- Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Detailed information on abdominal aortic aneurysms, including description of abdominal aortic aneurysm, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical and procedure illustrations
- About Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases
Arthritis, itself a group of more than 100 different diseases, is one category of rheumatic diseases.
- About Breast Cancer in Men
Breast cancer in men is rare—less than 1% of all breast cancer occurs in men.
- About Clinical Trials: Information from the National Cancer Institute
Clinical trials are studies, managed by government agencies, educational institutions, private not-for-profit organizations, or commercial businesses. They develop and evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments and therapies for diseases.
- About Tamoxifen
Tamoxifen has been used to treat both advanced and early stage breast cancer. More recently, tamoxifen is being used as an additional therapy following primary treatment for early stage breast cancer.
- About Taxol
Taxol, or paclitaxel, is a drug used for treating certain women who have advanced breast or ovarian cancer. Paclitaxel is a compound that is extracted from the bark of the Pacific yew tree.
- Accomplishments of Environmental Medicine
One highlight: Exposure to fine particles, sulfur dioxide, and acid aerosols has been linked to an increase in respiratory symptoms and reduced lung capacity.
Achalasia is a disease that makes it hard to eat and drink normally. It affects your esophagus, which is the swallowing tube that connects the back of your throat to your stomach.
- Achilles Tendon Injuries
Achilles tendon injuries affect the Achilles tendon, a fibrous band of tissue that links the muscles in your calf to your heel. The strength and flexibility of this tendon are important for jumping, running, and walking.
Acne affects teens and adults of all ages. It happens when oil secreted by sebaceous glands clogs the hair follicle. Bacteria infect the clogged follicle and cause pimples.
- Acne Scar Removal
Detailed information on different methods for acne scar removal. These include dermabrasion, chemical peels, collagen injections, laser resurfacing, punch grafts, and autologous fat transfer.
- Acoustic Neuroma
Acoustic neuroma is a rare noncancerous tumor. It grows slowly from an overproduction of Schwann cells and is also called a vestibular schwannoma. The tumor then presses on the hearing and balance nerves in the inner ear. Schwann cells normally wrap around and support nerve fibers. A large tumor can press on the facial nerve or brain structures.
When your pituitary gland makes too much growth hormone, abnormal growth occurs. This is called acromegaly. The abnormal growth starts in your hands and feet, as soft tissue begins to swell. This rare disease affects mostly middle-aged adults. It can lead to severe illness and even death if not treated.
- Actinic Keratosis
Detailed information on actinic keratosis, including causes and treatment.
Acupuncture is the practice of puncturing the skin with needles at certain anatomical points in the body to relieve specific symptoms associated with many diseases.
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): Symptoms
Detailed information on acute myelogenous leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis
Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) is an infection of both your nasal cavity and sinuses. It is caused by bacteria.
- Acute Bronchitis
Bronchitis is inflammation of the breathing tubes. These airways are called bronchi. This inflammation causes increased mucus production and other changes. Although there are several different types of bronchitis, the most common are acute and chronic. Bronchitis may also be called a chest cold.
- Acute Liver Failure
Acute liver failure is when your liver suddenly begins to lose its ability to function. This often happens right after an overdose of medication or poisoning.
- Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL): Symptoms
Detailed information on acute lymphocytic leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Acute Spinal Cord Injury
Car accidents, falls, and other injuries are a common cause of acute spinal cord injury.
- Adjustment Disorders
Adjustment disorders are quite common in children and teens. They are characterized by an excessive reaction to stress.
- Adrenal Glands
Detailed information on the adrenal gland, its anatomy and function
- Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison's Disease)
Adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands don’t make enough of the hormone cortisol. You have two adrenal glands. They are located just above the kidneys. They work with the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain. Cortisol helps break down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in your body. It also controls blood pressure and affects how your immune system works.
- Advances in Therapeutic Radiology
One newer therapy combines radiation and chemotherapy, because in some cases, radiation may improve the effects of chemotherapy, and vice versa. Another therapy uses external beam radiation during surgery to treat cancerous tumors or certain other forms of cancer.
- African Sleeping Sickness
African sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis) is a disease caused by a parasite. It is passed on by the bite of the infected tsetse fly.
- After Surgery: Discomforts and Complications
Detailed information on postoperative discomforts and potential complications, including shock, hemorrhage, wound infection, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary complications, urinary retention, and reaction to anesthesia
- After You Return
Detailed information on health considerations after returning home from traveling abroad
- Age-Appropriate Speech and Hearing Milestones
A hearing problem may be suspected in a child who is not responding to sounds or who is not developing language skills appropriately.
- Age-Related Hearing Loss (Presbycusis)
Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is the gradual loss of hearing in both ears. It’s a common problem linked to aging.
- Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease that affects a person’s central vision. AMD is the most common cause of severe loss of eyesight among people ages 60 and older. Only the center of vision is affected with this disease.
- Air Pollution
Detailed information on air pollution and air pollution prevention
- Air Travel
Detailed information on healthy considerations for air travel, including ways to prevent motion sickness and jet lag
- Airway Obstruction
Detailed information on airway obstruction and children, including choking, suffocation, and strangulation
- Alcohol and Pregnancy
Alcohol consumption by the mother is a leading cause of preventable birth defects in the fetus. In addition, the risk for miscarriage and stillbirth increases with alcohol consumption.
- Alcohol Use and People with Diabetes
Alcohol can lower blood sugar levels to the point of hypoglycemia. Keep careful track of your blood sugar levels when drinking alcohol, because certain diabetes medicines also lower blood glucose levels.
- Alcoholic Hepatitis
Alcoholic hepatitis is liver inflammation and damage cause by drinking too much alcohol over time.
- Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease
Alcohol-induced liver disease is caused by heavy use of alcohol. The liver’s job is to break down alcohol. If you drink more than it can process, it can become badly damaged.
- All About Allergy
Detailed information on allergy, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- All About Asthma
Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory lung disease with recurrent breathing problems.
