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Diseases & Conditions : Pregnancy and Childbirth


    • Alcohol and Pregnancy

      Alcohol consumption by the mother is a leading cause of preventable birth defects in the fetus. In addition, the risk for miscarriage and stillbirth increases with alcohol consumption.

    • Anatomy: Fetus in Utero

      A thin-walled sac surrounds the fetus during pregnancy. The sac is filled with amniotic fluid, which protects the fetus from injury.

    • Birth Statistics

      Statistics relating to birth rates

    • Bottle-Feeding

      Detailed information on bottle-feeding, including information on the different types of baby formula

    • Breast Milk Is the Best Milk

      Your milk contains just the right balance of nutrients, and it contains them in a form most easily used by the human baby's immature body systems.

    • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby

      Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the baby, including ineffective latch-on, ineffective sucking, slow infant weight gain, poor infant weight gain, mismanaged breastfeeding, over-active breast milk let down

    • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother

      Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the mother, including sore nipples, low breast milk production, flat nipples, plugged milk ducts, and mastitis

    • Breastfeeding Your Baby

      Detailed information on breastfeeding, including information on breast milk, starting breastfeeding, breast milk production, effective breastfeeding, breastfeeding difficulties, sore nipples, insufficient breast milk production, delayed breast milk production, low breast milk production, flat nipples, inverted nipples, plugged milk ducts, mastitis, breastfeeding latch-on difficulties, and poor infant weight gain

    • Calculating a Due Date

      First, determine the first day of your last menstrual period. Next, count back three calendar months and add one year and seven days to that date.

    • Care and Management of Multiple Pregnancy

      A woman with a multiple pregnancy needs more calories and nutrients, more frequent prenatal visits, and more rest.

    • Care of the Baby in the Delivery Room

      A newborn baby is wet from the amniotic fluid and can easily become cold. Drying the baby and using warm blankets and heat lamps can help prevent heat loss. Often a knitted hat is placed on the baby's head.

    • Caring for the Mother: Physically and Emotionally

      Nap when your baby naps. Take warm, shallow baths several times a day if you had stitches after delivery. Wear a supportive bra and use warm compresses to help with milk letdown.

    • Common Discomforts During Pregnancy

      Nausea and vomiting are common in the first trimester, as is fatigue. Other common discomforts are hemorrhoids and heartburn.

    • Common Tests During Pregnancy

      Certain tests and screenings may be scheduled during your pregnancy. Your health care provider will advise you on which tests you'll need.

    • Complications of Multiple Pregnancy

      Having more than one baby is especially exciting—and complicated. Find out what to watch for, including a greater chance of anemia and preterm birth.

    • Complications of Pregnancy

      Some of the more common complications of pregnancy are miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and bleeding.

    • Delivery

      In preparation of the delivery, you may be moved into a birthing room or delivery room, or you may remain in the same room for both labor and delivery.

    • Effective Breastfeeding

      Think there’s only one way to breast-feed? Think again! Moms can position their babies in several positions during feeding time that can be comfortable for both.

    • Effective Sucking

      It’s important for your baby’s health to be able to effectively remove milk from your breast during nursing. To do this, your baby must learn the proper way to suck. But how do you know if your baby is actually getting the nutrition he/she needs? Here’s a guide to help you.

    • Exercise During Pregnancy

      If you exercised before pregnancy, you can safely continue exercising. If you were inactive or you have medical complications, talk with your doctor before beginning to exercise.

    • Flat or Inverted Nipples

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and flat or inverted nipples

    • Getting Started

      The first weeks of breastfeeding should be considered a learning period for both you and your baby. Don't expect to work as a coordinated team immediately.

    • Glossary - Pregnancy and Childbirth

      Glossary of terms relating to pregnancy and childbirth

    • Home Page - Pregnancy and Childbirth

      Detailed information on pregnancy and childbirth, including information on birth statistics, pregnancy planning, preconception care, prenatal care, pregnancy discomforts, pregnancy tests, pregnancy risks, pregnancy warning signs, labor and delivery, breas

    • Hormones During Pregnancy

      Many hormone levels are affected in the body during pregnancy, with several hormones playing major roles.

    • How Milk Is Made

      Detailed information on how breast milk is made for breastfeeding

    • Illegal Drug Use and Pregnancy

      Almost every drug passes from the mother's bloodstream through the placenta to the fetus. Illicit substances that cause drug dependence and addiction in the mother also cause the fetus to become addicted.

    • Ineffective Latch-on or Sucking

      Detailed information on ineffective latch-on or sucking during breastfeeding

    • Insufficient or Delayed Milk Production

      Detailed information on insufficient or delayed milk production

    • Labor

      Labor usually starts two weeks before or after the estimated date of delivery. No one knows exactly what triggers the onset of labor.

    • Labor and Delivery

      Detailed information on labor and delivery

    • Low Milk Production

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and low breast milk production

    • Mastitis

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and mastitis

    • Medical Conditions and Pregnancy

      With proper medical care, most women can enjoy a healthy pregnancy, despite medical challenges such as diabetes or high blood pressure.

