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    • 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

      22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder marked by hypoparathyroidism, certain heart defects, and a cleft lip or palate.

    • About Cancer

      Detailed information on cancer in children, including causes, diagnosis, treatment, and coping

    • Abrasions

      An abrasion is a superficial rub or wearing off of the skin, usually caused by a scrape or a brush burn. Abrasions are usually minor injuries that can be treated at home.

    • Achondroplasia in Children

      Achondroplasia is a group of rare genetic (inherited) bone disorders. Achondroplasia is the most common type of what was once called dwarfism, in which the child's arms and legs are short in proportion to body length.

    • Acne in Children

      Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Hair follicles are the areas around the base or root of each hair. Sebaceous glands are the tiny glands that release oil (sebum) into the hair follicles. The sebum moistens the skin and hair. The sebum and hair get to the skin surface through tiny holes called pores.

    • Acute Bronchitis in Children

      Detailed information on acute bronchitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

    • Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy

      AFLP is a rare, but serious, liver problem in pregnancy. With AFLP the liver cells have too much fat, which can damage the liver.

    • Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Children

      Many types of trauma can cause an acute spinal cord injury. The more common types occur when the area of the spine or neck is bent or compressed.

    • Addison's Disease in Children

      Addison's disease is when the adrenal glands don't make enough of two steroid hormones. The hormones are cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol controls the body's metabolism, blocks inflammatory reactions, and affects the immune system. Aldosterone manages sodium and potassium levels. Addison's disease is fairly rare and may first appear at any age.

    • Adenovirus Infection in Children

      Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that cause a variety of infections. These include the common cold, conjunctivitis, and croup.

    • Adjustment Disorders

      Adjustment disorders are quite common in children and teens. They are characterized by an excessive reaction to stress.

    • Adolescent Health Problems and Injuries

      Detailed information on adolescent health problems and injuries, including acne, asthma, breast conditions, breast self-examination, diabetes, eye care, eye safety, gynecological conditions, menstrual conditions, gynecologic problems, pap test, vaginitis, vulvitis, menstrual disorders, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), high blood pressure, infectious mononucleosis, obesity, oral health, orthodontics, braces, wisdom teeth extraction, periodontal disease, orthopedic problem

    • Adolescent Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

      Detailed information on adolescent problems of the teeth and mouth

    • Allergens: Poison Ivy/Poison Oak/Poison Sumac

      Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are native American plants. These plants cause an allergic reaction in most people who are exposed to them.

    • Allergic Rhinitis in Children

      Rhinitis is a reaction that happens in the eyes, nose, and throat when allergens in the air trigger the release of histamine in the body. Histamine causes itching, swelling, and fluid to build up in the fragile linings of nasal passages, sinuses, and eyelids.

    • Allergy

      Detailed information on allergy, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Alpha Thalassemia in Children

      Alpha thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. This means it is passed down through the parent’s genes. It causes anemia in affected children. Anemia is a low red blood cell or low hemoglobin level. Hemoglobin is the part of red blood cells. It carries oxygen to organs, tissues, and cells. Alpha thalassemia affects the production of hemoglobin.

    • Amenorrhea in Teens

      Amenorrhea is a menstrual condition in which a woman's menstrual periods are absent for more than three monthly cycles. Pregnancy is one possible cause of amenorrhea.

    • Anaphylaxis in Children

      Anaphylaxis is a severe and sometimes life-threatening reaction to an allergen. An allergen is something that your child is allergic to. Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency. Your child can have a reaction to an allergen as quickly as seconds to as long as an hour after contact.

    • Anemia in Children

      Anemia is a common problem in children. A child who has anemia does not have enough red blood cells or hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a type of protein that allows red blood cells to carry oxygen to other cells in the body.

    • Anemia in Pregnancy

      Anemia is when your blood has too few red blood cells. Having too few red blood cells makes it harder for your blood to carry oxygen or iron. This can affect how cells work in nerves and muscles. During pregnancy, your baby also needs your blood.

    • Anencephaly

      Anencephaly is a type of neural tube defect present at birth. It affects the formation of the brain and the skull bones that surround the head.

    • Animal Bites

      Detailed information on animal bites and rabies, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Animals

      Detailed information on animals as allergens

    • Anorectal Malformation in Children

      Anorectal malformations are birth defects, or problems that happen as an unborn baby is developing during pregnancy. With this defect, the anus and rectum don’t develop properly. They are the lower part of the digestive tract.

    • Anorexia Nervosa

      Anorexia nervosa (or simply anorexia) is an eating disorder that causes people to obsess about their weight and food. People who suffer with this behavior problem have a distorted body image and see themselves as overweight even when their weight is dangerously low. 

    • Anorexia Nervosa in Children

      Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that is a form of self-starvation. A child or teen with anorexia has abnormally low body weight, a distorted body image, and an intense fear of gaining weight.

    • Antiphospholipid Syndrome in Pregnancy

      Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disease. This happens when your immune system fights against normal cells. This condition may also be called Hughes syndrome, sticky blood syndrome, and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    • Anxiety Disorders in Children

      Detailed information on the most common types of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias

    • Aortic Stenosis in Children

      Aortic stenosis means that your child has a heart valve that is too narrow or is blocked.  The aortic valve is 1 of 4 heart valves that keep blood flowing through the heart. The valves make sure blood flows in only one direction. The aortic valve keeps blood flowing from the left ventricle to the aorta.

    • Aplastic Anemia in Children

      Aplastic anemia is a serious condition in which the bone marrow doesn’t make enough new blood cells.

    • Apnea of Prematurity

      Apnea is a term that means breathing has stopped for more than 20 seconds. It can happen in full-term babies, but it is more common in premature babies. The more premature the baby, the greater the chances that apnea will occur.

    • Appendicitis in Children

      Appendicitis is a painful swelling and infection of the appendix.  It is a medical emergency. The appendix can burst or rupture. This is serious and can lead to more infection. If not treated, it can be fatal.

    • Arrhythmias in Children

      An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart. In an arrhythmia, abnormal electrical signals through the heart muscle may cause the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.

    • Asthma and Pregnancy

      With proper asthma management and good prenatal care, most women with asthma can have healthy pregnancies.

    • Asthma Triggers

      Your child's asthma may be triggered by a number of things: pollen, molds, certain foods, strong odors, or even exercise.

    • Atopic Dermatitis in Children

      Atopic dermatitis is a long-term (chronic) skin condition. It causes dry, itchy skin. It’s a very common condition in babies and children. It usually first appears between ages 3 and 6 months.

    • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) in Children

      The atrial septum is the wall between the 2 upper chambers of the heart (right and left atria). An atrial septal defect (ASD) is an abnormal hole in this wall. ASD is a heart problem that is present at birth (congenital).

    • Atrioventricular (AV) Canal in Children

      An atrioventricular (AV) canal defect is a congenital heart defect. This means that your child is born with it. These defects may range from partial to complete. These conditions cause oxygen-rich (red) blood and oxygen-poor (blue) blood to mix. This sends extra blood to the child's lungs.

    • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children

      ADHD is a behavior disorder marked by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity.

    • Autism Spectrum Disorder

      Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a problem that affects a child’s nervous system and growth and development. It usually shows up during a child’s first 3 years of life.

    • Autoimmune Diseases and Pregnancy

      Detailed information on autoimmune diseases and pregnancy

    • Autosomal Dominant: Marfan Syndrome

      Detailed information on Marfan Syndrome, one type of autosomal dominant condition

    • Autosomal Recessive: Cystic Fibrosis, Sickle Cell Anemia, Tay Sachs Disease

      Overview of autosomal recessive inheritance, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Tay Sachs disease

    • Bacterial Endocarditis in Children

      Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart (endocardium), and the heart valves. It does not happen very often, but when it does, it can cause serious heart damage.

    • Bacterial Skin Infections in Children

      Detailed information on bacterial skin infections, including impetigo, cellulitis, scarlet fever, folliculitis, boils, carbuncles, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

    • Behavior Changes

      Your baby's activity level, appetite, and cries normally vary from day to day, and even hour to hour. But a distinct change in any of these areas may signal illness.

    • Behavior Disorders

      Detailed information on behavior problems in adolescents, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder

    • Benign Skin Growths and Pigmentation Disorders

      Detailed information on benign skin growths and pigmentation disorders in children

    • Beta Thalassemia in Children

      Beta thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. This means it is passed down through the parent’s genes. It is a form of anemia. Anemia is a low red blood cell or low hemoglobin level. Hemoglobin is part of red blood cells. It carries oxygen to organs, tissues, and cells. Beta thalassemia affects the production of hemoglobin.

    • Biliary Atresia in Children

      Biliary atresia is a rare liver disease that occurs in infants. It is often found shortly after birth. The disorder affects tubes in the liver called bile ducts. If not treated with surgery, it can be fatal.

    • Bipolar Disorder in Adolescents

      Manic depression, also known as bipolar disorder, is a type of affective disorder that goes beyond the day's ordinary ups and downs. It is becoming an important health concern in this country.

    • Bipolar Disorder/Manic Depression in Children

      Detailed information on manic depression, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Birth Defects in Newborn Babies

      Birth defects may be caused by inherited (genetic) problems or by environmental things such as exposure to certain toxic substances during pregnancy. Some birth defects can be linked to a direct cause. Other reasons are not as clear.

    • Birth Injury

      Detailed information on birth injury, including the most common types of birth injury

    • Birthmarks

      Detailed information on birthmarks and the different types, including vascular birthmarks, hemangiomas, and port-wine stains.

    • Bites

      Detailed information on bites, including human bites, animal bites, and insect bites

    • Bleeding Disorders

      Detailed information on bleeding disorders, including Hemophilia and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura

    • Blepharitis in Children

      Blepharitis is an inflammation in the oil glands of the eyelid. It causes swollen eyelids and crusting around the eyelashes. Even after it’s treated and goes away, it can often come back again and again for years. It can often lead to an infection of the eye and a loss of eyelashes.

    • Blisters in Children

      Detailed information on blisters, including cause, first aid, and treatment.

    • Blocked Tear Duct (Dacryostenosis) in Children

      A blocked tear duct is called dacryostenosis. It may also be called a congenital lacrimal duct obstruction. Congenital means that your baby is born with it.

    • Blood Clotting Disorders in Children

      Blood-clotting disorders are a group of conditions in which there is too much clotting. They are often inherited.

    • Blood Donations and Blood Banking

      Detailed information on blood donations and blood banking

    • Blood in the Eye (Hyphema) in Children

      Hyphema is blood in the front (anterior) chamber of the eye. This is located between the clear front part of the eye (cornea) and the colored part of the eye (iris). This section is where fluid flows in and out. The fluid gives nourishment to the eye and tissues around it.

    • Bone Cancers in Children

      Detailed information on bone cancer in children, including Ewing sarcoma and osteogenic sarcoma

    • Brain Abscess

      A brain abscess is a rare infection in the brain caused by viruses or bacteria. Symptoms include fever, severe headache, and nausea or vomiting.

    • Brain Tumors in Children

      A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The brain is part of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS also includes the spinal cord.

    • Branchial Cleft Abnormalities in Children

      A branchial cleft abnormality is a cluster of abnormally formed tissue in the neck. A branchial cleft abnormality is a birth defect. It happens when the area does not form as it should during the early stages of an embryo’s development.

    • Breast Conditions in Young Women

      Some breast changes or conditions are related to a young woman's menstrual cycle, but others may occur at any time. Most breast conditions are benign.

    • Breastfeeding and Delayed Milk Production

      Detailed information on insufficient or delayed milk production

    • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby

      Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the baby, including ineffective latch-on, ineffective sucking, slow infant weight gain, poor infant weight gain, mismanaged breastfeeding, over-active breast milk let down

    • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother

      Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the mother, including sore nipples, low breast milk production, flat nipples, plugged milk ducts, and mastitis

    • Breathing Problems

      If you listen closely, you’ll notice that your baby’s breathing isn’t like yours. Babies breathe much more frequently and with different patterns than adults. Here’s how to recognize normal breathing in your infant—and how to spot signs of respiratory distress.

    • Bronchiolitis

      Detailed information on bronchiolitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Bruises

      A bruise is a collection of blood underneath the skin that is caused by injury to an area of the body. Sometimes enough bleeding occurs so that a lump also forms.

    • Bruising or Black Eye (Ecchymosis)

      A black eye should be seen by a healthcare provider to make sure no injury has happened to the eye itself. Most black eyes heal completely and do not cause any damage.

    • Bulimia Nervosa in Adolescents

      Bulimia nervosa is defined as uncontrolled episodes of overeating (bingeing) usually followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, enemas, or medications in an attempt to control weight.

    • Burkitt Lymphoma in Children

      Burkitt lymphoma is a rare, fast-growing form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It’s a type of cancer of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections.

    • Burns Overview

      Burns are a type of injury caused by thermal, electrical, chemical, or electromagnetic energy. Most burn accidents happen at home.

    • Campylobacter Infection in Children

      Campylobacter infection is a mild to serious digestive illness caused by bacteria.  Symptoms often include cramping, diarrhea, belly pain, and fever.

    • Candidiasis in Children

      Candidiasis is an infection caused by yeast called Candida. Candida normally causes no harm, and is found on the skin, vaginal area, and digestive system. But in some cases, it can overgrow. This can cause a rash, itching, and other symptoms.