- Allergen: Insect Stings
Detailed information on allergic reactions to insect bites and stings
- Allergens: Animals
Household pets, like cats and dogs, are the most common sources of animal allergens.
- Allergens: Chemical Sensitivity
Detailed information on synthetic and natural substances that cause sensitivity to the skin
- Allergens: Dust and Dust Mites
Dust mites are microscopic organisms that can live and thrive throughout homes and businesses.
- Allergens: Mold
Mold spores or fragments may be inhaled through the nose and into the lungs, where they cause allergic reactions or asthma.
- Allergens: Poison Ivy/Poison Oak/Poison Sumac
Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are native American plants. These plants cause an allergic reaction in most people who are exposed to them.
- Allergens: Pollen
Pollen is the most common cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis, sometimes known as "hay fever."
- Allergens: Triggers of Allergy Attacks
Detailed information on allergy triggers and symptom control
- Allergic Rhinitis in Children
Rhinitis is a reaction that happens in the eyes, nose, and throat when allergens in the air trigger the release of histamine in the body. Histamine causes itching, swelling, and fluid to build up in the fragile linings of nasal passages, sinuses, and eyelids.
Detailed information on allergies in children, including information on allergic rhinitis and food allergies
- Allergies and the Immune System
Most allergic reactions are a result of an immune system that responds to a "false alarm."
- Allergy and Asthma Statistics
More than 22 million Americans have been diagnosed with asthma. Find out other facts and figures on this chronic disease.
- Alpha Thalassemia
Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. It is passed down from one or both parents through their genes. There are two main types of thalassemia: alpha and beta. Different genes are affected for each type. Thalassemia can cause mild or severe anemia.
- Alzheimer Disease
Alzheimer disease is a disease that affects the brain and nervous system. It is a type of dementia that happens when nerve cells in the brain die.
Amenorrhea means you haven't had your period for more than 3 cycles. It can be caused by a variety of things including overexercising, being overweight, or due to an ovulation problem.
Detailed information on amputation, including causes and types of rehabilitation programs for amputations
- Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain. It is often referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease.
- Anal Fissures
An anal fissure is a small, painful tear in the lining of the anus. Anal fissures may hurt and bleed during or after a bowel movement, but about 90% heal without surgery.
- Anal Fistula
An anal fistula is an abnormal opening in the skin near the anus that leads to the inside of the anal canal in the colon.
- Analgesic Nephropathy
Taking one or a mix of painkiller medicines daily over a long time may cause chronic kidney problems. This is called analgesic nephropathy. Painkillers that combine 2 or more medicines (such as, aspirin and acetaminophen together) with caffeine or codeine are the most likely to harm the kidneys.
Anaplasmosis is an illness caused by bacteria that’s spread by ticks. The bacteria are called Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The illness causes fever, muscle aches, and other symptoms.
- Anatomical Pathology
Detailed information on several of the different divisions of anatomical pathology, including biopsy, surgical pathology, cytology, and autopsy
- Anatomy and Development of the Mouth and Teeth
Children's teeth begin developing in the fetus. Good nutrition from the mother during pregnancy is important in the development of the teeth.
- Anatomy and Function of the Coronary Arteries
Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. There are two main coronary arteries: the right and the left.
- Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves
Detailed anatomical description of the heart valves, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration
- Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves
Heart valves prevent the backward flow of blood. They act as one-way inlets of blood on one side of a ventricle and one-way outlets of blood on the other side of a ventricle.
- Anatomy and Function of the Heart's Electrical System
The heart is a pump made of muscle tissue. Its pumping action is regulated by electrical impulses.
- Anatomy of a Joint
Joints are the areas where two or more bones meet. Most joints are mobile, allowing the bones to move.
- Anatomy of Female Pelvic Area
The female pelvic area contains a number of organs and structures: the endometrium, uterus, ovaries, cervix, vagina, and vulva.
- Anatomy of the Bone
A typical bone in your body contains 3 types of tissue—a hard outer tissue, a sponge-like inner tissue, and smooth tissue at the ends.
- Anatomy of the Brain
The brain is an important organ that controls thought, memory, emotion, touch, motor skills, vision, respiration, and every process that regulates your body.
- Anatomy of the Breasts
Each breast has 15 to 20 sections (lobes), which are arranged like the petals of a daisy. Each lobe has many smaller lobules, which end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk.
- Anatomy of the Endocrine System
The endocrine system includes not only the pancreas—the organ involved in the development of diabetes—but also the pituitary, thyroid, and other glands.
- Anatomy of the Eye
The structures of the eye include the cornea, iris, pupil, macula, retina, and the optic nerve.
- Anatomy of the Hand
Each of your hands has three types of bones: phalanges in your fingers; metacarpals in your mid-hand, and carpals in your wrist.
- Anatomy of the Prostate Gland
The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the neck of a man’s bladder and urethra—the tube that carries urine from the bladder.
- Anatomy of the Respiratory System
The respiratory system includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs.
- Anatomy of the Skin
The skin is the body's largest organ. It serves as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection.
- Anatomy of the Urinary System
Detailed anatomical description of the urinary system, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations
- Anatomy: Fetus in Utero
Definitions of terms related to the anatomy of a fetus in utero.
- Anemia Overview
Anemia is a common blood disorder. It occurs when you have fewer red blood cells than normal, or not enough hemoglobin in your blood. When you have anemia, your blood can’t carry enough oxygen to your body. Without enough oxygen, your body can’t work as well as it should.
Detailed information on the different types of anemia, including aplastic anemia, anemia of folate deficiency, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, hemolytic anemia, iron deficiency anemia, megaloblastic anemia, and sickle cell disease
An aneurysm is a bulging, weak area in the wall of a blood vessel. An aneurysm may occur in any blood vessel, but most often develops in an artery rather than a vein.
- Angina Pectoris
Angina pectoris—or simply angina—is chest pain or discomfort that keeps coming back. It happens when some part of your heart does not get enough blood and oxygen.
- Angiogenesis Inhibitors
Sometimes called antiangiogenic therapy, this treatment may prevent the growth of cancer by blocking the formation of new blood vessels.
