the glans, or the tip of the penis. This happens naturally while the male is an infant. This is called foreskin retraction.

    • Cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and Triglycerides in Children and Adolescents

      The cholesterol in blood comes from two sources: the foods your teen eats and his or her liver. The liver, however, makes all of the cholesterol your teen's body needs.

    • Cognitive Development in Adolescence

      Cognitive development means the growth of a child’s ability to think and reason. This growth happens differently from ages 6 to 12, and ages 12 to 18.

    • Conduct Disorder in Children

      A child with a conduct disorder has antisocial behaviors that violate the rights of others as well as basic social standards and rules.

    • Determining Body Mass Index for Teens

      Although it is not a perfect measure, BMI gives a fairly accurate assessment of how much of your teen's body is composed of fat.

    • Dysmenorrhea in Adolescents

      Dysmenorrhea is a menstrual condition marked by severe and frequent menstrual cramps and pain. Dysmenorrhea can be either lifelong or caused by another medical condition.

    • Eating Disorders in Children

      Detailed information on adolescents and eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, and obesity

    • Exercise and Adolescents

      Teens need at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity on most days for good health and fitness and for healthy weight during growth.

    • Eye Care/Avoiding Eye Injuries

      Children should wear protective eyewear during sports and recreational activities. In the classroom, they should wear eye protection when doing lab experiments.

    • Female Physical Development

      Detailed information on female physical development

    • Firearm Safety and Adolescents

      Detailed information on firearm safety and prevention

    • Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescents

      Children or teens with generalized anxiety disorder often worry a lot about future events, past behaviors, social acceptance, and school performance.

    • Glossary - Adolescent Medicine

      Glossary of terms relating to adolescent medicine

    • Gynecological and Menstrual Conditions

      Detailed information on the most common gynecological and menstrual conditions that affect adolescents

    • Healthy Eating During Adolescence

      Encourage your teen to eat three balanced meals a day, with fruits or vegetables as snacks.

    • Healthy Lifestyles

      Detailed information on healthy lifestyle choices for teenagers

    • Heat-Related Illnesses (Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke)

      Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.

    • High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents

      Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls. High blood pressure (hypertension) means that the pressure inside the arteries is too high. This higher pressure may harm the arteries and cause the heart to work harder.

    • Home Page - Adolescent Medicine

      Detailed information on adolescent medicine, including growth and development, cognitive development, relationship development, health and injury problems, and safety

    • Infectious Mononucleosis (Mono) in Teens and Young Adults

      Infectious mononucleosis is a contagious illness. It’s common in teens and young adults.

    • Major Depression in Children

      Common symptoms of major depression include persistent feelings of sadness, sleep disturbances, and difficulty concentrating.

    • Male Physical Development

      Detailed information on male growth and development

    • Menstrual Cycle: An Overview

      A woman is generally most fertile (able to become pregnant) a few days before, during, and after ovulation.

    • Menstrual Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common menstrual conditions, including premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia

    • Mood Disorders in Children and Adolescents

      Detailed information on the most common types of mood disorders, including major depression, manic depression (bipolar disorder), dysthymia, seasonal affective disorder, and suicide

    • Mouthguards

      Mouthguards are important to help protect your child's mouth and teeth from serious injury.

    • Normal Breast Development

      Breast development occurs in distinct stages, first before birth, and again at puberty and during the childbearing years. Changes also occur to the breasts during menstruation and when a woman reaches menopause.

    • Normal Growth

      A child's growth not only involves the length and weight of his or her body, but also internal growth and development.

    • Obesity in Adolescents

      Children who are inactive—spending time watching TV or sitting at a computer—are at higher risk for obesity, especially when their diet contains lots of high-calorie foods and beverages.

    • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children

      Rituals and obsessive thoughts are a normal part of a teen's development. An adolescent with OCD has obsessive thoughts that are unwanted and related to fears.

    • Online Resources - Adolescent Medicine

      List of online resources to find additional information on adolescent medicine

    • Oppositional Defiant Disorder

      This behavior disorder is characterized by uncooperative, defiant, negativistic, irritable, and annoying behaviors toward parents, peers, teachers, and other authority figures.

    • Oral Health

      Detailed information on oral health problems and teens

    • Orthodontics/Braces for Children

      Orthodontics is the dental specialty that focuses on the development, prevention, and correction of irregularities of the teeth, bite, and jaws.

    • Orthopedic Problems

      Detailed information on orthopedic problems and teens

    • Osgood-Schlatter Disease

      Osgood-Schlatter disease is an overuse condition in children. It’s when the tendon in a knee becomes injured and inflamed.

    • Overview of Adolescent Health Problems

      Chronic health problems during the teen years can often make physical and emotional development more complicated.