    • Canker Sores (Aphthous Ulcers) in Children

      Canker sores are small sores inside the mouth. They are often found inside the lips, on the cheeks, or on the tongue.

    • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

      Carbon monoxide is a poisonous, colorless, tasteless, odorless gas. It is the most common cause of accidental poisoning-related deaths and is often called "the silent killer."

    • Cardiomyopathy and Your Child

      Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.

    • Cat Scratch Disease in Children

      Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection carried in cat saliva. It is passed from a cat bite or scratch to a human. It can also result from a fleabite, but cats are the main source.

    • Cat Scratch Disease in Children

      Cat scratch disease is most common in children under age 10. In almost all cases of cat scratch disease, the person who develops it will have had contact with a cat or kitten.

    • Cataracts in Children

      A cataract is a clouding (opaque area) over the lens of the eye. This area is normally clear (transparent). Some cataracts are small and don’t cause any trouble with vision. Other, more progressive cataracts can cause visual problems in children. Cataracts are rare in children.

    • Cellulitis in Children

      Cellulitis is a spreading skin infection. It may affect the upper skin layer. Or it may affect the deeper skin and layer of fat under the skin. When cellulitis affects the upper skin layer, it may be called erysipelas. This type of infection is more common in children.

    • Cerebral Palsy

      Cerebral palsy is a life-long condition that affects the communication between the brain and the muscles, causing a permanent state of uncoordinated movement and posturing.

    • Chalazion in Children

      A chalazion (kuh-LAY-zee-un) is a slow-growing, painless lump in the eyelid that forms because of the swelling of an oil gland. It’s more common in adults between ages 30 and 50 than in children.

    • Chemical Burns

      Chemical burns can occur when strong acids or alkalies come in contact with the skin and/or the eyes.

    • Chemical Burns of the Eye in Children

      Chemical burns happen when a chemical gets into your child’s eye.

    • Chemotherapy-Related Hair Loss (Alopecia) in Children

      Hair loss is a common side effect of chemotherapy. It can affect the hair on the head, and also the eyebrows, eyelashes, and facial and pubic hair. Not all chemotherapy causes hair loss. And not all children lose hair in the same way.

    • Chemotherapy-Related Mouth Mucositis in Children

      Chemotherapy is the use of medicines to treat cancer. The medicines can cause an inflammation of the lining of the mouth. The mouth is lined with mucous membranes. When these are inflamed, it’s called mouth mucositis.

    • Chiari Malformation Type I in Children

      A Chiari malformation (CM) is a problem with how the brain sits in the skull. The brain normally sits fully inside the skull. With a Chiari malformation, the lower part of the brain (cerebellum) dips down through a normal opening (foramen magnum) at the bottom of the skull. In some cases, more brain tissue also dips down through this opening.

    • Childhood Glaucoma

      Detailed information on childhood glaucoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Cholestasis of Pregnancy

      Cholestasis of pregnancy is a liver problem. It slows or stops the normal flow of bile from the gallbladder. This causes itching and yellowing of your skin, eyes, and mucous membranes (jaundice). Cholestasis sometimes starts in early pregnancy. But it is more common in the second and third trimesters. It most often goes away within a few days after delivery. The high levels of bile may cause serious problems for your developing baby (fetus).

    • Chorioamnionitis

      Chorioamnionitis [chor-y-oh-am-nee-oh-NY-tis] is an infection of the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Only a few women get it, but, it is a common cause of preterm labor and delivery.

    • Chromosome Abnormalities

      Detailed information on chromosome abnormalities, including trisomies, monosomies, and genetic translocations

    • Chronic Hypertension and Pregnancy

      When a woman has pre-existing hypertension or develops hypertension before the 20th week of pregnancy, this is called chronic hypertension.

    • Chronic Lung Disease in Premature Babies

      Chronic lung disease is the general term for long-term breathing problems in premature babies. It’s also called bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Here's what you need ot know about this condition.

    • Cleft Lip and Palate in Children

      Cleft lip and palate are openings or splits in the upper lip or roof of the mouth (palate). A child can be born with a cleft lip, cleft palate, or both. Cleft lip and palate may be the only birth defects, or they may happen with other defects.

    • Clubfoot

      Clubfoot is a deformity of the foot. It’s when one or both feet are turned inward. The condition affects the bones, muscles, tendons, and blood vessels.

    • Coarctation of the Aorta (COA) in Children

      Coarctation of the aorta is a heart defect that is present at birth (congenital). It means the aorta is narrower than it should be.

    • Colic

      Colic is when a healthy baby cries for a very long time, for no obvious reason. It is a common problem that affects some babies during the first 3 to 4 months of life.

    • Common Childhood External Ear Problems

      Detailed information on common childhood external ear problems

    • Common Children's Digestive Problems

      Detailed information on common children's digestive problems, including colic, diarrhea, food allergies, and lactose intolerance

    • Common Cold (Upper Respiratory Infection)

      The common cold is one of the most common illnesses, leading to more doctor visits and missed days from school and work each year than any other illness.

    • Common Conditions and Complications

      Detailed information on common conditions and complications of the high-risk newborn

    • Common Dental Problems and Concerns

      Detailed information on common dental problems and concerns in children

    • Common Skin Disorders in Children

      Detailed information on common skin disorders, including Bacterial Skin Infections, Fungal Skin Infections, Viral Skin Infections, Viral Exanthems (Rashes), and Parasitic Skin Infections

    • Common Types of Pediatric Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases

      Detailed information on the most common types of pediatric arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, including Juvenile Dermatomyositis, Fibromyalgia, Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriatic Arthritis, Rheumatic Fever, Scleroderma, Septic Arthritis, Infectious Arthritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Lupus, Vasculitis, Kawasaki Disease, and Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

    • Common Variable Immunodeficiency in Children

      Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an immunodeficiency problem that causes the child to have a low level of antibodies and a decreased responsiveness to some vaccines. This makes it difficult for the child’s body to fight diseases. The child then becomes sick with infections that keep coming back.

    • Communication Disorders

      Young children with communication disorders may not speak at all, or may have a limited vocabulary for their age. Some children with communication disorders have difficulty understanding simple directions or are unable to name objects.

    • Complex Heart Problems

      Detailed information on complex heart problems

    • Conduct Disorder in Children

      A child with a conduct disorder has antisocial behaviors that violate the rights of others as well as basic social standards and rules.

    • Congenital and Hereditary Neurological Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common congenital and hereditary disorders in children

    • Congenital Heart Disease

      Heart problems are the most common kind of birth defects. While children with some heart defects can be monitored by a doctor and treated with medicine, others will need to have surgery.

    • Congenital Hypothyroidism in Children

      Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone. Congenital hypothyroidism is when the disorder is present in a baby at birth. If not treated, it can lead to serious health problems.

    • Congenital Laryngeal Stridor in Children

      Congenital laryngeal stridor is a noisy or high-pitched sound with breathing. It is from an abnormally formed voice box (larynx). It is present at birth (congenital).

    • Congenital Limb Defect

      A congenital limb defect is when an arm or leg doesn’t form normally as a baby grows in the uterus. The baby is born with the defect.

    • Congenital Liver Defects

      Congenital liver defects are liver disorders that are present at birth. They are rare. These liver disorders usually block the bile ducts. This affects the flow of bile.

    • Congenital Liver Defects

      Congenital liver defects are liver disorders that are present at birth. They are rare. These liver disorders usually block the bile ducts. This affects the flow of bile.

    • Congenital Muscular Torticollis

      Congenital torticollis means that a baby is born with an odd position of the neck. The odd position is because of a tight, short neck muscle. It affects the right side more often than the left side. It may range from mild to severe. The condition is sometimes called wryneck.

    • Conjunctivitis in Children

      Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye. The conjunctiva is the membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the eyeball. Conjunctivitis is also known as “pink eye.”

    • Constipation in Children

      Constipation is when a child has very hard stools, and has fewer bowel movements than he or she normally does. It is a very common GI (gastrointestinal) problem.

    • Contact Dermatitis in Children

      Contact dermatitis is a skin reaction from contact with certain substances.

    • Corneal Abrasions in Children

      A corneal abrasion is a scratch or scrape on the cornea. This is the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye.

    • Cradle Cap

      Cradle cap (infant seborrheic dermatitis) is scaly patches on a baby's scalp. Cradle cap isn’t serious, but it can cause thick crusting and white or yellow scales. Some babies can also have seborrheic dermatitis in the diaper area, and on the face, neck, and trunk. Cradle cap usually clears up within the first year.

    • Craniosynostosis

      Craniosynostosis is a condition where one or more of the bones of the skull close too early. This can cause problems with normal brain and skull growth.

    • Crohn's Disease in Children

      Crohn's disease is when there is redness, swelling (inflammation), and sores along the digestive tract. It is part of a group of diseases known as inflammatory bowel disease or IBD.

    • Croup

      Croup is most common in children younger than 5, with the peak age around 2. Croup occurs most often in winter.

    • Cushing Syndrome in Children

      Cushing syndrome is a hormone disorder. It’s caused by having high levels of the hormone cortisol over a long time. Cushing syndrome is fairly rare. It most often affects adults who are 20 to 50 years old. But it can also occur in children. It is sometimes called hypercortisolism.

    • Cuts and Wounds of the External Ear

      Any wound to the ear cartilage that is more than just a superficial cut or laceration should be seen by a healthcare provider to decide if stitches are needed.

    • Cuts and Wounds of the Face

      Most minor cuts or wounds to the face can be handled at home with simple first-aid treatment.

    • Cuts and Wounds of the Mouth and Lips

      The gums, tongue, and lips have a rich blood supply and when cuts happen, these areas may bleed excessively.

    • Cuts and Wounds of the Nose

      Most minor nose wounds can be handled at home, but a wound or bruise that also involves one or both eyes needs immediate medical attention.

    • Cystic Fibrosis in Children

      Detailed information on cystic fibrosis, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and genetics

    • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in Newborns

      CMV (cytomegalovirus) is a herpes virus. It is very common. It affects people of all ages and in all parts of the U.S. In most cases CMV causes mild symptoms, or no symptoms at all. But it can cause serious problems in an unborn baby or newborn.

    • Defects in Metabolism of Amino Acids: PKU

      Before the simple blood test that checks for PKU became routine, the condition could go undetected long enough to cause severe intellectual disability. Now the disorder can be diagnosed before it leads to any damage.

    • Deformational Plagiocephaly

      Deformational plagiocephaly is when a baby develops a lasting flat spot either on one side or the back of the head. It happens when a baby sleeps in the same position most of the time or because of problems with the neck muscles. The condition is also called flat heat syndrome.

    • Delayed Puberty

      Puberty that happens late is called delayed puberty. This means a child's physical signs of sexual maturity don’t appear by age 13 in girls or age 14 in boys. This includes breast growth, pubic hair, and voice changes. These are known as secondary sexual characteristics.

    • Dental Emergencies

      One type of dental emergency is a knocked-out tooth. If it's a permanent tooth, rinse it and place it back in the socket. Then immediately take your child to the dentist.

    • Dermatitis in Children

      Detailed information on dermatitis, including the different types of dermatitis such as atopic dermatitis (eczema), contact dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, localized scratch dermatitis, nummular dermatitis, perioral dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis

    • Dermatomyositis

      Dermatomyositis is a rare disease that causes muscle inflammation and skin rash. It’s one of a group of muscle diseases that cause muscle inflammation and swelling. It's different from other muscle diseases because it also causes skin problems. Dermatomyositis is the term used to describe both muscle and skin symptoms.

    • Dermoid Cyst in Children

      A dermoid cyst is a pocket or hole under the skin. It contains tissue normally found in the outer layers of the skin. This might be hair follicles, oil, and sweat glands. Oil and sweat collect inside the cyst, causing it to get larger.

    • Developmental Disorders

      Detailed information on developmental disorders in children

    • Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

      In a normal hip joint, the top (head) of the thighbone (femur) fits snugly into the hip socket. In a child with DDH, the hip socket is shallow. As a result, the head of the femur may slip in and out.

    • Diabetes During Pregnancy

      Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't make enough insulin, or can't use insulin normally. Insulin is a hormone. It helps sugar (glucose) in the blood get into cells of the body to be used as fuel. When glucose can’t enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called high blood sugar (hyperglycemia).

    • Diabetes Insipidus in Children

      Diabetes insipidus is a condition caused by not enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the body. ADH is also known as vasopressin. This is a hormone that helps the kidneys keep the correct amount of water in the body. The condition is also called “water diabetes.”

    • Diagnosing Anemia in Children

      In most cases, anemia can be diagnosed with a few simple blood tests. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all infants be given a blood test to look for anemia at 6 months, 9 months, or 12 months of age.

    • Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) in Children

      Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare blood disorder. Children with DBA do not make enough red blood cells. These cells carry oxygen to all other cells in the body.

    • Diaper Dermatitis in Children

      Diaper dermatitis is inflammation of the skin in the diaper area. It’s a very common condition in babies and toddlers.

    • Diapers and Diaper Rash

      You have 2choices in diapers—cloth or disposable. Each type has advantages and disadvantages. You must decide which works best for your child and family.

    • Diaphragmatic Hernia in Children

      A diaphragmatic hernia is a birth defect. It happens in a baby during pregnancy. In this condition, there’s an opening in your baby’s diaphragm. This is the muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity.