- Animal Bites and Rabies
Detailed information on animal bites and rabies, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
Aniridia is a serious and rare eye disorder in which the iris is partly or completely gone.
- Ankle Dislocation
A joint dislocation is when there is an abnormal separation between the bones of a joint. When this happens in your ankle joint, it’s known as an ankle dislocation. It is a severe injury.
- Ankyloglossia in Children
Ankyloglossia, or “tongue-tie,” is a type of anatomical problem of the tongue that is present from birth. It causes speech and eating difficulties in some children.
- Ankylosing Spondylitis
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis that affects the spine. Ankylosing means stiff or rigid, spondyl means spine, and itis refers to inflammation. The disease causes inflammation of the spine and large joints, resulting in stiffness and pain.
- Anorectal Abscess
An anorectal abscess is a collection of pus under the skin in the area of the anus and rectum.
- Anorexia Nervosa
Anorexia nervosa (or simply anorexia) is an eating disorder that causes people to obsess about their weight and food. People who suffer with this behavior problem have a distorted body image and see themselves as overweight even when their weight is dangerously low.
- Antibiotic Resistance
Antibiotics are medicines used to kill bacteria. Over time, certain groups of these germs may adapt to these medicines. They may change in such a way that antibiotics can′t kill them. The term for this is antibiotic resistance.
Detailed information on the use of antibiotics and children
- Anxiety Disorders
Detailed information on the most common types of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias
- Aortic Valve Regurgitation
Aortic valve regurgitation is when a person’s aortic valve leaks. The aortic valve is one of the heart’s 4 valves. These valves help the blood flow through the heart and out to the body. Normally, the aortic valve stops blood from flowing back into the left ventricle. With aortic valve regurgitation, some blood leaks back through the valve as the heart relaxes.
Aphasia is a language disorder caused by damage in a specific area of the brain that controls language expression and comprehension. Aphasia leaves a person unable to communicate effectively with others.
- Aplastic Anemia
Aplastic anemia occurs when your bone marrow doesn’t make enough red and white blood cells, and platelets.
Appendicitis is a medical emergency that happens when your appendix becomes sore, swollen, and diseased.
An arrhythmia is an abnormal heart rhythm that can cause problems with the contractions of your heart chambers.
- Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (or ARVD) is a disease of the heart muscle. In this disease, fatty fibrous tissue replaces normal heart muscle. This interrupts normal electrical signals in the heart and may cause irregular and potentially life-threatening heart rhythms. The heart also becomes weaker over time leading to heart failure.
- Art, Dance, and Music
Detailed information on art therapy, dance therapy, and music therapy as a form of alternative therapy
Detailed information on arteriogram, also called angiogram, including information on how the procedure is performed
Arthritis and other rheumatic diseases are common conditions that cause pain, swelling, and limited movement. They affect joints and connective tissues around the body. Millions of people in the U.S. have some form of arthritis.
- Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases Statistics
Rheumatic diseases are the leading cause of disability among people ages 65 and older.
- Arthritis Diagnosis
Diagnosing arthritis and other rheumatic diseases is often difficult, as many symptoms are similar among the different diseases.
Orthopedic surgeons use arthroscopy to diagnose and treat joint problems. An arthroscope is a small, tube shaped instrument that is used to look inside a joint.
- Aspiration from Dysphagia
Aspiration is when something enters the airway or lungs by accident. It may be food, liquid, or some other material. This can cause serious health problems, such as pneumonia. Aspiration can happen when a person has trouble swallowing normally. This is known as dysphagia.
- Aspiration in Babies and Children
Aspiration is when something enters the airway or lungs by accident. It may be food, liquid, or some other material. This can cause serious health problems, such as pneumonia.
- Assistive Equipment for the Home
Assistive equipment is any kind of tool or device that can help simplify caregiving or make the environment safer for an ill, disabled, or elderly person.
Asthma is a long-term disease of the airways of the lung. The airways become sensitive to triggers (allergens and irritants).
Detailed information on asthma, including triggers of an asthma attack, symptoms, diagnosis, management, and treatment
- Asthma and Exercise
Exercise-induced asthma is different from the typical asthma that is triggered by allergens and/or irritants.
- Asthma and Pregnancy
With proper asthma management and good prenatal care, most women with asthma can have healthy pregnancies.
- Asthma Triggers
Detailed information on asthma triggers
Ataxia means without coordination. People with ataxia lose muscle control in their arms and legs, which may lead to a lack of balance, coordination, and trouble walking. Ataxia may affect the fingers, hands, arms, legs, body, speech, and even eye movements.
- Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T)
A-T is a rare childhood disease that affects the nervous system and other body systems.
Atherosclerosis is a type of thickening or hardening of the arteries caused by a buildup of plaque in the inner lining of an artery. It can increase your risk of heart attack, stroke, and other circulatory conditions.
- Atopic Dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis, also called eczema, is a chronic skin disorder. It commonly affects infants and may last until adulthood. It causes itchy, scaly patches on the skin.
- Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation, or AFib, is a kind of abnormal heart rhythm or arrhythmia. AFib increases the risk for blood clots. These clots can then travel to the brain, causing a stroke. This is why AFib significantly increases the risk for stroke.
- Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke Prevention
Atrial fibrillation increases the risk for stroke. So stroke prevention is an important part of treatment for atrial fibrillation.
- Atrial Flutter
Atrial flutter is an abnormal heart rhythm that causes the atria to beat more quickly than they should.
- Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children
ADHD is a behavior disorder marked by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity.
Audiologists measure and evaluate a person's ability to hear sounds. They specialize in the treatment of people with hearing disorders.
Audiologists address hearing and balance problems in people of all ages. They also help with the fitting and management of hearing aids.
- Autoimmune Hepatitis
Autoimmune hepatitis is when your body’s infection-fighting system (immune system) attacks your liver cells. This causes redness and swelling (inflammation) and liver damage.
- Automated External Defibrillator
An AED is a small, portable, battery-powered machine with a computer in it. The machine detects heart activity. It can give an electric shock to someone if needed.