    • Overview of Mood Disorders in Teens

      Mood disorders in teens are one of the most underdiagnosed mental health problems. These disorders also put teens at risk for other conditions that may last long after the first episodes of depression are resolved.

    • Overview of the Male Anatomy

      The male reproductive anatomy includes the bladder, epididymis, penis, scrotum, and prostate gland.

    • Pap Test for Adolescents

      A Pap test, along with a pelvic examination, is an important part of a female's routine health care because it may detect abnormalities that can lead to invasive cancer.

    • Periodontal Disease in Children

      Periodontal disease is a serious bacterial infection that destroys the gums and the nearby tissues of the mouth.

    • Persistent Depressive Disorder in Children

      Detailed information on persistent depressive disorder, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Phobias in Children and Adolescents

      Common phobias include fear of animals, blood, heights, closed spaces, or flying. In teens, the fear must last at least 6 months to be considered a phobia.

    • Physical Exam: Adolescent Male

      Detailed information on what males can expect during a physical examination

    • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

      Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of emotional and physical symptoms many women have in the days before their period starts. Lifestyle changes and sometimes medicines can help manage symptoms.

    • Psychological Complications of Chronic Illness in Teens

      Adolescence is a stressful time of life even for physically healthy teens. Chronic illness further complicates adolescent development.

    • Puberty: Adolescent Female

      Girls experience puberty as a sequence of events, and their pubertal changes usually begin before boys of the same age. The first pubertal change in girls usually is breast development.

    • Puberty: Adolescent Male

      During puberty, a teenage boy will grow taller and heavier, and hormones will lead to sexual maturity.

    • Recognizing Urologic or Gynecologic Problems

      Vaginal bleeding and discharge are a normal part of a teen girl's menstrual cycle. If your daughter notices anything different or unusual, talk with your teen's healthcare provider.

    • Relationship Development

      Adolescent attention often shifts to a more intense focus on social interactions and friendships expanding from same sex friends to same sex groups of friends to heterosexual groups of friends.

    • Safer Sex Guidelines for Adolescents

      The only safe sex is no sex, most health care providers say. But certain precautions and safe behaviors can minimize a person's risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease.

    • Safety and Injury Prevention for Teens

      Detailed information on safety and injury prevention for teens

    • Schizophrenia in Children

      Detailed information on schizophrenia in children, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

    • Scoliosis in Children

      Scoliosis is a deformity of the backbone (spine). It’s when the spine has a side-to-side curve. The curve of the spine measures 10 degrees or more.

    • Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Adolescents

      STDs are among the most common infectious diseases in this country. The United States has the highest rates of STDs in the industrialized world.

    • Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

      Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a condition of the hip joint that affects children. In SCFE, the ball of the thighbone (femoral head) slips off the neck of the thighbone.

    • Smoking

      Ninety percent of new smokers are children and teenagers. In many cases, they are replacing the smokers who quit or died prematurely from a smoking-related disease.

    • Sports Injuries Statistics

      Detailed information on sports safety

    • Sports Safety for Teens

      Detailed information on sports safety

    • Sprains and Strains in Children

      Sprains and strains are types of injuries. A sprain is an injury to a ligament while a strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon.

    • Substance Abuse / Chemical Dependence in Adolescents

      Substances frequently abused by adolescents include alcohol, marijuana, and amphetamines. Some teens are at higher risk of developing substance-related disorders.

    • Teen Suicide

      Suicide is the third leading cause of death in 15- to 24-year-olds. The strongest risk factors for attempted suicide in youth are depression, substance abuse, and aggressive or disruptive behaviors.

    • Teenage Drivers

      Detailed information on teen driving, including safety tips

    • Tennis Elbow in Children

      Tennis elbow is a repetitive stress injury. It happens when the muscles and tendons in the elbow area are torn or damaged.

    • Topic Index - Adolescent Medicine

      Detailed information on adolescent medicine, including growth and development, cognitive development, relationship development, health and injury problems, and safety

    • Vaginitis

      Vaginitis is a common problem for women of all ages. Bacteria, yeast, viruses, and chemicals in creams or sprays can cause it.

    • Vulvitis

      Vulvitis is inflammation of the soft folds of skin outside the vagina.

    • Water Safety and Teens

      Encourage your adolescent to take swimming, diving, and water safety or rescue classes to give him or her the skills needed to swim and dive safely.

    • Weight Management and Adolescents

      For overweight children 7 and older, the initial goal is to keep them from gaining more weight. Changes in eating habits and exercise are gradually introduced to trim pounds.

    • Work and Pregnancy

      Most women are able to work safely, in some cases, until the day of delivery, depending on the type of work performed and their condition.