    • Diarrhea in Children

      Diarrhea is a common problem. It may last 1 or 2 days and go away on its own. If diarrhea lasts more than 2 days, your child may have a more serious problem.

    • Difficulty with Latching On or Sucking

      Detailed information on ineffective latch-on or sucking during breastfeeding

    • Digestive and Liver Disorders

      Detailed information on digestive and liver disorders during pregnancy

    • Diphtheria

      Detailed information on diphtheria, including symptoms, transmission, treatment, and prevention

    • Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP)

      Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are serious illnesses. A combination vaccine is given to babies and children to provide protection against all three diseases.

    • Dislocations in Children

      A dislocation is a joint injury. It occurs when the ends of 2 connected bones come apart. Dislocations happen more often among teens.

    • Disorders Affecting Calcium Metabolism

      Detailed information on disorders affecting calcium metabolism, including juvenile osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and DiGeorge syndrome

    • Disorders Affecting the Adrenal Glands

      Detailed information on disorders affecting the adrenal glands, including underactive adrenal glands (Addison's disease), overactive adrenal glands (Cushing's syndrome), and pheochromocytoma

    • Disorders Affecting the Pituitary Gland

      Detailed information on disorders affecting the pituitary gland, including posterior anterior disorders and anterior pituitary disorders

    • Disorders Affecting the Thyroid

      Detailed information on disorders affecting the thyroid gland, including hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) and hypothyroidism

    • Disorders of Sex Development

      When a child's gender is in question at birth, the child has atypical genitalia (ambiguous genitalia). This means that the genitals may not appear to be clearly male or female.

    • Disorders of the Immune System

      When your immune system doesn’t work the way it should, it is called an immune system disorder.

    • Double Outlet Right Ventricle in Children

      Double outlet right ventricle (also known as DORV) is a type of heart malformation. It is present from birth (congenital heart defect). It’s when the heart and the main vessels leaving the heart do not develop the right way, leading to symptoms.

    • Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)

      Down syndrome is a genetic disorder. It includes certain birth defects, learning problems, and certain facial features.

    • Dyskeratosis Congenita in Children

      Dyskeratosis congenita is a congenital disease. This means it is present at birth. It affects the skin and nails. In its most severe form, it causes bone marrow failure. When bone marrow doesn't make enough blood cells, it can be life-threatening.

    • Dysmenorrhea in Adolescents

      Dysmenorrhea is a menstrual condition marked by severe and frequent menstrual cramps and pain. Dysmenorrhea can be either lifelong or caused by another medical condition.

    • Dysphagia in Children

      Dysphagia means trouble swallowing. This condition happens when food or liquids can’t pass easily from your child’s mouth, into the throat, down the esophagus, and into the stomach when swallowing.

    • Ear Disorders

      Detailed information on ear disorders in children

    • Eating Disorders in Children

      Detailed information on adolescents and eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, and obesity

    • Ectopic Pregnancy

      A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus is called ectopic pregnancy. This nearly always happens in a fallopian tube. So it’s often called tubal pregnancy. Rarely, an ectopic pregnancy will happen in an ovary, in the cervix, or the belly (abdomen).

    • Eisenmenger Syndrome in Children

      Eisenmenger syndrome is an advanced form of pulmonary artery hypertension. In this condition, the arteries that carry blood from the heart to the lungs narrow. This makes the pressure of blood flow against the walls of the arteries (blood pressure) too high. The heart must work harder to pump blood into the lungs. This causes lung damage.

    • Electrical Burns

      Electrical burns occur when a child comes in contact with electricity, either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).

    • Encephalitis in Children

      Encephalitis means inflammation of the brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell. This can lead to mental confusion and seizures.

    • Encopresis

      Encopresis is when your child leaks stool into his or her underwear. It is also called stool soiling. It is most often because of long-term (chronic) constipation. Encopresis happens to children ages 4 and older who have already been toilet trained.

    • Enteroviruses in Children

      There are many types of enteroviruses. The viruses mostly cause illness in babies, children, and teens. This is because most adults have already had enteroviruses and have built up immunity.

    • Epididymitis in Children

      Epididymitis is an inflammation or infection of the epididymis. The epididymis is a thin, coiled tube that sits on top of a male testicle. In younger boys, it can be caused by a urinary tract infection. In older boys and teens, it's usually caused by a sexually transmitted disease (STD).

    • Epiglottitis

      Detailed information on epiglottitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

    • Epilepsy and Seizures in Children

      Epilepsy is a brain condition that causes a child to have seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system.

    • Epilepsy During Pregnancy

      Epilepsy is a disorder of the nervous system. It is also called a seizure disorder. Normally the body's nerves send information by electrical and chemical signals. People with epilepsy have abnormal electrical signals in the brain. This can cause a seizure. Seizures can cause severe shaking of muscles. Or they may be very mild with hardly any symptoms at all.

    • Ewing Sarcoma in Children

      Ewing sarcoma is a rare type of cancer. It’s most common in children and teens between the ages 10 and 19. It usually grows in bone, but it can also grow in soft tissue that’s connected to the bone. This may include tendons, ligaments, cartilage, or muscles.

    • Exstrophy of the Bladder and Epispadias

      Detailed information on exstrophy of the bladder, including diagnosis and treatment

    • Eye Trauma

      Detailed information on eye trauma in children

    • Eyelid Lacerations in Children

      Eyelid lacerations are cuts to the eyelid. They are caused by trauma.

    • Failure to Thrive

      Failure to thrive means that a child is not growing as he or she should. Psychological, social, or economic problems within the family almost always play a role in this condition.

    • Fanconi Anemia in Children

      Fanconi anemia is a blood disorder. With this condition, the bone marrow doesn't make enough blood cells. Or it makes defective blood cells.

    • Femoral Anteversion

      Femoral anteversion is an inward twisting of the thighbone (femur). This health problem causes a child’s knees and feet to turn inward. The child may have a pigeon-toed appearance.

    • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)

      A baby born to a mother who drinks alcohol during pregnancy can have many problems. This is called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).

    • Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR)

      Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a condition in which an unborn baby (fetus) is smaller than expected for the number of weeks of pregnancy (gestational age). It is often described as an estimated weight less than the 10th percentile. This means that the baby weighs less than 9 out of 10 babies of the same gestational age. Newborn babies with FGR may be called “small for gestational age.”

    • Fever in Children

      When your child has a fever, the body resets its thermostat at a higher temperature. This helps the body fight off invading microorganisms.

    • Fibromyalgia in Children

      Fibromyalgia is a condition that causes pain in muscles and soft tissues all over the body. It is an ongoing (chronic) condition. It can affect the neck, shoulders, back, chest, hips, buttocks, arms, and legs.

    • Fifth Disease in Children

      Fifth disease is a viral illness that causes a rash. It occurs most often in the winter and spring.

    • First Trimester

      A healthy first trimester is crucial to the normal development of your baby. You may not be showing much on the outside, but inside, all the major body organs and systems of the fetus are forming.

    • First-Degree Burn in Children

      A burn is damage to tissues of the body caused by contact with things such as heat, radiation, or chemicals. A first-degree burn affects only the outer layer of skin (epidermis).

    • Flat or Inverted Nipples

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and flat or inverted nipples

    • Folliculitis, Furuncles, and Carbuncles in Children

      Bacteria on the skin can cause an infection of one or more hair follicles. A hair follicle is the base or root of a hair.

    • Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose, and Airway

      Children usually place things in their ears because they are bored, curious, or copying other children. Some objects may cause no symptoms, but other objects, such as food and insects, may cause pain in the ear, redness, or drainage.

    • Foreign Bodies in the Eye in Children

      A foreign body is any object in your child’s eye that isn’t supposed to be there. The foreign object may be in the conjunctiva. This is a thin membrane that covers the eye itself. Or it may be in the cornea. This is the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye.

    • Fractures in Children

      A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone. When a fracture happens, it is classified as either open or closed.

    • Fractures of the Orbit in Children

      An orbital fracture happens when one or more bones surrounding one of your child's eyes is broken. The orbit is the bony structure around the eye.

    • Frostbite in Children

      Detailed information on frostbite, including symptoms and what to do if frostbite occurs

    • Fungal Infections

      Detailed information on fungal skin infections, including Candidiasis, Tinea Infections, and Tinea Versicolor

    • Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children

      Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a digestive disorder. Gastroesophageal refers to the stomach and esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that connects the throat to the stomach. Reflux means to flow back or return.

    • Gastrointestinal Problems

      If your baby seems fussy and you’ve fed and changed him, he may have an upset stomach or colic. But don’t worry, there are lots of things you can do to make your little one more comfortable and keep both of you calm.

    • Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescents

      Children or teens with generalized anxiety disorder often worry a lot about future events, past behaviors, social acceptance, and school performance.

    • Genetics and Immune Disorders

      Severe immune disorders may be obvious right after birth. Other immune disorders may cause only mild symptoms and may not be noticed until later in childhood or early adulthood.

    • GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease) in Children

      GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a long-term (chronic) digestive disorder. It happens when stomach contents flow back up (reflux) into the food pipe (esophagus).

    • Germ Cell Tumors in Children

      Germ cells form as a baby grows in the womb. The cells usually form the eggs (ova) in females and the sperm in males. Germ cell tumors are made up of these underdeveloped cells. The tumors may be cancer (malignant) or not cancer (benign).

    • Gestational Diabetes

      Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that happens during pregnancy. The symptoms of gestational diabetes usually go away after delivery. But sometimes they do not, or you may develop type 2 diabetes later.

    • Gestational Hypertension

      Gestational hypertension is high blood pressure in pregnancy. It occurs in about 3 in 50 pregnancies.

    • Glomerulonephritis in Children

      Detailed information on glomerulonephritis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

    • Gonadotropin-Independent Precocious Puberty

      Puberty that happens early is called precocious puberty. Gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty is caused by early secretion of high levels of sex hormones. These include the male androgens and female estrogens.

    • Graves Disease in a Newborn (Neonatal Graves Disease)

      Graves disease is an autoimmune disease. The immune system normally protects the body from germs with chemicals called antibodies. But with an autoimmune disease, it makes antibodies that attack the body’s own tissues. With Graves disease, antibodies cause the thyroid gland to make too much thyroid hormone. This is known as hyperthyroidism. Extra thyroid hormone in the bloodstream leads to the body's metabolism being too active.

    • Grief and Bereavement

      The process of grieving is often long and painful for parents, siblings, relatives, friends, peers, teachers, neighbors, and anyone that understands the loss of a child.

    • Group B Streptococcus Infection in Newborns

      Group B streptococcus (strep) is a type of bacteria. It can be found in the digestive tract, urinary tract, and genital area of adults. About 1 in 4 pregnant women carry GBS in their rectum or vagina. During pregnancy, the mother can pass the infection to the baby. The fetus can get GBS during pregnancy. Newborns can get it from the mother's genital tract during delivery.

    • Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

      Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is when the pituitary gland doesn't make enough growth hormone. GH is needed to stimulate growth of bone and other tissues. This condition can occur at any age. GH deficiency does not affect a child's intelligence.

    • Growth Problems in Children

      A growth problem means that a child falls either below or above the average range of growth for a child's age, sex, family history, or racial background.

    • Guillain-Barre Syndrome in Children

      Guillain-Barré syndrome is a neurological disorder in which a child's immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. The disorder usually occurs a few days or weeks after the child has had symptoms of a respiratory or gastrointestinal viral infection.

    • Gynecological and Menstrual Conditions

      Detailed information on the most common gynecological and menstrual conditions that affect adolescents

    • Gynecological Infections

      Detailed information on gynecological problems in a child

    • Haemophilus Influenzae Infections in Children

      Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) is a group of bacteria that can cause different types of infections in babies and children. H. influenzae most often cause ear, eye, or sinus infections. They also cause pneumonia.

    • Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib)

      Haemophilus influenzae type b is a serious bacterial disease that usually strikes children younger than 5. It is spread from person-to-person by coughing and sneezing.

    • Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Children

      Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is an illness caused by a virus. It causes a rash that appears on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.

    • Head Injury in Children

      The more common causes of head injury in children are falls, motor vehicle accidents—in which the child is either a passenger or a pedestrian—or a result of child abuse.

    • Head Lice in Children

      Head lice are tiny parasitic bugs that can infest the skin. They live on people’s heads and feed on their blood. Head lice can cause intense itching.

    • Headaches in Children

      Many headaches in children may be caused by tight muscles and dilated blood vessels in the head. Other headaches may be caused by an actual problem, such as a tumor or malformation of the brain, although this is much less common.

    • Health Promotion and Common Problems

      Detailed information on health promotion and common health problems in children

    • Hearing Loss in Babies

      Hearing loss in babies is rare in this country, but when it does happen, it's important to diagnose it early. Undetected hearing loss can delay speech and language development.

    • Hearing Loss in Children

      Sensorineural hearing loss involves the inner ear or its connection with the brain. Conductive hearing loss involves the middle or outer ear.

    • Heart Failure in Children

      Heart failure is when the heart can't pump enough blood to the body. In children, it is often caused by a congenital heart defect.

    • Heart Murmurs in Children

      Heart murmurs are extra or unusual sounds made by blood moving through the heart. Many children have heart murmurs. Some cause no problems or go away over time. Others require treatment.