Detailed information on autopsy, including who performs the procedure and how an autopsy is performed
- Avascular Necrosis
Avascular necrosis develops when blood supply to a bone is cut off. This causes the bone to die and can cause pain and joint problems.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine based on the idea that disease is caused by an imbalance or stress in a person's consciousness.
- Back and Neck Pain
Back and neck pain can interfere with your ability to function. Overuse, overweight, and other problems can cause back and neck pain.
- Bacterial Endocarditis: Adult
Bacterial endocarditis is a bacterial infection of the inner layer of the heart or the heart valves. The heart has 4 valves. These valves help the blood flow through the heart and out to the body. When a person has bacterial endocarditis, these valves may not be able to work properly. This can force the heart to work harder to get blood out to the body. Sometimes the heart can’t keep up with this increased demand, and it does not pump out enough blood.
- Bacterial Skin Infections
Detailed information on the most common bacterial skin infections, including cellulitis, folliculitis, boils, carbuncles, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
- Baker’s Cyst
A Baker’s cyst (popliteal cyst) is a fluid-filled sac that forms behind the knee.
- Balance Disorders
Detailed information on balance disorders, including acoustic neurinoma and Ménière's disease
Baldness, or hair loss, can be caused by many things including aging, hormones or illness. It's more common in men and can be treated with hair transplants or other procedures.
- Barium X-Rays (Upper and Lower GI)
Detailed information on barium x-rays, also called upper and lower GI series, including information on how the procedure is performed
- Barrett's Esophagus
Barrett's esophagus is when the normal cells that line your food pipe (esophagus) turn into cells not usually found in your body. The new cells take over because the lining of the esophagus has been damaged. The new, abnormal cells are called specialized columnar cells.
- Basal Cell Carcinoma
Detailed information on basal cell carcinoma, including risk factors and how the disease develops
- Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome)
The risk for ovarian cancer and skin cancer is increased with basal cell nevus syndrome, a rare genetic disorder.
- Basic Anatomy of the Heart
Located almost in the center of the chest, the adult human heart is about the size of two fists held side-by-side.
Bedsores can develop in a person who is bedridden or immobile. Pressure causes skin damage and breakdown. It can take days, weeks, or months to heal. It is important to prevent bedsores.
- Bedwetting (Enuresis)
Detailed information on bedwetting (enuresis) in children, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment of urinary incontinence
- Behavior Disorders
Detailed information on behavior problems in adolescents, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder
- Behcet Disease
Behcet disease is a type of autoimmune disease. It causes inflammation of blood vessels. It’s a rare disease in the United States, but it is more common in the Middle East and Asia. It’s more common in people in their 20’s or 30’s, but it can happen at any age.
- Being a Caregiver
"Formal" caregivers are paid for their services and have had training and education in providing care. "Informal" caregivers, also called family caregivers, are people who provide care to family or friends, usually without payment.
- Bell's Palsy
Bell's palsy is an unexplained episode of facial muscle weakness or paralysis that begins suddenly and worsens over 48 hours. It is caused by a damaged facial nerve.
- Benign Bone Tumors
Detailed information on the most common benign bone tumors, including chondroblastoma, enchondroma, giant cell tumor, and osteochondroma
- Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a disease of the vestibular system of your inner ear. When you change your head position, it causes vertigo. Vertigo is a feeling that the room is spinning around you.
- Benign Prostate Problems
The prostate gland can develop several conditions that are not cancerous. Pain, inflammation, and impotency are common problems.
- Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is also called benign prostatic hypertrophy. It’s when the prostate gland becomes very large and may cause problems passing urine. BPH is not cancer, and is a common part of aging.
- Beta Thalassemia
Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder that is passed down through the parent’s genes. It affects how hemoglobin is made. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells. It carries oxygen to all the parts of the body. There are two main types of thalassemia: alpha and beta. Thalassemia can cause mild or severe anemia.
- Bicuspid Aortic Valve
Bicuspid aortic valve is a type of abnormality in the aortic valve in the heart. In bicuspid aortic valve, the valve has only two small parts, called leaflets, instead of the normal three. This condition is present from birth. It often occurs with other heart defects.
- Biliary Cirrhosis / Bile Duct Cancer
Detailed information on biliary cirrhosis and bile duct cancer, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Biliary System: Anatomy and Functions
Detailed anatomical description of the biliary system, including a full-color labeled illustration
- Binge Eating Disorder
Binge eating disorder is an illness that resembles bulimia nervosa and is characterized by episodes of uncontrolled eating or bingeing. It differs from bulimia because its sufferers do not purge their bodies of the excess food.
Detailed information on biofeedback as a form of alternative therapy
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy, such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
- Biopsy Report
Detailed information on biopsy and the biopsy report
- Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder. People with bipolar disorder switch between periods of mania and periods of depression. There is no cure, but medicine and therapy can help manage symptoms.
Detailed information on birthmarks and the different types, including vascular birthmarks, hemangiomas, and port-wine stains.
- Bites and Stings
Detailed information on insect bites, including bee stings, flea bites, mite bites, chigger bites, spider bites, tick bites, and lyme disease
- Bladder Cancer: Tests After Diagnosis
Detailed information on bladder cancer, including symptoms, types, causes, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment
- Bleeding / Clotting Disorders
Detailed information on bleeding/clotting disorders, including hemophilia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and thrombosis
Blisters are bubbles on the skin that are filled with bloody or clear fluid. Blisters are common injuries and often heal on their own.
- Blocked Intestine
An intestinal blockage interrupts the normal digestive process. Many possible causes can lead to intestinal blockage including scarring, a hernia, or tumors.
- Blood Disorders
Detailed information on the most common blood disorders, including hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, thrombocythemia, leukemia, and lymphoma
- Blood Donations/Blood Banking
Detailed information on blood donations and blood banking
- Blood in the Urine
Blood in the urine means there are red blood cells (RBCs) in the urine. Often, the urine looks normal to the naked eye. But when checked under a microscope, it contains a high number of red blood cells. In some cases, the urine is pink, red, or the color of tea, which you can see without a microscope.