    • Medications and Pregnancy

      All medications you take affect the fetus, depending on the stage of development, the type and dosage of the medication being taken, and your drug tolerance.

    • Mismanaged Breastfeeding

      Detailed information on mismanaged breastfeeding, including information on breastfeeding positions

    • Multiple Pregnancy

      Detailed information on multiple pregnancies, including care of multiple birth babies

    • Newborn Multiples

      Because many multiples are small and born early, they may be initially cared for in a special care nursery called the neonatal intensive care unit.

    • Nutrition During Pregnancy

      Not only is eating nutritious food good for you and your baby, it also can ease some of the discomforts of pregnancy. A balanced diet can help minimize symptoms such as nausea and constipation.

    • Online Resources - Pregnancy and Childbirth

      List of online resources to find additional information on pregnancy and childbirth

    • Over-Active Let-Down

      Many nursing mothers worry if their babies aren’t getting enough milk—but what if the opposite were true? Here’s what you can do to make sure your aren’t overwhelming your baby during feeding time.

    • Overview of Multiple Pregnancy

      Multiple pregnancy is a pregnancy with two or more fetuses. In the United States, the multiple birth rate is rising.

    • Planning a Pregnancy

      Planning ahead and taking care of yourself before becoming pregnant is the best thing you can do for you and your baby.

    • Plugged Milk Ducts

      For mothers who breastfeed, some may be more susceptible to plugged ducts than others. Get some quick tips on how to avoid and manage this concern, so you can keep you and your baby happy and healthy!

    • Postpartum Care

      Detailed information on caring for the mother physically and emotionally following childbirth, including information on postpartum depression

    • Pregnancy

      Detailed information on pregnancy and childbirth, including information on birth statistics, pregnancy planning, preconception care, prenatal care, pregnancy discomforts, pregnancy tests, pregnancy risks, pregnancy warning signs, labor and delivery, breas

    • Pregnancy Overview
    • Prenatal Medical Care

      It may seem like you are having a lot of appointments, but regular visits to your doctor are an important part of a healthy pregnancy. You and your growing baby will be carefully monitored, with tests done to assess any potential risks and develop a treatment plan, if needed.

    • Risks to Pregnancy

      Detailed information on the most common risks to pregnancy, including information on alcohol and pregnancy, smoking and pregnancy, drugs and pregnancy, medications during pregnancy, and pre-existing conditions and pregnancy

    • Sex During Pregnancy

      In most cases, sex during pregnancy is safe. In fact, with your doctor's approval, sexual relations can continue until delivery.

    • Signs of Pregnancy / The Pregnancy Test

      The signs of pregnancy vary from woman to woman, but the most obvious sign usually is a missed period.

    • Sleeping During Pregnancy

      The best sleeping position for you is on your side, especially the left side, because it allows for maximum blood flow to the fetus and improves your kidney function.

    • Slow or Poor Infant Weight Gain

      Are you concerned that your little one has slow or poor weight gain? Unsure? This article will help you sort out your questions and concerns.

    • Smoking and Pregnancy

      Don't smoke during your pregnancy and limit how much time you spend in environments where there is secondhand smoke.

    • Sore Nipples

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and sore nipples

    • Symptoms and Diagnosis of Multiple Pregnancy

      Every pregnant woman feels like she’s getting big, but if you’re pregnant with two or more babies, you’ll really be growing fast. Be prepared by learning the signs of a multiple birth.

    • The First Trimester

      A healthy first trimester is crucial to the normal development of your baby. You may not be showing much on the outside, but inside, all the major body organs and systems of the fetus are forming.

    • The Pregnant Mother

      Detailed information for the pregnant mother, including information on hormones during pregnancy, weight gain during pregnancy, nutrition during pregnancy, exercise during pregnancy, work and pregnancy, sex during pregnancy, and sleeping positions during

    • The Second Trimester

      During this trimester, the weight of your growing baby will multiply more than seven times—and you will start showing more.

    • The Third Trimester

      The third trimester marks the home stretch for your pregnancy. You may feel more uncomfortable now as you continue to gain weight. You also may have false labor contractions (called Braxton-Hicks contractions).

    • Topic Index - Pregnancy and Childbirth

      Detailed information on pregnancy and childbirth, including information on birth statistics, pregnancy planning, preconception care, prenatal care, pregnancy discomforts, pregnancy tests, pregnancy risks, pregnancy warning signs, labor and delivery, breas

    • Warning Signs During Pregnancy

      Call your health care provider immediately if you have bleeding from the vagina, blurry vision, severe headaches, or other specific symptoms.

    • Weight Gain During Pregnancy

      Average weight gain for women is between 25 and 35 pounds, although slight deviations from this may also be considered normal.

    • Work and Pregnancy

      Most women are able to work safely, in some cases, until the day of delivery, depending on the type of work performed and their condition.