    • Heat or Thermal Burns

      A heat-induced or thermal burn can occur when the skin comes in contact with any heat source, such as a cooking pan, an iron, a fire, a hot surface, or a hot, scalding liquid.

    • Heat-Related Illnesses (Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke)

      Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.

    • Helicobacter Pylori in Children

      H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) is a spiral-shaped germ (bacteria) that infects the stomach. It can damage the tissue in your child’s stomach and the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). This can cause redness and swelling (inflammation). It may also cause painful sores called peptic ulcers in the upper digestive tract.

    • HELLP Syndrome

      HELLP syndrome is a rare but life-threatening condition in pregnancy. It causes red cells in the blood to break down. It also causes problems with the liver, bleeding, and blood pressure. It is often linked with preeclampsia and eclampsia. It often develops before delivery. But it may also occur after delivery.

    • Hemifacial Microsomia (HFM) in Children

      Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital disorder. This means that your child is born with it. In this condition, 1 side of your baby’s face is underdeveloped (hemi means half). HFM usually only affects 1 side of the face. Sometimes both sides may be affected.

    • Hemoglobin C Disease in Children

      Hemoglobin is the part of red blood cells that carries oxygen to cells, tissues, and organs. Hemoglobin C disease is caused by abnormal hemoglobin.

    • Hemoglobin E Trait

      Hemoglobin E trait is an inherited blood disorder. That means it is passed down through your parent’s genes. It occurs most often in people of Southeast Asian descent. Many people with hemoglobin E trait have no symptoms.

    • Hemolytic Anemia in Children

      The hemolytic anemias are a group of disorders in which the red blood cells are destroyed faster than the bone marrow can make them. The term for destruction of red blood cells is hemolysis.

    • Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN)

      Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is a blood problem in newborns. It occurs when your baby's red blood cells break down at a fast rate.  It’s also called erythroblastosis fetalis.

    • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Children

      Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare condition that can lead to kidney failure. The syndrome harms the small structures and vessels inside the kidneys. HUS causes red blood cells to clog the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys. It may cause damage to the kidney tissues.

    • Hemophilia in Children

      Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder. Children with hemophilia can’t stop bleeding because they don’t have enough clotting factor in their blood. Clotting factors are needed for blood to clot. Blood clots to prevent excessive bleeding.

    • Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) in Children

      Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a condition that involves swelling (inflammation) of small blood vessels. The swollen blood vessels leak into the skin, joints, intestines, and kidneys. 

    • Hepatitis B (HBV) in Children

      An infant or young child who contracts hepatitis B is at greater risk of staying infected with the virus and of having life-long liver problems, such as scarring of the liver and liver cancer.

    • Hepatitis in Children

      Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. It can damage and destroy liver cells.

    • Hepatoblastoma in Children

      Hepatoblastoma is a very rare cancer. It’s a tumor that starts in the liver. The cancer cells are similar to fetal liver cells. It usually affects children less than 3 to 4 years of age.

    • Herpangina in Children

      Herpangina is a very common illness in children. It causes small blister-like bumps or sores (ulcers) in the mouth.

    • Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores) in Children

      Cold sores are small blisters around the mouth caused by the herpes simplex virus. Once a child is infected with the virus, the virus becomes inactive (dormant) for long periods of time. It can then become active at any time and cause cold sores.

    • High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents

      Blood pressures vary depending on the age, height, weight, and gender of your child. Generally, blood pressure is low in infancy and rises slowly as children age.

    • Hirschsprung Disease in Children

      Hirschsprung disease is a rare birth defect. It affects the nerve cells in the large intestine. These nerve cells control the muscles that move food and waste, or stool, through the large intestine. The large intestine is the last part of the digestive tract.

    • HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

      A mother with HIV can pass the virus to her baby during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and breastfeeding.

    • Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children

      Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also helps with balancing fluids in different parts of the body.

    • Horseshoe Kidney (Renal Fusion)

      Detailed information on horseshoe kidney, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • HPV Vaccine for Boys

      Two HPV vaccines can protect against certain types of HPV. At first, they were recommended for girls and young women, but one of the vaccines has also been approved for use in boys and young men.

    • Human Bites

      Detailed information on human bites, including treatment for human bites

    • Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) in Children

      Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of viruses that cause different types of respiratory infections. They are more common in children and babies. But they can occur in people of any age, especially those with a weak immune system.

    • Hydramnios

      In this condition, there is too much amniotic fluid around your baby during pregnancy. It happens in about 1 in 100 pregnancies.

    • Hydrocele in Children

      A hydrocele a buildup of fluid in the thin pouch (tunica vaginalis) that holds the testes in the scrotum. Up to 1 in 10 baby boys have a hydrocele at birth. In most cases, it goes away without treatment within the first year.

    • Hydrocephalus

      A baby with hydrocephalus has extra fluid around the brain. This fluid is called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Too much CSF can increase the pressure in your baby’s head. This causes the bones in your baby’s skull to expand and separate. The baby's head may look larger than normal.

    • Hydrops Fetalis

      Hydrops fetalis is severe swelling (edema) in an unborn baby or a newborn baby. It is a life-threatening problem.

    • Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn

      Hyperbilirubinemia happens when there is too much bilirubin in your baby’s blood. Bilirubin is made by the breakdown of red blood cells. It’s hard for babies to get rid of bilirubin. It can build up in their blood, tissues, and fluids.

    • Hyperemesis Gravidarum

      Many pregnant women have some nausea and sometimes vomiting in the first trimester. A few pregnant women have a severe kind of nausea and vomiting called hyperemesis gravidarum. These women often lose weight, and get dehydrated. They may also have changes in the body's chemical processes.

    • Hyperparathyroidism in Children

      Hyperparathyroidism is when the parathyroid glands make too much parathyroid hormone. The condition is rare in children.

    • Hypocalcemia in the Newborn

      Hypocalcemia is when a person doesn't have enough calcium in the blood. In babies, it’s called neonatal hypocalcemia. Your baby can get it at different times and from different causes.

    • Hypoglycemia in a Newborn Baby

      Hypoglycemia is when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too low. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and the body. In a newborn baby, low blood sugar can happen for many reasons. It can cause problems such as shakiness, blue tint to the skin, and breathing and feeding problems.

    • Hypoglycemia in Children

      Hypoglycemia is when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too low. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and the body. The normal range of blood glucose is about 70 to 140 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). The amount blood differs based on the most recent meal. Babies and small children with type 1 diabetes will have different goal ranges of blood glucose levels. 

    • Hypoparathyroidism in Children

      Hypoparathyroidism is when the parathyroid glands don’t make enough parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid glands are 4 tiny glands on the thyroid. The hormone they make helps manage levels of calcium in the bloodstream. Low levels of the hormone leads to low levels of calcium. This can lead to muscle spasms and cramping, called tetany.

    • Hypopituitarism in Children

      Hypopituitarism means that the pituitary gland is not working normally. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain. It’s the master endocrine gland in the body. The pituitary gland normally releases as many as 8 different hormones. These hormones control growth, metabolism, blood pressure, and other body processes. The effects of hypopituitarism may be slow over time. Or they may be sudden.

    • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) in Children

      Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a group of defects of the heart and large blood vessels. A child is born with this condition (congenital heart defect). It occurs when part of the heart doesn't develop as it should during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

    • Hypospadias in Children

      Hypospadias is a problem where the opening of the urethra is not at the tip of the penis. With hypospadias, the end of the tube is lower down on the underside of the penis. Or it may be in the scrotum.

    • Immune Disorders

      Detailed information on the immune system and immune disorders

    • Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Children

      ITP is a blood disorder that causes a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood. Platelets help stop bleeding. So, a decrease in platelets can result in easy bruising, bleeding gums, and bleeding inside the body. The lower the platelet count, the greater the risk of bleeding.

    • Immunoglobulin A Deficiency

      Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a blood protein that’s part of your immune system. Your body makes IgA to help fight off sickness. Having an IgA deficiency means that you have low levels or no immunoglobulin A in your bloodstream. 

    • Immunotherapy: What Is It?

      Scientists have found a way to use the body's immune system to help treat or defend against a number of health problems. This treatment is known as immunotherapy.

    • Imperforate Anus in Children

      Imperforate anus is a problem that your child is born with. It happens when your child has a blocked or missing anus.

    • Impetigo in Children

      Impetigo is an infection of the skin. When it affects just the surface, it’s called superficial impetigo. Impetigo can also affect deeper parts of the skin. This is called ecthyma. It may occur on healthy skin. Or it may occur where the skin was injured by a cut, scrape, or insect bite.

    • Infant Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

      Detailed information on infant problems of the teeth and mouth

    • Infection in Babies

      Newborns are particularly susceptible to infections. One of the best ways to keep your baby infection-free is to wash your hands before and after handling him or her. Other preventive measures may also be necessary.

    • Infectious Diseases

      Detailed information on infectious diseases in children

    • Infectious Mononucleosis (Mono) in Teens and Young Adults

      Infectious mononucleosis is a contagious illness. It’s common in teens and young adults.

    • Influenza (Flu) in Children

      Influenza (flu) is a very contagious viral infection that affects the air passages of the lungs. It causes a high fever, body aches, a cough, and other symptoms.

    • Inguinal and Umbilical Hernias in Children

      A hernia is when a part of the intestine pushes through a weak spot in the belly (abdominal) muscles. The hernia creates a soft lump or bulge under the skin.

    • Inguinal Hernia in Children

      Detailed information on inguinal hernia, including causes, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment.

    • Insect Bites and Children

      Detailed information on insect bites, including fleas, mites, chiggers, and ticks

    • Insect Stings and Allergic Reactions

      For most children, the reaction to a sting is brief, with redness and swelling followed by pain and itching. For others, the allergic reaction to an insect sting can be life-threatening.

    • Insects in a Child's Ear

      Don't try to remove the insect by poking it with a cotton swab. This may push the insect farther into the ear or damage to the middle ear and eardrum.

    • Intestinal Malrotation and Volvulus in Children

      Intestinal malrotation is a birth defect. It happens when your baby’s intestinal tract doesn’t form as it should during pregnancy. Malrotation happens when your baby’s intestine doesn’t turn like it should.

    • Intraventricular Hemorrhage

      If your baby is born prematurely, there are many worries that likely go through your mind. One of the things that can happen is bleeding on the brain. Read on to learn about this and what doctors can do help your baby.

    • Intussusception in Children

      Intussusception is a serious problem in the intestine. It occurs when one part of the intestine slides inside another part. The intestine then folds into itself like a telescope. This creates a blockage or obstruction. It stops food that is being digested from passing through the intestine.

    • Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Children

      Anemia is a common health problem in children. The most common cause of anemia is not getting enough iron. A child who is anemic does not have enough red blood cells or enough hemoglobin.

    • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in Children

      Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a long-term (chronic) disorder that affects the large intestine or colon. IBS causes painful belly (abdominal) and bowel symptoms.

    • Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis (JAS) in Children

      Juvenile ankylosing spondylitis is a type of arthritis. It affects the spine and the places where the muscles, tendons, and ligaments are attached to bone. Ankylosing means stiff or rigid. Spondyl means spine. Itis refers to inflammation.

    • Juvenile Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases

      Arthritis is an inflammation of the joints that causes pain and swelling. Juvenile arthritis is the term used for arthritis in children. Arthritis is one category of rheumatic diseases. Rheumatic diseases can cause pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints, and bones. They can also affect other areas of the body, including organs.

    • Juvenile Dermatomyositis

      Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare disease that causes muscle inflammation and a skin rash.

    • Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

      Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a form of arthritis in children. Arthritis causes joint swelling (inflammation) and joint stiffness. JIA is arthritis that affects 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks in a child age 16 or younger.

    • Juvenile Osteoporosis

      Osteoporosis is a condition where the bones are thinner than normal. It’s a condition that gets worse over time. This means that bones get thinner over time, or don’t grow as they should. The bones are then weaker and at higher risk of breaking. The condition is much more common in older adults. But it can also occur during childhood. In children, it’s called juvenile osteoporosis.

    • Kawasaki Disease

      Kawasaki disease causes inflamed blood vessels. It can weaken the walls of blood vessels, including the arteries of the heart. Kawasaki mostly affects infants and young children. It is uncommon in the U.S.

    • Keratitis in Children

      Keratitis is an inflammation or infection of the cornea of the eye. The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye.

    • Kyphosis

      A spine affected by kyphosis has a forward curvature of the back bones (vertebrae) in the upper back area, giving an abnormally rounded or "humpback" appearance.

    • Lacerations With Stitches

      Stitches, also called sutures, are special types of thread that hold the edges of a wound together while it heals.

    • Lacerations Without Stitches

      A laceration is tear or opening in the skin caused by an injury. Some lacerations are small and need only minor treatment at home.

    • Lactose Intolerance in Children

      Lactose intolerance is when the body can’t easily break down or digest lactose. Lactose is a sugar found in milk and milk products.

    • Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

      Langerhans cell histiocytosis most often strikes young children and causes damage to tissues throughout the body.

    • Language Disorders in Children

      A child with a language disorder may have a difficult time understanding written and spoken words, and have trouble speaking. Language problems are a common problem in children, and can be treated.

    • Large for Gestational Age

      Large for gestational age is used to describe newborn babies who weigh more than the usual amount for the number of weeks of pregnancy. Babies are called large for gestational age if they weigh more than 9 in 10 babies of the same gestational age.