- Blood Transfusions
A blood transfusion is a procedure in which you receive blood or parts of blood through an IV (intravenous) line.
- Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a mental health problem. If you have BDD, you may be so upset about the appearance of your body that it gets in the way of your ability to live normally. Many of us have what we think are flaws in our appearance. But if you have BDD, your reaction to this “flaw” may become overwhelming.
- Body Movement
Tai chi and yoga are two forms of non-aerobic movement and controlled breathing that can be practiced to reduce stress and anxiety.
- Bone Bruise
A bone bruise is a traumatic injury to a bone that is less severe than a bone fracture.
- Bone Cancers
Detailed information on bone cancers, including chondrosarcoma, ewings sarcoma, myeloma bone disease, multiple myeloma, and osteosarcoma
- Bone Density Test
A bone density test measures the strength and density of your bones as you approach menopause and, when the test is repeated sometime later, can help determine how quickly you are losing bone mass and density.
- Bone Disorders
Detailed information on bone disorders, including avascular necrosis, fibrous dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta, osteomyelitis, Paget's disease of the bone, and primary hyperparathyroidism
- Bone Marrow Transplantation
Detailed information on bone marrow transplant, including preparation, types of transplant, transplant team, and possible procedure-related complications or side effects
- Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a kind of mental health problem. It may also be called emotionally unstable personality disorder. People with BPD have unstable moods and can act recklessly. They also have a hard time managing their emotions. If you have BPD, you may have problems with daily tasks, obligations, and life events. You may have trouble keeping jobs and relationships. And you may use food, alcohol, or other substances to cope.
Detailed information on bottle-feeding, including information on the different types of baby formulas.
- Boxer’s Fracture
A boxer’s fracture is a break in the neck of the fifth metacarpal bone in the hand. It gets its name because the injury is common in inexperienced boxers.
Brachytherapy is radiation treatment that is given inside the patient, as close to the cancer as possible. The radiation is delivered to the body site with radioactive isotopes inside wires, seeds, or rods. These devices are called implants.
- Brain Cyst
A brain cyst is a type of abnormal fluid-filled sac in the brain. They are usually noncancerous.
- Brain Tumors: Treatment Questions
A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The tumor can either originate in the brain itself or come from another part of the body and travel to the brain.
- Breast Augmentation
Breast augmentation is a procedure to reshape the breast to make it larger. The procedure can also be done to reconstruct the breast after breast surgery.
- Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT)
BCPT was a clinical trial that studied tamoxifen as a prevention therapy for those at high risk for breast cancer. Data showed the results of tamoxifen treatment to be "highly significant," with a 49 percent reduction in the number of invasive breast cancers seen across all age groups.
- Breast Cancer Statistics
Breast cancer ranks second among cancer deaths in women after lung cancer.
- Breast Cancer: Breast Reconstruction After Breast Surgery
Breast reconstruction surgery involves creating a breast mound that comes as close as possible to the form and appearance of the natural breast.
- Breast Cancer: Diagnosis
It is important to remember that a lump or other changes in the breast, or an abnormal area on a mammogram, may be caused by cancer or by other, less serious problems.
- Breast Cancer: Lymphedema After Treatment
Whenever the normal drainage pattern in the lymph nodes is disturbed or damaged—often during surgery to remove the lymph nodes—the arm may swell. This swelling, caused by too much fluid, is called lymphedema.
- Breast Cancer: Surgery
Surgery to remove as much of the cancer as possible is the primary treatment for breast cancer. Today, women have many surgical options and choices.
- Breast Health
Detailed information on breast health, including anatomy of the breast, normal breast development, breast cancer prevention, breast self-examination, mammography, breast conditions, mastalgia (breast pain), breast lump, fibrocystic breast changes, nipple
- Breast Health: Preventive Care
To monitor your breast health, you should get a year clinical exam and mammograms as directed by your doctor.
- Breast Infections and Inflammations
The most common type of breast infection is lactational mastitis. This happens when a woman is breastfeeding. The nipples become cracked and sore, allowing bacteria from the baby's mouth to enter the ducts and rapidly multiply in the milk.
- Breast Self-Awareness
Your breasts change at different stages of your life. Breast self-awareness is knowing how your breasts normally look and feel. This can help you to find even small changes right away.
Detailed information on getting stared with breastfeeding and the first weeks of breastfeeding
- Breastfeeding and Delayed Milk Production
Detailed information on insufficient or delayed milk production
- Breastfeeding Chart
- Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby
Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the baby, including ineffective latch-on, ineffective sucking, slow infant weight gain, poor infant weight gain, mismanaged breastfeeding, over-active breast milk let down
- Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother
Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the mother, including sore nipples, low breast milk production, flat nipples, plugged milk ducts, and mastitis
- Breastfeeding Your Baby
- Breastfeeding: Getting Started
The first weeks of breastfeeding should be considered a learning period for both you and your baby. Here's what you need to know.
- Breastmilk Is Best
Your milk contains just the right balance of nutrients in a form most easily used by your baby's immature body systems.
Detailed information on healthcare for dental bridges
Bronchiectasis is a condition that affects the airways to the lungs. It’s usually caused by an infection or other inflammatory condition. You can also be born with it. Bronchiectasis injures the walls of the airways. Over time, they become scarred and flabby and can’t clear out mucus. This can lead to serious lung infections and other major health problems.
- Brown Syndrome
Brown syndrome is a mechanical problem with the superior oblique muscle tendon attached to the outside of your eyeball. In Brown syndrome, this tendon cannot move freely. This limits your eye’s normal movements.
- Brugada Syndrome
Brugada syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes an irregular heartbeat. This rare, but life threatening condition is more common in people of Asian descent.
- Brushing and Toothpaste
Detailed information on brushing and toothpaste
Detailed information on bruxism, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment
- Buerger Disease
Buerger disease is one of many types of vasculitis. This is inflammation of small and medium size blood vessels. Buerger disease causes a tightening, or a blockage, of the blood vessels in your feet and hands. When blood doesn’t flow well to your hands and feet, especially during activity, you may have pain and tissue damage.
- Bulimia Nervosa in Adolescents
Bulimia nervosa is defined as uncontrolled episodes of overeating (bingeing) usually followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, enemas, or medications in an attempt to control weight.
- Burns in Children
Detailed information on burns, burn types, classification of burns, and burn treatment
Bursitis is inflammation of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) that cushions and reduces friction between tissues of the body. The major bursae (plural of bursa) are found near the tendons and large joints, such as the shoulders, elbows, hips, and knees.
- Calculating a Due Date
First, determine the first day of your last menstrual period. Next, count back 3 calendar months and add 1 year and 7 days to that date.
- Calculating Calories and Fat Grams
Here's a formula to help you figure out how many calories and fat grams you need each day to maintain your current weight.
- Calluses and Corns
Detailed information on calluses and corns
- Cancer and Tobacco
All tobacco products, from cigarettes to snuff, contain toxins, carcinogens, and nicotine, an addictive substance.
- Cancer Overview
Cancer cells don't function properly, and they can spread to many areas of the body. Tumors are clusters of cells that are capable of growing and dividing uncontrollably; their growth is not regulated.
- Cancer Rehabilitation
Detailed information on cancer rehabilitation, including members of the rehabilitation team
- Cancer Treatment Team
Your cancer treatment may involve several types of health care professionals who, with you, form the "cancer care team."
- Cancer Treatment: Overview
Detailed information on the most common types of cancer treatment, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, biological therapy, and cancer clinical trials
- Candida Infection: Thrush
Thrush is a type of fungal infection. It occurs in your mouth and throat. Thrush does not usually affect healthy adults. It is more common in people with impaired immune systems. It is also more likely in those who take certain kinds of medicines.
- Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a condition that leads to repeated and severe bouts of vomiting. It results from long-term use of marijuana (cannabis).
- Car Safety
Detailed information on car safety
- Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a type of bacteria. They can cause infections. These infections can be hard to treat.
- Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Carbon monoxide poisoning is a life-threatening emergency that occurs when carbon monoxide (CO) fumes are inhaled.
- Cardiac Arrest
Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart suddenly stops functioning. With no heartbeat, the brain and other vital organs are deprived of blood, leading to death within minutes.
- Cardiac Arrest and Heart Disease
Victims of cardiac arrest typically have undiagnosed coronary artery disease (CAD)—the most common cause of the dangerous heart rhythm problems that can lead to this condition.
- Cardiac Catheterization
In cardiac catheterization (often called cardiac cath), a very small hollow tube, or catheter, is advanced from a blood vessel in the groin or arm through the aorta into the heart. Once it is in place, several diagnostic and treatment procedures can be done using catheterization.
- Cardiac Conditions and Diseases
Detailed information on the most common cardiovascular diseases, including full-page descriptions detailing the most common types of heart disease, related symptoms, diagnostic, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, ICDs, and treatment information
- Cardiac Diagnostic Tests
Here's a look at just a few of the tests that have been used or are being used to understand and identify cardiovascular disease.
- Cardiac Procedures
These procedures are often used in the evaluation and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
- Cardiac Rehabilitation
Cardiac rehabilitation programs can be conducted while a person is a hospital inpatient or on an outpatient basis.
- Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) uses pulses of electricity to help the ventricles, or the two lower chambers of the heart, beat as they should.
- Cardiac Sarcoma
Cardiac sarcoma is a rare type of cancerous tumor that occurs in the heart.
- Cardiac Tamponade
Cardiac tamponade happens when extra fluid builds up in the space around the heart. This fluid puts pressure on the heart and prevents it from pumping well.
Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.
- Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
Detailed information on cpr, including how to become properly trained in cpr
- Cardiovascular Disease Screening and Management
Diabetes affects the cardiovascular system, but many problems aren't apparent until a person has a heart attack or stroke.
- Cardiovascular Disease Statistics
Heart disease is one of the most serious health problems in the United States. Find out more facts and figures on this topic.
- Care and Management of Multiple Pregnancy
A woman with a multiple pregnancy needs more calories and nutrients, more frequent prenatal visits, and more rest.
- Care of Children's Mouth and Teeth
Most children should begin regular dental care by the time they turn 1 year old.
- Care of the Baby in the Delivery Room
A newborn baby is wet from the amniotic fluid and can easily become cold. Drying the baby and using warm blankets and heat lamps can help prevent heat loss. Often a knitted hat is placed on the baby's head.
- Care of the Uncircumcised Penis in Teens
In an uncircumcised boy, the foreskin will begin to separate from the glans, or the tip of the penis. This happens naturally while the male is an infant. This is called foreskin retraction.
- Caring for the Mother: Physically and Emotionally
Nap when your baby naps. Take warm, shallow baths several times a day if you had stitches after delivery. Wear a supportive bra and use warm compresses to help with milk letdown.
- Carnitine Deficiency
Carnitine is a natural substance that the body uses to process fats and produce energy. Carnitine deficiency is when not enough of the nutrient carnitine is available to cells in the body. This can cause muscle weakness and heart or liver problems.
- Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase Deficiency
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) deficiency is a very rare condition that causes muscle weakness and other symptoms. It happens because of a problem with 1 of 2 enzymes, CPT1 or CPT2. Enzymes are substances in the body that help cause chemical reactions.
- Carotid Artery Disease
Carotid artery disease causes a narrowing of the major blood vessels that supply the brain. It is caused by atherosclerosis and can lead to a stroke.
- Carotid Dissection
A carotid dissection is a type of tear in one of your carotid arteries. It is a common cause of stroke in people under age 50.
- Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Women develop carpal tunnel syndrome three times more frequently than men. It usually occurs only in adults.
- Cat Scratch Disease
Cat scratches and bites can cause cat scratch disease, a bacterial infection carried in cat saliva. The bacteria are passed from a cat to a human after the cat licks its paws then scratches human skin.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye. This is an area that is normally clear. As this clouding happens, it keeps light rays from passing through the lens and focusing on the retina. The retina is a tissue lining that is sensitive to light. It is located in the back of the eye. This cloudiness happens when some of the protein which makes up the lens of the eye begins to change its structure. It then gets in the way of your eyesight.
- Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, or CPVT, is a rare genetic condition. It causes an irregular heart rhythm that can be life threatening. It often shows up in childhood. The first sign is often fainting or near fainting during exercise or strong emotion.
- Causes of Skin Cancer
Detailed information on causes and risk factors for skin cancer, including heredity and environment
- Celiac Disease
Celiac disease is a digestive problem that hurts your small intestine. It stops your body from taking in nutrients from food. You may have celiac disease if you are sensitive to gluten. Gluten is a kind of protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats.
Cellulitis is a serious deep infection of the skin caused by bacteria. It usually occurs in an area that has already had an injury or skin break.
- Cerebral Aneurysm
A cerebral aneurysm (also called an intracranial aneurysm or brain aneurysm) is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of an artery in the brain, resulting in an abnormal ballooning of the artery that is at risk for rupturing.
- Cervical Cancer: Introduction
Cervical cancer develops from abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix that spread deeper or to other tissues or organs. This type of cancer occurs most often in women older than 40.
Cervicitis is irritation or infection of the cervix. It can be caused by a number of different sexually transmitted diseases.
- Chagas Disease
Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is transmitted to people through the feces of insects. It is common in South and Central America and Mexico.
Chaplains act as spiritual counselors to help patients and families through periods of crisis.
- Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is an inherited nerve defect that causes abnormalities in the nerves that supply your feet, legs, hands, and arms.
- Checklist for Surgery/Consent Forms/Insurance Information
The decision to have surgery is an important one. Here is a checklist to help you prepare. You'll need to arrange a time for any preoperative lab tests and for an interview with the anesthesiologist. Check with your health plan regarding costs and coverage of the surgery.
- Chemical Peel
Detailed information on chemical peels, including potential complications and what substances are used for chemical peels.
- Chemical Poisoning
Detailed information on chemical poisoning
Detailed information on chemotherapy for treatment of gynecological cancers
- Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Treatment
Your oncologist will determine how long and how often you will have chemotherapy treatments. Chemotherapy can be administered intravenously or by pill, and is usually a combination of drugs.
- Chemotherapy For Prostate Cancer
Chemotherapy may be used when the cancer has spread outside of the prostate gland, or it may be used in combination with other therapies.
Detailed information on chickenpox, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, complications, and immunity
- Childhood Apraxia of Speech
Childhood apraxia of speech is a type of speech disorder. It is present from birth. A child with this condition has problems making sounds correctly and consistently. Apraxia is a problem with the motor coordination of speech.
- Chin, Cheek, or Jaw Reshaping/Facial Implants
Detailed information on chin reshaping, cheek reshaping, jaw reshaping, and facial implants, including possible facial implant complications
- Chinese Medicine
Detailed information on traditional Chinese medicine as a form of alternative therapy
- Chiropractic Medicine
Chiropractic medicine is based on the link between the spine and how the body functions.
- Choking and Abdominal Thrusts
Detailed information on choking, choking prevention, and abdominal thrusts to treat someone who is choking.
Cholangitis is a redness and swelling (inflammation) of the bile duct system. In most cases cholangitis is caused by a bacterial infection. The infection often happens suddenly. But in some cases it may be long-term (chronic).
Cholecystitis is a redness and swelling (inflammation) of the gallbladder. It happens when a digestive juice called bile gets trapped in your gallbladder.
- Cholera in Children
Cholera is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. You can get cholera if you eat food or drink water that is contaminated with the bacteria.
- Cholesterol in the Blood
The cholesterol in your blood comes from the foods you eat and your liver—but your liver makes all of the cholesterol your body needs.
A chondroblastoma is a rare type of noncancerous bone tumor that begins in cartilage. This is the specialized, gristly connective tissue from which most bones develop. It plays an important role in the growth process. There are many different types of cartilage in the body. Chondroblastoma most often affects the ends of the long bones, near the growth plate, in the arms at the shoulder, and in the legs at the hip and knee. It is also called Codman’s tumor.
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant type of bone cancer that primarily affects the cartilage cells of the femur, arm, pelvis, knee, and spine.
- Choosing a Provider
Finding appropriate home health and hospice care providers requires some research. Here's what you need to consider when evaluating a provider.
- Choosing a Rehabilitation Unit/CARF
Rehabilitation services are provided in many different places, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, and community health centers.
- Choroid Plexus Papilloma
Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) is a rare type of brain tumor. These tumors are usually not cancerous. This condition is most common in young children, but can also occur in adults.
- Chronic Bronchitis
Bronchitis is inflammation of the breathing tubes. These are the airways called bronchi. This inflammation causes too much mucus production and other changes. Although there are several different types of bronchitis, the most common are acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is long-term inflammation of the bronchi. It is common among smokers. People with chronic bronchitis tend to get lung infections more easily. They also have episodes of acute bronchitis during which symptoms are worse.
- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating condition characterized by profound tiredness, regardless of bed rest.
- Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy is a rare autoimmune disorder that attacks the myelin sheaths around nerve cells.
- Chronic Liver Disease/Cirrhosis
Cirrhosis is when scar tissue replaces healthy liver tissue. This stops the liver from working normally. Cirrhosis is a long-term (chronic) liver disease. The damage to your liver builds up over time.
- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): Diagnosis
- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): Symptoms
Detailed information on chronic myelogenous leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the two most common conditions of COPD.
- Chronic Pain
Chronic pain is longstanding pain that persists beyond the usual recovery period or occurs along with a chronic health condition, such as arthritis.
- Chronic Venous Insufficiency
Detailed information on chronic venous insufficiency, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.
Whether you decided to have your baby boy circumcised or not, it’s important to know how to care for his special needs. Find tips for caring for both circumcised and uncircumcised babies.