    • Latex Allergy

      Symptoms of latex allergy include watery or itchy eyes, wheezing, hives, flushing or a skin rash, itching, or swelling.

    • Lead Poisoning in Children

      Lead poisoning is a totally preventable disease. Children ages 1 to 3 who live in low-income housing built before 1978 are especially at risk.

    • Learning Disorders

      Learning disorders are sometimes called learning disabilities. Most children with learning disorders have normal intelligence, but they have difficulty with reading, math, or another academic area.

    • Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease

      Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (or Perthes disease) is a rare hip condition that affects children.

    • Leukemia in Children

      Leukemia is cancer of the blood. It’s the most common form of cancer in childhood. The cancer cells grow in bone marrow and go into the blood.

    • Listeriosis

      You’ve probably been warned not to eat brie cheese or order your steak cooked to anything less than medium. Why do you have to take these precautions? Listeriosis. Learn more about this food-borne illness and how to avoid it.

    • Lordosis

      Lordosis is a deformity of the backbone (spine). It’s when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) in the lower back curve inward more than normal.

    • Low Birth Weight

      Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams). An average newborn usually weighs about 8 pounds. A low-birth-weight baby may be healthy even though he or she is small. But a low-birth-weight baby can also have many serious health problems.

    • Low Milk Production

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and low breastmilk production

    • Lying and Stealing

      Lying and stealing are common, but inappropriate, behaviors in school-aged children. Most of the time these behaviors will be outgrown.

    • Lyme Disease in Children

      Lyme disease is an infection caused by bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi. The bacteria are usually spread by tick bites. Lyme disease is a year-round problem, but it peaks during the spring and summer months.

    • Lymphadenopathy in Children

      Lymphadenopathy means swelling of the lymph nodes or glands. Lymphadenopathy can occur in just one area of the body, such as the neck. Or it may affect lymph nodes throughout the body. The cervical lymph nodes, found in the neck, are the most common site of lymphadenopathy.

    • Lymphatic Malformations

      A lymphatic malformation  is a lymphatic vessel that isn’t formed right. The malformations are lymphatic tissue filled with fluid (cyst). Your child may have one or more of these cysts.

    • Major Depression in Adolescents

      Depression is a mood disorder that involves a adolescent's body, mood, and thoughts. It can affect and disrupt eating, sleeping, or thinking patterns.

    • Malocclusion in Children

      Malocclusion is when a child’s teeth become crooked or crowded. The child may also have a problem with his or her bite. That means the teeth of the upper jaw don’t meet normally with the teeth of the lower jaw when the jaw is closed.

    • Managing Bone Marrow Suppression in Children

      Nearly all chemotherapy drugs affect the number of blood cells in the body. When the number drops, the risk for anemia, fatigue, infection, and bleeding increases.

    • Managing Poor Weight Gain in Your Breastfed Infant

      Detailed information on mismanaged breastfeeding, including information on breastfeeding positions

    • Marfan Syndrome in Children

      Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue. Connective tissue holds the body's cells, organs, and other tissue together. Connective tissue is also important in growth and development.

    • Mastitis

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and mastitis

    • Mastoiditis in Children

      Mastoiditis is an inflammation or infection of the mastoid bone. This bone is one of the bones in the head. It is located behind the ear. The mastoid bone is made of cells that drain the middle ear. Mastoiditis may be mild or very serious.

    • Maternal and Fetal Infections

      In pregnancy, infections are a common complication—but women may not have obvious symptoms, or they may show different symptoms of an infection.

    • Measles (Rubeola) in Children

      Measles (rubeola) is a respiratory illness caused by a virus. It causes a red, blotchy rash. It’s a very contagious illness.

    • Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR)

      The MMR vaccine is given in two doses—at 12 to 15 months and at 4 to 6 years, or at least one month after the first dose.

    • Meckel Diverticulum

      Meckel diverticulum is a small pouch in the wall of the intestine. It’s near where the small and large intestines meet. This condition is the most common birth defect of the digestive system. It happens to about 1 in 50 babies.

    • Meconium Aspiration

      Meconium aspiration happens when a newborn breathes in a mixture of meconium and amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is the liquid that surrounds the baby in the womb. Meconium is the baby's first stool, or poop, which is sticky, thick, and dark green. It is typically passed in the womb during early pregnancy and again in the first few days after birth.

    • Medical Conditions and Pregnancy

      With proper medical care, most women can enjoy a healthy pregnancy, even with medical challenges, like diabetes or high blood pressure.

    • Medical Genetics: Mosaicism

      Mosaicism is when a person has 2 or more genetically different sets of cells in his or her body.

    • Medical Genetics: Multifactorial Inheritance

      Multifactorial inheritance is when more than one factor causes a trait or health condition, such as a birth defect or chronic illness. The main factor is genes. But the cause includes other factors that aren’t genes.

    • Medical Genetics: Types of Genetic Changes

      Genetic changes come in two main types: chromosome abnormalities and single-gene defects.

    • Medicine Rashes in Children

      Medicine rashes are the body’s reaction to a certain medicine. The type of rash that occurs depends on the type of medicine that is causing it. Rashes can range from mild to severe.

    • Megaloblastic Anemia in Children

      Anemia is a problem in which there are not enough red blood cells or hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the part of red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. In megaloblastic anemia, the bone marrow, where the cells are formed, makes fewer cells. And the cells that are formed don’t live as long as normal.

    • Megaureter in Children

      Megaureter is a ureter that is much wider than normal. A ureter that is wider than 10 mm (3/8 inch) is a megaureter. A megaureter may not drain urine normally. This can lead to infections and kidney damage.

    • Meningitis in Children

      Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. Bacteria or viruses are the more common causes.

    • Meningococcal Infections in Children

      Meningococcal infections are not common, but they can be fatal. They occur most often in late winter and early spring. Children are more often affected, but the illnesses also occur in teens and adults.

    • Metatarsus Adductus

      Metatarsus adductus is a common foot deformity noted at birth. It causes the front half of the child’s foot (forefoot) to turn inward.

    • Microcephaly

      An infant with microcephaly has a head that is much smaller than normal for an infant of that age and gender. Most children with microcephaly also have a small brain and mental retardation.

    • Micropenis in Children

      A micropenis is a penis that is smaller than normal. A penis length of less than 1.9 cm (0.75 inches) is considered micropenis.

    • Migraine Headaches During Pregnancy

      Many women have migraine headaches while pregnant. The good news is that you don’t have to give in to the pain when it strikes. Know what pain-relief options are safest for you.

    • Minor Cuts, Scrapes, and Skin Wounds

      Detailed information on minor cuts, scrapes, and skin wounds in children

    • Miscarriage

      Ultrasound is usually used to diagnose miscarriage. If the fetus is no longer in the uterus, or there is no longer a fetal heartbeat, miscarriage is diagnosed.

    • Mitochondrial Inheritance: Leber's Optic Atrophy

      Detailed information on mitochondrial inheritance and Leber's optic atrophy

    • Mold

      Detailed information on mold allergy, including potential sources of mold inside and outside the home

    • Molluscum Contagiosum in Children

      Molluscum contagiosum is a viral skin disease that causes small pink or skin-colored bumps on your child’s skin. It is not harmful and usually does not have any other symptoms. The virus is inside the bumps and is mildly contagious. These bumps usually clear over time.

    • Monoclonal Gammopathies

      Monoclonal gammopathies are conditions in which abnormal proteins are found in the blood.

    • Mood Disorders in Children and Adolescents

      Detailed information on the most common types of mood disorders, including major depression, manic depression (bipolar disorder), dysthymia, seasonal affective disorder, and suicide

    • Mosaic Down Syndrome

      Detailed information on mosaic Down syndrome, including the chances for it to happen again in a family

    • MRSA Infection in Children

      MRSA is an infection that can be life-threatening if it spreads from the skin to the lungs, the bloodstream, or other organs. MRSA infection can be hard to treat.

    • Multiple Sclerosis and Pregnancy

      Multiple sclerosis is a central nervous system disorder. Pregnancy does not appear to speed up or MS or worsen its effects.

    • Mumps in Children

      Mumps is a very contagious viral illness that infects the pair of salivary glands in front of the ears. Cases of mumps in the U.S. happen much less often since the mumps vaccine has been used.

    • Muscular Dystrophy

      Muscular dystrophy causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time.

    • Mushroom Poisoning in Children

      Mushroom poisoning happens when a child eats a mushroom that has poisons (toxins). Here's what you need to know, from symptoms to diagnosis and treatment.

    • Myasthenia Gravis and Pregnancy

      Myasthenia gravis is a complex autoimmune disorder. It causes antibodies to destroy the connections between your muscles and nerves. This causes muscle weakness and tiredness.

    • Natal Teeth

      Natal teeth are teeth that are present when a baby is born. The teeth are often not fully developed and may have a weak root.

    • Neck Abscess

      Detailed information on neck abscess, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Necrotizing Enterocolitis in the Newborn

      Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious illness in newborns. It happens when tissue in the large intestine (colon) gets inflamed. This inflammation damages and sometimes kills the tissue in your baby’s colon.

    • Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

      Neonatal abstinence syndrome is what happens when babies are exposed to drugs in the womb before birth. Babies can then go through drug withdrawal after birth. 

    • Nephrotic Syndrome in Children

      Detailed information on nephrotic syndrome, including types, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

    • Neuroblastoma

      Neuroblastoma is a cancerous tumor. It grows in nerve tissue of babies and young children. The cancer cells grow in young nerve cells of a baby growing in the womb. These cells are called neuroblasts. It’s is the most common cancer in babies under age 1. It’s rare in children older than age 10.

    • Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children

      Neurocutaneous syndrome is a broad term for a group of disorders. These diseases are life-long conditions that can cause tumors to grow inside the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin, and skeletal bones.

    • Neurogenic Bladder in Children

      Neurogenic bladder is a general term for bladder problems caused by nerve damage. In children a neurogenic bladder may be caused by a birth defect. Or it may happen later because of a different problem.

    • Neurological Disorders in the Newborn

      Detailed information on the most common neurological disorders in the newborn

    • Neuromuscular Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common neuromuscular disorders in children

    • Newborn Complications

      Detailed information on the most common types of newborn complications

    • Newborn Crying

      Crying is the way babies communicate. They cry because of hunger, discomfort, frustration, tiredness, and even loneliness.

    • Newborn Metabolic Screening

      Because some potential problems aren’t readily seen at birth, all newborns are tested for certain conditions, including metabolic disorders.

    • Nightmares and Night Terrors

      A night terror is a partial waking from sleep with behaviors such as screaming, kicking, panic, sleep walking, thrashing, or mumbling.

    • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) in Children

      NHL is a type of cancer in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also helps with balancing fluids in different parts of the body.

    • Noninfectious Skin Conditions

      Detailed information on non-infectious skin conditions, including dermatitis, acne, drug rashes, poison ivy/poison oak, and toxic epidermal necrolysis

    • Nontraditional Inheritance

      Detailed information on nontraditional inheritance, including uniparental disomy and Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome, trinucleotide repeats and Fragile-X Syndrome, and mitochondrial inheritance and Leber's Optic Atrophy

    • Nosebleeds

      Nosebleeds are fairly common in children, especially in dry climates or during the winter months, when dry heat inside homes and buildings can cause drying, cracking, or crusting inside the nose.

    • Numerical Abnormalities: Overview of Trisomies and Monosomies

      Information on numerical abnormalities, including an overview on trisomies and monosomies

    • Nursemaid’s Elbow

      Nursemaid’s elbow is a type of elbow injury. It’s when a forearm bone (radius) slips out of place from where it normally attaches to the elbow joint.

    • Nursing Bottle Caries

      Did you know that babies can get cavities? They can—usually when they go to bed with a bottle filled with milk or juice. Find out how to prevent this type of tooth decay, which is also called nursing bottle caries.

    • Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome in Children

      Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a breathing problem. It affects some children who are obese. Poor breathing causes too much carbon dioxide and too little oxygen in the blood. This is a rare but life-threatening issue. Your child will need treatment right away.

    • Obesity in Adolescents

      Children who are inactive—spending time watching TV or sitting at a computer—are at higher risk for obesity, especially when their diet contains lots of high-calorie foods and beverages.

    • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children

      Rituals and obsessive thoughts are a normal part of a teen's development. An adolescent with OCD has obsessive thoughts that are unwanted and related to fears.

    • Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children

      Obstructive sleep apnea is when a child briefly stops breathing while sleeping. It happens because of a blockage in the upper airway. The pause in breathing may occur many times in a night, disrupting the child’s sleep.

    • Omphalocele

      An omphalocele is a birth defect. It happens when your baby is forming during pregnancy. In this condition, some of your baby’s abdominal organs poke out (protrude) through an opening in the abdominal muscles. This area is in the umbilical cord. A clear (translucent) membrane covers the organs.

    • Oppositional Defiant Disorder

      This behavior disorder is characterized by uncooperative, defiant, negativistic, irritable, and annoying behaviors toward parents, peers, teachers, and other authority figures.

    • Orthopedic Problems

      Detailed information on orthopedic problems and teens

    • Osgood-Schlatter Disease

      Osgood-Schlatter disease is an overuse condition in children. It’s when the tendon in a knee becomes injured and inflamed.

    • Osteogenesis Imperfecta in Children

      Osteogenesis imperfecta is also known as brittle-bone disease because it is characterized by bones that break easily without a specific cause.

    • Osteomyelitis in Children

      Acute osteomyelitis is an infection in the bone. It develops over a short time, usually about 2 weeks. In children, osteomyelitis is more common in the long bones of the arms and legs. But it can affect any bone in the body. Osteomyelitis can happen in children of any age. About half of the time, it happens in children under 5 years of age.

    • Osteosarcoma

      Detailed information on osteosarcoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Other Arrangements: Rings and Inversions

      Detailed information on other chromosome arrangements, including rings and inversions

    • Other Benign Skin Growths in Children

      Detailed information on benign skin growths, including dermatofibromas, dermoid cyst, freckles, keloids, lipomas, moles, atypical moles, pyogenic granulomas

    • Otitis Media (Middle Ear Infection)

      Otitis media is inflammation in the middle ear. Otitis media can occur as a result of a cold, sore throat, or respiratory infection.

    • Overactive Adrenal Glands in Children

      Adrenal glands make a series of hormones. The hormones are androgens, corticosteroids, and aldosterone. Overactive adrenal glands make too much of one or more of these hormones. This can cause health problems. The health problems vary depending on which hormones are in excess. For example, too much aldosterone can caused high blood pressure and low levels of potassium.

    • Overactive Let-Down

      Many nursing mothers worry if their babies aren’t getting enough milk—but what if the opposite were true? Here’s what you can do to make sure your aren’t overwhelming your baby during feeding time.

    • Overuse Injuries

      Detailed information on overuse injuries in children, including jumper's knee, patellar tendonitis, little leaguers' elbow, little leaguers' shoulder, osteochondritis dissecans, Sever's disease, shin splints, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease, spondylolisthesis, and spondylolysis

    • Overview of Birth Defects

      A "birth defect" is a health problem or physical change that is present in a baby at the time he/she is born.

    • Overview of Craniofacial Anomalies

      Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including cleft lip, cleft palate, craniosynostosis, hemifacial microsomia, vascular malformation, hemangioma, and deformational plagiocephaly

    • Overview of Genitourinary Disorders

      Detailed information on genitourinary disorders in children

    • Overview of Nervous System Disorders in Children

      The most common symptoms of nervous system disorders in children include delays in developmental milestones, an increase or lack of growth in head size, and a lack of coordination.

    • Parasitic Skin Infections

      Detailed information on parasitic skin infections, including scabies and lice

    • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

      Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart defect found in the days or weeks after birth. The ductus arteriosus is a normal part of fetal blood circulation. All babies are born with this opening between the aorta and the pulmonary artery. But it usually closes on its own shortly after birth. If it stays open, it is called patent ductus arteriosus.

    • Pericarditis in Children

      Pericarditis is inflammation or infection of the pericardium. In children, pericarditis is most likely to happen after surgery to repair heart defects.

    • Periodontal Disease in Children

      Periodontal disease is a serious bacterial infection that destroys the gums and the nearby tissues of the mouth.

    • Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL)

      The head is one of the most fragile parts on your baby, especially after birth. Sometimes, damage can occur, particularly if your baby is born prematurely. One type of brain damage is called periventricular leukomalacia. Read on to better understand what this diagnosis means for you and your baby, and what doctors can do to help.

    • Persistent Depressive Disorder in Children

      Detailed information on persistent depressive disorder, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension in the Newborn

      Persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) happens in newborn babies. It occurs when a newborn’s circulation changes back to the circulation of a fetus. When this happens, too much blood flow bypasses the baby’s lungs. This is sometimes called persistent fetal circulation.

    • Pervasive Developmental Disorders

      Children with PDD have difficulty with language, communication, socialization, and motor behaviors. Autism is an example of a PDD.

    • PFAPA Syndrome

      PFAPA (Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis) is a childhood syndrome that affects both boys and girls. It causes repeated episodes of fever, mouth sores, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes. PFAPA usually starts in early childhood between ages 2 and 5.

    • Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis in Children

      Pharyngitis is redness, pain, and swelling of the throat (pharynx). Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils. The tonsils are a pair of tissue masses on either side of the back of the throat. They are part of the immune system, the part of the body that fights infection and other disease.

    • Pheochromocytoma in Children

      Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal glands. The tumor makes hormones called epinephrine and norepinephrine. This leads to an excess of the hormones in the body. These hormones help manage heart rate and blood pressure, and they have other tasks. Too much of these hormones in the body causes problems.

    • Phimosis and Paraphimosis in Children

      Phimosis and paraphimosis are problems with the foreskin of the penis. Phimosis is when a foreskin can’t be pulled down (retracted) from the tip of the penis. Paraphimosis is when the foreskin is retracted but can’t move back up.

    • Phobias in Children and Adolescents

      Common phobias include fear of animals, blood, heights, closed spaces, or flying. In teens, the fear must last at least 6 months to be considered a phobia.

    • Physical Abnormalities

      Detailed information on physical abnormalities of high-risk newborns

    • Pilomatrixoma in Children

      A pilomatrixoma (PEE-lo-may-trick-SO-mah) is a slow-growing, hard lump found under the skin. It is most common on the face and neck, but it may be on other parts of the body. A pilomatrixoma is usually a single lump, but occasionally, there may be more than one.

    • Pityriasis Rosea in Children

      Pityriasis rosea (pit-uh-RI-uh-sis RO-zee-uh) is a mild, common rash. It causes the skin to become scaly, pink, and inflamed. The rash can last from 1 to 3 months and usually leaves no lasting marks. This rash is not contagious.

    • Placenta Previa

      Bleeding can happen at any time during pregnancy. Placenta previa can cause bleeding late in pregnancy. This means after about 20 weeks.

    • Plugged Milk Ducts

      For mothers who breastfeed, some may be more susceptible to plugged ducts than others. Get some quick tips on how to avoid and manage this concern, so you can keep you and your baby happy and healthy.

    • Pneumococcus

      Pneumococcus bacteria can cause serious illness in children, including pneumonia, infection in the blood, and meningitis.

    • Pneumonia in Children

      Detailed information on pneumonia, including different types, diagnosis, and treatment.

    • Pneumothorax

      Pneumothorax is a condition in which air in the lungs leaks into the chest cavity. Pneumothorax is one type of a group of lung disorders called air leak syndrome. A baby can have more than one form of air leak.

    • Poison Ivy Rash in Children

      Poison ivy rash is an allergic reaction to poison ivy. Poison ivy is very common plant in the U.S. It is similar to two other plants called poison oak and poison sumac. The plants cause allergic dermatitis.

    • Poisons and Children

      Detailed information on poisoning, preventing poisoning and how to respond in an emergency

    • Polio (IPV)

      The poliovirus destroys the nervous system, causing paralysis. Today, polio is extremely rare in the United States because of the polio vaccine. It's still common in other countries, though, so children still need to be immunized.

    • Polio (Poliomyelitis)

      Poliomyelitis, commonly called polio, is an infectious disease. It is caused by 3 types of poliovirus. Polio is easily spread from person to person. The poliovirus is a virus that causes paralysis. But, most people who are infected with polio have no symptoms and a few have mild symptoms.

    • Pollen and Children

      Detailed information on pollen allergy, also called hay fever, including information on which plants produce the most pollen and allergic rhinitis prevention during pollen season

    • Polycystic Kidney Disease

      Detailed information on the different types of polycystic kidney disease, including autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, and acquired cystic kidney disease

    • Polycythemia Vera in Children

      Polycythemia vera is a serious, but very rare blood disorder in children. With polycythemia vera, the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. The extra cells make the blood too thick. This may lead to blood clots. The clots can decrease the blood supply to organs, tissues, and cells.

    • Posterior Pituitary Disorders

      Detailed information on posterior pituitary disorders

    • Posterior Urethral Valves in Children

      Posterior urethral valves are a problem with the urethra in a boy. The valves partly block urine flow because not enough urine can get through them to leave the body. This can harm the urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidneys.

    • Postmaturity in the Newborn

      The normal length of pregnancy is 37 to 41 weeks. Postmaturity is a word used to describe babies born after 42 weeks. Very few babies are born at 42 weeks or later. Other terms often used to describe these late births include post-term, postmaturity, prolonged pregnancy, and post-dates pregnancy.

    • Postpartum Hemorrhage

      Postpartum hemorrhage is more bleeding than normal after the birth of a baby. About 1 in 100 to 5 in 100 women have postpartum hemorrhage. It is more likely with a cesarean birth. It most often happens after the placenta is delivered, but it can also happen later.

    • Postpartum Thyroiditis

      Postpartum thyroiditis happens when a woman’s thyroid becomes inflamed after having a baby. It may first cause your thyroid to be overactive (hyperthyroidism). But in time it leads to an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). A small percentage of pregnant women get this health problem.

    • Post-Term Pregnancy

      A pregnancy that lasts more than 42 weeks is called post-term. A pregnancy that is between 41 and 42 weeks is called late-term. Most women deliver between 37 and 42 weeks of pregnancy.

    • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children

      PTSD is a debilitating mental health condition that can occur after a child has or sees a traumatic event.

    • Precocious Puberty

      Puberty that happens early is called precocious puberty. This means a child's physical signs of sexual maturity develop too soon. This includes breast growth, pubic hair, and voice changes. These are known as secondary sexual characteristics. Precocious puberty happens before age 8 in girls, and before age 9 in boys.

    • Pregnancy

      Detailed information on pregnancy and childbirth, including information on birth statistics, pregnancy planning, preconception care, prenatal care, pregnancy discomforts, pregnancy tests, pregnancy risks, pregnancy warning signs, labor and delivery, breas

    • Pregnancy and Pre-existing Heart Disease

      Pre-existing heart disease is a heart problem that you had before you got pregnant. This usually means a heart condition that you were born with (congenital). These can include heart problems that may have been fixed. It can also include heart valve issues.

    • Pregnancy Complications

      Detailed information on the most common complications during pregnancy

    • Prematurity

      A baby born before 37 weeks of pregnancy is considered premature or born too early. The number of premature births in the U.S. is rising. Twins and other multiples are more likely to be premature than single birth babies.

    • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

      Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of emotional and physical symptoms many women have in the days before their period starts. Lifestyle changes and sometimes medicines can help manage symptoms.

    • Preschool and School-Aged Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

      Detailed information on preschool and school-aged problems of the teeth and mouth

    • Preterm Labor

      Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. Labor is when the uterus regularly tightens and the cervix starts to thin and open. This lets the baby (fetus) enter the birth canal.

    • Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM)

      Preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) is a pregnancy complication. In this condition, the sac (amniotic membrane) surrounding your baby breaks (ruptures) before week 37 of pregnancy. Once the sac breaks, you have an increased risk for infection. You also have a higher chance of having your baby born early.

    • Problems Affecting the Lower Digestive Tract

      Detailed information on problems affecting the lower digestive tract of children

    • Problems Affecting the Upper Digestive Tract

      Detailed information on problems affecting the upper digestive tract of children

    • Problems in Prenatal Development of the Digestive Tract

      Detailed information on problems in prenatal development of the digestive tract

    • Problems in Puberty

      Detailed information on problems in puberty, including precocious puberty, gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, and delayed puberty

    • Problems Involving Heart Rhythm

      Detailed information on problems involving heart rhythm

    • Problems with Vision

      Eye disorders in children are either refractive or nonrefractive errors. Refractive errors are those caused by the shape of the eye. Nonrefractive errors are caused by disease.

    • Prune Belly Syndrome

      Detailed information on prune belly syndrome, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Psoriatic Arthritis in Children

      Psoriatic arthritis is a rare form of arthritis or joint inflammation that affects both skin and joints. It can occur in people who have psoriasis, a skin and nail disease.

    • Puberty: Adolescent Female

      Girls experience puberty as a sequence of events, and their pubertal changes usually begin before boys of the same age. The first pubertal change in girls usually is breast development.

    • Puberty: Adolescent Male

      During puberty, a teenage boy will grow taller and heavier, and hormones will lead to sexual maturity.

    • Pulmonary Atresia

      Pulmonary atresia (PA) is a heart defect. It happens when the fetal heart doesn’t form as it should during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

    • Pulmonary Stenosis in Children

      Pulmonary stenosis is a birth defect of the heart (congenital). It can happen when the pulmonary valve doesn’t develop as it should during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. The pulmonary valve connects the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery.

    • Puncture Wounds

      A puncture wound is a deep wound made by a sharp object. This type of wound may become infected easily because dirt and germs are carried deep into the tissues.

    • Pyloric Stenosis

      Pyloric stenosis is a problem that causes forceful vomiting. It affects babies from birth to 6 months of age. It can lead to dehydration. This condition is the second most common reason why newborns have surgery.

    • Rabies in Children

      Rabies is a viral infection that attacks the nervous system. Once symptoms develop, it is often fatal. But a rabies vaccine, or a series of vaccines, given soon after contact with an animal infected with rabies can prevent the illness.

    • Rashes Caused by Viruses

      Detailed information on viral exanthems (rashes)

    • Refractive Errors in Children

      The most common refractive errors in children are nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.

    • Renal Failure

      Detailed information on renal failure, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and diet

    • Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in Premature Babies

      Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a common problem in premature babies. It causes babies to need extra oxygen and help with breathing.

    • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) in Children

      RSV is a viral illness that causes symptoms such as trouble breathing. It’s the most common cause of inflammation of the small airways in the lungs (bronchiolitis) and pneumonia in babies.

    • Restless Leg Disorders in Kids with ADHD

      Research suggest children with ADHD are more likely to have sleep disorders. These include insomnia, daytime sleepiness, difficult or abnormal breathing during sleep (sleep apnea), and delayed sleep.

    • Retinoblastoma in Children

      Retinoblastoma is a rare cancer of the retina of the eye. The retina is in the back of the eye. It’s the part of the eye that receives light. Retinoblastoma is the most common tumor affecting the eye in children. It almost always occurs in children less than 5 years old.

    • Retinopathy of Prematurity

      Retinopathy of prematurity is an eye problem that happens to premature babies. The retina lines the back of the eye. It receives light as it comes through the pupil. From there, the optic nerve sends signals to the brain. Retinopathy of prematurity is a problem of the blood vessels of the retina.

    • Reye Syndrome in Children

      Reye syndrome is a rare but very serious illness that causes brain swelling and liver damage. It can also affect all of the body’s organs.

    • Rh Disease

      Rh disease occurs during pregnancy. It happens when the Rh factors in the mom’s and baby’s blood don’t match. It may also happen if the mom and baby have different blood types.  

    • Rhabdomyosarcoma in Children

      Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer. It starts in cells that grow into skeletal muscle cells. The cells are called rhabdomyoblasts. Skeletal muscles control all of a person’s voluntary muscle movements. The cancer is most common in children under age 10, but it is rare. It can form anywhere in the body.

    • Rheumatic Fever

      Rheumatic fever is a complex disease that affects the joints, skin, heart, blood vessels, and brain. It occurs mainly in children between the ages of 5 to 15.

    • Rheumatic Heart Disease in Children

      Rheumatic heart disease is a condition that causes permanent damage to the heart valves.

    • Ringworm in Children

      Ringworm is a type of skin infection cause by a fungus. It looks like a red skin rash that forms a ring around normal-looking skin. Ringworm can be of several types.

    • Risks to Pregnancy

      Detailed information on the most common risks to pregnancy, including information on alcohol and pregnancy, smoking and pregnancy, drugs and pregnancy, medications during pregnancy, and pre-existing conditions and pregnancy

    • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) in Children

      Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial infection. It’s spread by the bite of an infected tick.

    • Roseola in Children

      Roseola is a contagious viral illness. It causes a high fever and then a rash that develops as the fever goes away.

    • Rotavirus Infection in Children

      Rotavirus is a contagious virus that causes nausea and diarrhea. It is the leading cause of severe infectious diarrhea in children.

    • Roundworm Infection in Children

      Roundworm infection is a type of parasitic illness. This is an illness in which an organism lives inside the body of another creature. The worms live and grow inside the body and may cause symptoms.

    • Rubella (German Measles)

      Rubella, sometimes called German measles, is a viral infection. It usually causes a mild illness in children. Adults have a slightly more severe illness.

    • Rumination Syndrome

      Rumination syndrome is a rare behavioral problem. It affects children and some adults. Rumination syndrome causes an automatic regurgitation of recently eaten food. If your child has this problem, he or she will usually eat meals normally. But, after about an hour or two, undigested food comes back up into his or her mouth from the esophagus. Your child will either rechew and reswallow the food, or spit it out. Usually, this happens at every meal, day after day. Rumination is a reflex, not a

    • Scabies in Children

      Scabies is an infestation of tiny bugs called mites on the skin. It causes a small red rash and intense itching. This infection is very contagious. It often spreads from child to child while children are sleeping together in the same bed or have close personal contact.

    • Scarlet Fever in Children

      Scarlet fever is an infectious disease that causes a rash. It is caused by the same kind of bacteria that cause strep throat.

    • Schizophrenia in Children

      Detailed information on schizophrenia in children, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

    • School Refusal

      School phobia can be seen in young children going to school for the first time, in older children who fear a bully or mean teacher, and in children who are anxious about leaving their parents.

    • Scleroderma in Children

      Scleroderma is an ongoing (chronic) disease that causes abnormal growth of connective tissue. It can affect the joints, skin, and internal organs. It is degenerative and gets worse over time.

    • Scoliosis in Children

      Scoliosis is a deformity of the backbone (spine). It’s when the spine has a side-to-side curve. The curve of the spine measures 10 degrees or more.

    • Scrotal Swelling in Children

      Scrotal swelling is a common problem in baby boys and young boys. It can have many causes. These are usually divided into painless and painful scrotal swelling.

    • Second Trimester

      During this trimester, the weight of your growing baby will multiply more than 7 times — and you will start showing more.

    • Second-Degree Burn in Children

      A burn is damage to tissues of the body caused by contact with things such as heat, radiation, or chemicals. A second-degree burn affects the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and part of the inner layer of skin (dermis).

    • Separation Anxiety Disorder

      All children and teens experience some anxiety—it's a normal part of growing up. When worries and fears abnormally focus on separation from home or family, the child may have separation anxiety disorder.

    • Sepsis in the Newborn

      Newborn sepsis is a severe infection in an infant less than 28 days old. The infection is in your baby’s blood, but it may affect any body system or the whole body.

    • Septic Arthritis (Infectious Arthritis) in Children

      Septic arthritis is an infection in the joint fluid (synovial fluid) and joint tissues. It occurs more often in children than in adults.

    • Septoplasty in Children

      Septoplasty is surgery to fix a septum. The septum is the wall that divides your child's nose into two sides. It is made of soft cartilage and bone and is covered with a mucous membrane. A deviated septum is when the septum is not in the middle.

    • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

      Detailed information on SARS, including symptoms, prevention, and treatment

    • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

      SCID is a very rare disease that can be deadly. It causes a child to have a very weak immune system. As a result, the child is unable to fight off even mild infections. The disease is also known as the “boy in the bubble” syndrome because living in a normal environment can be fatal to a child who has it. This disease is passed down from parents to child (inherited).

    • Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Adolescents

      STDs are among the most common infectious diseases in this country. The United States has the highest rates of STDs in the industrialized world.

    • Shingles (Herpes Zoster) in Children

      Shingles (herpes zoster) is a painful skin rash. It’s caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). This is the same virus that causes chickenpox.

    • Short Bowel Syndrome in Children

      Short bowel syndrome is a group of problems. They happen to children who have had a significant part of their small intestine removed. This complex condition can be life-threatening in some babies and children.

    • Sickle Cell Disease in Children

      Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that is present at birth. Children with SCD make an abnormal type of hemoglobin. This is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to all parts of the body.

    • Signs of Respiratory Distress in Children

      Detailed information on the signs of respiratory distress

    • Single Gene Defects

      Detailed information on single gene defects and patterns of inheritance

    • Sinusitis in Children

      Sinusitis is an infection of the sinuses. These infections usually happen after a cold or with allergies. There are 3 types of sinusitis: short term (acute), long-term (acute), and recurrent.

    • Sjögren Syndrome

      Sjögren syndrome is an autoimmune disorder. This means that the body’s own immune system attacks its own cells and tissues by mistake. In this case, it attacks the glands that produce moisture. It commonly causes dry skin, dry eyes, and dry mouth.

    • Skin Cancer in Children

      Skin cancer is a type of cancer that grows in the cells of the skin. It can spread to and damage nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Skin cancer is rare in children.

    • Skin Color Changes

      The color of a baby's skin can often help identify possible problems in another area of the body. Here are some skin color changes to be aware of.

    • Skin Injury in Children

      Detailed information on skin injuries, including blisters, burns, sunburn, and bites

    • Skin Pigment Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common types of skin pigment disorders, including albinism, melasma, vitiligo, and skin pigment loss following sun damage.

    • Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

      Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a condition of the hip joint that affects children. In SCFE, the ball of the thighbone (femoral head) slips off the neck of the thighbone.

    • Slow or Poor Infant Weight Gain

      Are you concerned that your little one has slow or poor weight gain? Unsure? This article will help you sort out your questions and concerns.

    • Small Cuts and Scrapes

      Wash the cut area well with soap and water, but do not scrub the wound. A dirty cut or scrape that is not thoroughly cleaned can cause scarring.

    • Small for Gestational Age

      Small for gestational age is a term used to describe babies that are smaller than usual for the number of weeks of pregnancy. These babies have birth weight below the 10th percentile. This means they are smaller than many other babies of the same gestational age.

    • Snakebites in Children

      Both venomous and nonvenomous snakes can bite. In the U.S., snakebites most often occur between April and October. Even a bite from a nonvenomous snake can cause an infection or allergic reaction in some children.

    • Sore Nipples

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and sore nipples

    • Speech Sound Disorders in Children

      A child with a speech sound disorder may have trouble saying certain sounds and words beyond the age expected.

    • Spina Bifida

      Spina bifida can occur in the early weeks of pregnancy, before you even know you are expecting. That’s why your baby is depending on you to have healthy habits in place from the start. Learn more about the prevention and treatment of this birth defect.

    • Spinal Muscular Atrophy

      Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease that affects the spinal cord and nerves, resulting in muscle wasting and weakness.

    • Splinters

      A splinter is a sharp sliver of wood, glass, or other debris that is lodged underneath the skin. Removal of small, superficial splinters can usually be done at home.

    • Sports Injuries and Children

      Detailed information on sports injuries in children, including overuse injuries, sprains, strains, and heat-related illnesses

    • Sprains and Strains in Children

      Sprains and strains are types of injuries. A sprain is an injury to a ligament while a strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon.

    • Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) in Children

      Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is a serious skin infection. The infection causes peeling skin over large parts of the body. It looks like the skin has been scalded or burned by hot liquid. It’s more common in the summer and fall.

    • Stillbirth

      Stillbirth is a common term for death of a fetus after 20 weeks of pregnancy.

    • Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers in Children

      An ulcer is an open sore (lesion). It’s normally found on the skin or mucous membranes. A peptic ulcer is in the lining of the stomach or duodenum. A gastric ulcer is in the stomach. A duodenal ulcer is in the duodenum.

    • Strabismus

      Strabismus is a misalignment of the eyes. The eyes (one or both) may turn inward, outward, up, or down. This condition is also called wandering eye or crossed eyes.

    • Stridor in Children

      Stridor is a noisy or high-pitched sound with breathing. It is a sign that the upper airway is partially blocked. It may involve the nose, mouth, sinuses, voice box (larynx), or windpipe (trachea).

    • Stroke in Children

      Stroke is much more common in adults than children, but children get strokes, too. The good news is that a child has a better ability to recover from stoke than an adult because a child's brain is still developing.

    • Structural Abnormalities: Deletions (Cri du Chat) and Duplications (Pallister Killian)

      Detailed information on structural abnormalities, including chromosome deletions and duplications

    • Stuttering in Children

      Stuttering is a speech problem. The normal flow of speech is disrupted. A child who stutters repeats or prolongs sounds, syllables, or words. Stuttering is different from repeating words when learning to speak. Stuttering may make it difficult for a child to communicate with others.

    • Styes in Children

      A stye is an inflammation or infection of the eyelid margin. This condition is also called a hordeolum.

    • Substance Abuse / Chemical Dependence in Adolescents

      Substances frequently abused by adolescents include alcohol, marijuana, and amphetamines. Some teens are at higher risk of developing substance-related disorders.

    • Substance Exposure

      Detailed information on substance exposure of newborns

    • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

      Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden and unexplained death of a baby younger than 1 year old. SIDS is sometimes called crib death because the death happens when a baby is sleeping in a crib. It’s one of the leading causes of death in babies from ages 1 month to 1 year. It happens most often between 2 and 4 months old.

    • Sunburn and Children

      Protect your child from the sun. Up to 80% of total lifetime sun exposure occurs in the first 18 years of life.

    • Superficial Injuries to the Face and Head

      Children are more likely to end up with a cut or scrape on the head or face. One reason is that children's sense of balance isn't completely adjusted.

    • Swimmer’s Ear in Children

      Swimmer’s ear (otitis externa) is an inflammation of the external ear canal. Swimmer’s ear is caused by fungi or bacteria. Water that stays in the ear canal during swimming, for example, may let bacteria and fungi grow.

    • Syncope in Children

      Syncope is a brief loss of consciousness and muscle tone caused when not enough blood gets to the brain. Syncope is commonly called fainting. In most children, it’s usually harmless. But in a few children, syncope is serious. This is usually because of a heart problem, or less often a neurological problem.

    • Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion in Children

      SIADH is when the body makes too much antidiuretic hormone (ADH). This is a hormone that normally helps the kidneys conserve the correct amount of water in the body. SIADH causes the body to retain water. This lowers the level of sodium in the blood. SIADH is rare. It most often happens to children who are in the hospital.

    • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE, or Lupus) in Children

      Lupus is a disease characterized by periodic episodes of inflammation of and damage to the joints, tendons, other connective tissues, and organs.

    • Teen Suicide

      Suicide is the third leading cause of death in 15- to 24-year-olds. The strongest risk factors for attempted suicide in youth are depression, substance abuse, and aggressive or disruptive behaviors.

    • Teens and Diabetes

      During adolescence, blood sugar levels become harder to control, resulting in levels that swing from too low to too high.

    • Teething

      A baby's first tooth usually appears between 5 and 7 months of age. Often, the two middle bottom teeth come through the gums first, followed by the middle four upper teeth.

    • Temper Tantrums

      These fits of rage—the stomping, screaming, and falling on the floor—are a normal part of childhood development. Temper tantrums often happen only with a parent. They are a way for the child to communicate his or her feelings.

    • Tennis Elbow in Children

      Tennis elbow is a repetitive stress injury. It happens when the muscles and tendons in the elbow area are torn or damaged.

    • Testicular Torsion in Children

      Testicular torsion is a painful twisting of a boy’s testicles and spermatic cord. Torsion causes blood to not flow to the testicles. This can damage them. Treatment needs to be done right away to prevent long-lasting (permanent) injury to the testicles.

    • Tetanus in Children

      Tetanus is a severe illness of the central nervous system caused by bacteria. It's not contagious. It can be prevented by a vaccine.

    • Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

      Tetralogy of Fallot is 4 congenital heart defects. This means that your child is born with them. These 4 problems occur together (tetralogy refers to 4).

    • Thermal Injuries

      Detailed information on thermal injuries in children

    • Third Trimester

      The third trimester marks the home stretch for your pregnancy. You may feel more uncomfortable now as you continue to gain weight. You also may have false labor contractions (called Braxton-Hicks contractions).

    • Third-Degree Burn in Children

      A burn is damage to tissues of the body caused by contact with things such as heat, radiation, or chemicals. A third-degree burn damages affects the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and the inner layer of skin (dermis). A child with a third-degree burn needs immediate medical care.

    • Thrombocytopenia in the Newborn

      Thrombocytopenia [thrombo-boh-sy-toh-PEE-nee-uh] means that a newborn baby has too few platelets in his or her blood. Platelets are blood cells that help the blood clot. They are made in the bone marrow.

    • Thrush or Candidiasis

      Candidiasis is an infection caused by yeast on the skin and mucous membranes. When the infection occurs in the mouth, it is called thrush.

    • Thumb Sucking

      Thumb sucking is normal in infants and young children. It shouldn't cause any permanent problems if your child stops by age 5.

    • Thyroglossal Duct Cyst in Children

      A thyroglossal duct cyst is a pocket in the front part of neck that is filled with fluid. A child is born with this cyst.

    • Tibial Torsion

      Tibial torsion is an inward twisting of the shinbones. These bones are located between the knee and the ankle. Tibial torsion causes a child’s feet to turn inward.

    • Tinea Versicolor in Children

      Tinea versicolor is a fungal skin infection. It’s caused by yeast on the skin. It occurs most often in adolescents and young adults. But it can happen at any time.

    • Toddler Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

      Detailed information on toddler problems of the teeth and mouth

    • Tooth Decay in Children

      Tooth decay is the breakdown of tooth enamel. Enamel is the hard outer surface of a tooth. Tooth decay can lead to cavities (caries). These are holes in the teeth.

    • Toothache (Pulpitis) in Children

      A toothache means that the pulp inside a tooth is inflamed and infected. The pulp is the soft part inside the tooth that has blood vessels and nerves.

    • Topic Index - Pregnancy and Childbirth

      Detailed information on pregnancy and childbirth, including information on birth statistics, pregnancy planning, preconception care, prenatal care, pregnancy discomforts, pregnancy tests, pregnancy risks, pregnancy warning signs, labor and delivery, breas

    • Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)

      Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a congenital heart defect. This means that your child is born with it.  It happens as the baby’s heart develops during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

    • Tourette Disorder

      A person with Tourette disorder develops multiple repeated tics. The tics are abrupt, purposeless, and involuntary vocal sounds or muscular jerks.

    • Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Children

      Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a life-threatening skin disorder. It causes blistering and peeling of the skin. It can be caused by a medicine reaction.

    • Toxic Shock Syndrome

      Detailed information on toxic shock syndrome, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Toxoplasmosis

      Toxoplasmosis is not only harmful to moms-to-be, but also to their unborn babies. If you haven’t heard of toxoplasmosis, you’ll definitely want to brush up on this new word.

    • Tracheoesophageal Fistula and Esophageal Atresia

      Tracheoesophageal fistula is a connection between the esophagus and the trachea. The esophagus is the tube that connects the throat to the stomach. The trachea is the tube that connects the throat to the windpipe and lungs. Normally, the esophagus and trachea are 2 tubes that are not connected. This issue is also called TE fistula or TEF. It can happen in one or more places.

    • Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

      Transient tachypnea [TACK-up-NEE-uh] of the newborn is a mild breathing problem. It affects babies during the first hours of life. Transient means it is short-lived. Tachypnea means fast breathing rate. The problem usually goes away without treatment in about 3 days.

    • Translocation Down Syndrome

      Detailed information on translocation Down syndrome

    • Translocations

      Detailed information on chromosome translocations, including reciprocal translation and Robertsonian translocation

    • Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA)

      Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a type of congental heart defect. This means that your baby is born with it. In this condition, the large blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the lungs and body aren’t connected as they should be.

    • Trauma

      Detailed information on neurological trauma in children

    • Trichomoniasis (Trich) in Teens

      Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI). It can cause vaginal redness and swelling (inflammation) in teen girls. In teen boys it can cause painful urination.

    • Tricuspid Atresia

      Tricuspid atresia (TA) is a heart defect present at birth (congenital). It occurs when the tricuspid valve doesn’t form right during fetal heart development. This happens during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. The tricuspid valve is located between the right upper chamber (atrium) and the right lower chamber (ventricle) of the heart. The defect keeps blood from flowing normally from the right atrium to the right ventricle.

    • Trinucleotide Repeats: Fragile X Syndrome

      Detailed information on trinucleotide repeats, including fragile X syndrome

    • Trisomy 13 and 18

      Trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 are genetic disorders. They include a combination of birth defects. This includes severe learning problems and health problems that touch nearly every organ in the body.

    • Truncus Arteriosus (TA)

      Truncus arteriosus is a heart defect that is present at birth (congenital). It occurs when there is an abnormal connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery. Normally, the aorta and the pulmonary artery are separate.

    • Tuberculosis (TB) in Children

      Tuberculosis (TB) is an ongoing (chronic) infection caused by bacteria. It usually infects the lungs. But the kidneys, spine, and brain may also be affected.

    • Turner Syndrome

      Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder seen in girls that causes them to be shorter than others and to not mature sexually as they grow into adulthood.

    • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children

      Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't make enough insulin, or can't use insulin normally. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. The body's immune system damages the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Insulin is a hormone. It helps sugar (glucose) in the blood get into cells of the body to be used as fuel. When glucose can’t enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called high blood sugar (hyperglycemia).

    • Type 2 Diabetes in Children

      Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't make enough insulin, or can't use insulin normally. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder. Insulin is a hormone. It helps sugar (glucose) in the blood get into cells of the body to be used as fuel. When glucose can’t enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). High blood sugar can cause problems all over the body.

    • Types of Chromosome Abnormalities

      Detailed information on the different types of chromosome abnormality

    • Ulcerative Colitis in Children

      Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this condition, the inner lining of your child’s large intestine (colon or bowel) and rectum gets inflamed. This inflammation often starts in the rectum and lower (sigmoid) intestine. Then it spreads to the whole colon.

    • Undescended Testes in Children

      Undescended testes is when one or both of the male testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. This is a condition seen in some newborn baby boys.

    • Uniparental Disomy: Prader-Willi Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome

      Detailed information on uniparental disomy

    • Ureterocele and Ureteral Duplication

      Detailed information on ureterocele and ureteral duplication, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Urinary Incontinence (Enuresis) in Children

      In children under age 3, it’s normal to not have full bladder control. As children get older, they become more able to control their bladder. When wetting happens in a child who is old enough to control his or her bladder, it’s known as enuresis.

    • Urinary Tract and Kidney Infections

      During pregnancy, the kidney enlarges and the bladder is compressed by the growing uterus. These and other factors make it more likely for a woman to develop a urinary tract infection.

    • Urinary Tract Infections in Children

      Detailed information on urinary tract infections, including causes, symptom, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Urticaria (Hives) in Children

      Urticaria, or hives, is a problem in which red, itchy, and swollen areas show up on the skin. It usually happens as an allergic reaction from eating certain foods or taking certain medicines.  Though, sometimes the cause may be unknown. Hives can vary in size from one-half inch to several inches in size. Hives can show up all over the body or just on one part of the body.

    • Varicella (Chickenpox)

      Chickenpox is a very common childhood disease. It is usually mild, but can be serious, especially in young infants and adults.

    • Varicoceles in Children

      A varicocele is when veins in the scrotum have become large and swollen (dilated). The condition is like varicose veins that occur in the legs.

    • Vascular Malformations and Hemangiomas

      Hemangiomas are growths of blood vessels. They’re also called birthmarks. But they often can't be seen at birth. They usually form in the first few weeks of life.

    • Vasculitis

      Detailed information on the most common types of vasculitis, including Kawasaki Disease and Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

    • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

      A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a congenital heart defect. This means that your baby is born with it. A VSD is an opening or hole in the dividing wall (septum) between the 2 lower chambers of the heart (right and left ventricles). VSDs are the most common type of congenital heart defect.

    • Very Low Birth Weight

      Very low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 3 pounds, 4 ounces. It is very rare that babies are born this tiny. But the overall rate of very-low-birth-weight babies in the U.S. is going up. This is because more multiple birth babies are being born. Multiples are more likely to be born early and weigh less.

    • Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)

      Detailed information on vesicoureteral reflux, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

    • Viral Skin Infections

      Detailed information on viral skin infections, including Herpes Zoster (Shingles), Pityriasis Rosea, Warts, and Molluscum Contagiosum

    • Viruses, Bacteria, and Parasites in the Digestive Tract

      Detailed information on viruses, bacteria, and parasites in the digestive tract.

    • Vision and Hearing

      Detailed information on vision and hearing in newborns

    • Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in the Newborn

      Vitamin K deficiency bleeding is a problem that occurs in some newborns. It happens during the first few days of life. This condition used to be called hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.

    • Von Willebrand Disease (VWD)

      Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is an inherited disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot.

    • Walking Pneumonia in Children

      Walking pneumonia is very common in school-aged children. It's the most common type of pneumonia in this age group.

    • Warts in Children

      Warts on the skin are harmless growths. They are caused by a virus. Warts can spread to other parts of the body and to other people.

    • Wegener’s Granulomatosis

      Wegener’s granulomatosis is a condition of the immune system. It causes swelling and irritation in blood vessels and other tissues.

    • West Nile Fever in Children

      West Nile fever is an illness caused by a virus. The virus is spread by mosquito bites. It usually causes mild, flu-like symptoms.

    • What Are Platelets?

      If one of your blood vessels gets damaged, it sends out signals that are picked up by platelets. The platelets then rush to the site of damage and form a plug, or clot, to repair the damage.

    • What Are Red Blood Cells?

      Red blood cells play an important role in your health by carrying fresh oxygen throughout the body.

    • What Are Stem Cells?

      Stem cells are special human cells that have the ability to develop into many different cell types, from muscle cells to brain cells. In some cases, they also have the ability to repair damaged tissues.

    • What Are White Blood Cells?

      Think of white blood cells as your immunity cells. In a sense, they are continually at war. They flow through your bloodstream to battle viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders that threaten your health.

    • What Is Plasma?

      White blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets are essential to body function, but plasma also plays a crucial, and mostly unrecognized, job. It carries these blood components throughout the body as the fluid in which they travel.

    • When Your Baby Needs a Test, Procedure, or Surgery

      Talk with your baby’s healthcare provider about being present as much as possible for the test or procedure. Child development experts say it’s best to keep to a minimum the amount of time your child is separated from you at this age.

    • When Your Child Has Osteomyelitis

      Osteomyelitis is an infection of a bone by a germ (bacteria or fungus). In children, infection in the long bones of the arms and legs are most common. A child with osteomyelitis will be referred to an orthopedist (doctor specializing in treating bone and joint problems) for evaluation and treatment.

    • When Your School-Age Child Needs a Test, Procedure, or Surgery

      By age 7 or 8, school-age children are starting to develop coping skills as they think more logically and begin to understand cause and effect—if this happens, then that may happen. This way of thinking helps them find ways to cope with scary or stressful experiences.

    • When Your Teen Needs a Test, Procedure, or Surgery

      During the adolescent years, abstract thinking begins and teens can fully understand how parts of the body function, the medical problem he or she is experiencing, and the reason for the test, procedure, or surgery.

    • When Your Toddler or Preschooler Needs a Test, Procedure, or Surgery

      Your toddler or preschooler is able to grasp on some level what is going on if you keep explanations simple and short.

    • Whooping Cough (Pertussis) in Children

      Whooping cough (pertussis) is a contagious illness. It causes intense fits (paroxysms) of coughing. It mainly affects babies and young children.

    • Wilms Tumor

      Wilms tumor is a cancerous tumor that starts in the cells of the kidney. It’s the most common type of kidney cancer in children. It’s usually found by the time a child is age 3 or 4. The tumor can be very large before it’s found. And it may spread (metastasize) to other body tissues.

    • X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia

      This is an inherited disease that causes a weakened immune system. It mainly affects males, but the disease is rare.

    • X-linked Dominant: Incontinentia Pigmenti

      Detailed information on x-linked dominant inheritance

    • X-linked Recessive: Red-Green Color Blindness, Hemophilia A

      Detailed information on x-linked recessive inheritance

    • Your Child's Allergies: Dust Mites

      Detailed information on dust mite allergens