Claudication is pain in your thigh, calf, or buttocks that happens when you walk. It may be a symptom of peripheral artery disease (PAD). This is when narrowed or blocked arteries reduce the blood flow to your legs.
- Cleft Lip and Palate in Children
Cleft lip and palate are openings or splits in the upper lip or roof of the mouth (palate). A child can be born with a cleft lip, cleft palate, or both. Cleft lip and palate may be the only birth defects, or they may happen with other defects.
- Clinical Chemistry
Detailed information on clinical chemistry and the most common clinical chemistry tests
- Clinical Pathology
Detailed information on clinical pathology and its variety of laboratory specialties, including blood banking, clinical chemistry, hematology, immunology, serology, and microbiology
- Clinical Pathology Overview
Detailed information on clinical pathology and the specimens that are tested
- Clinical Social Worker
A clinical social worker is a professional counselor who helps alleviate problems related to personal, family, or social situations.
- Cluster Headaches
Cluster headaches are rare and cause severe pain that tends to recur in the same way each time. Cluster headaches occur in groups, or clusters, and each attack last about 1 to 3 hours on average.
- CMV and Transplant Patients
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a type of virus. Viruses are tiny organisms that can enter your body and cause disease. CMV is related to the virus that causes herpes. Like many other viruses, CMV can invade human cells. It can then use those cells to reproduce and spread. If the virus makes many copies of itself, it may disrupt how cells normally work.
- Cold Sores
Cold sores are small blisters around the mouth, caused by the herpes simplex virus. They are sometimes called fever blisters. The most common strain of the virus causing cold sores is herpes simplex virus 1. It can be spread by kissing or sharing eating utensils or even sharing towels.
- Collagen / Fat Injectable Fillers
Collagen/fat injectable fillers, also called soft-tissue augmentation, is a cosmetic plastic surgery procedure performed to correct wrinkles, depressions in the skin, and/or scarring.
- Collagenous Colitis
Collagenous colitis (CC) is a condition that affects your large intestine. It leads to episodes of watery diarrhea and belly pain.
- Color Blindness
Color blindness is when you are unable to see colors in a normal way. It does not mean you can’t see any colors at all.
- Colorectal Cancer: Statistics
Most people who have colorectal cancer are older than 50. Find out who is most likely to get cancer and why.
- Common Bacterial Skin Infections
This chart shows some common bacterial infections of the skin and their treatment.
- Common Benign Lumps
The two most common types of benign breast lumps are cysts and fibroadenomas. A cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops in the breast tissue. Fibroadenomas are solid, smooth, firm, benign lumps that are most commonly found in women in their late teens and early 20s.
- Common Breast Conditions
Detailed information on the most common breast conditions, including mastalgia (breast pain), benign breast lumps, fibrocystic breast changes, nipple problems, nipple discharge, breast infections, and breast inflammation
- Common Breast Lumps
Detailed information on common benign breast lumps, including breast cysts, fibroadenomas, fat necrosis, and sclerosing adenosis
- Common Characteristics of Liver Disease
Detailed information on liver diseases, including the most common characteristics of liver disease, such as jaundice, cholestasis, liver enlargement, portal hypertension, esophageal varices, ascites, liver encephalopathy, and liver failure
- Common Childhood Illnesses and Concerns
Detailed information on common childhood illnesses and concerns
- Common Cold
The common cold leads to more health care provider visits and absences from school and work than any other illness each year. It is caused by a virus and is easily spread to others. It’s not caused by cold weather.
- Common Dermatological Procedures
Detailed information on common dermatological procedures, including acne scar removal, chemical peels, dermabrasion, dermaplaning, and laser skin surgery
- Common Discomforts During Pregnancy
Nausea and vomiting are common in the first trimester, as is fatigue. Other common discomforts are hemorrhoids and heartburn.
- Common Disorders of the Spine, Shoulder, and Pelvis
Detailed information on the most common disorders of the spine, shoulder, and pelvis, including arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, avascular necrosis, bursitis, hip problems, hip replacement, kyphosis, low back pain, neck problems, neck pain, torticollis,
- Common Eye Disorders
One common eye disorder is conjunctivitis, sometimes called pink eye. It's an inflammation of the blood vessels in the eye membrane. Another common disorder is a chalazion—a small bump that develops on the upper or lower eyelid.
- Common Health Problems Associated With Travel in Developing Countries
Detailed information on common health problems associated with travel in developing countries
- Common Infectious Diseases
Detailed information on the most common infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS, chickenpox, chronic fatigue syndrome, common cold, diphtheria, E. coli, giardiasis, infectious mononucleosis, influenza (flu), lyme disease, malaria, measles, meningitis, mum
- Common Liver Tests
Detailed information on the most common liver function tests, including serum bilirubin test, serum albumin test, serum alkaline phosphatase test, serum aminotransferases, prothrombin time test, alanine transaminase test, aspartate transaminase test, gamm
- Common Orthopedic Disorders
Detailed information on the most common orthopedic disorders, including arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, bursitis, elbow pain, elbow problems, cubital tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow), medial epicondylitis (golfers el
- Common Skin Disorders
Detailed information on common skin disorders, including acne, bed sore, dry skin, calluses, corns, keratosis pilaris, psoriasis, pityriasis rosea, rosacea, and sebaceous cysts
- Common Surgeries
Here are descriptions of the most common surgeries done in the U.S.
- Common Tests During Pregnancy
Certain tests and screenings may be scheduled during your pregnancy. Your health care provider will advise you on which tests you'll need.
- Common Types of Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases
Detailed information on the most common types of arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, including ankylosing spondylitis, bursitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, fibromyalgia, gout, infectious arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, lyme disease, low back pa
- Community Re-Entry
One of the main goals of rehabilitation is to prepare the patient for life after discharge.
- Community-Acquired MRSA
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of bacteria. Bacteria that can’t be killed by the antibiotic methicillin and other similar medicines are called methicillin-resistant. Community-acquired means that you didn’t get the infection in a hospital or other healthcare setting. MRSA infections are sometimes very hard to treat.
- Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults
Pneumonia is a type of lung infection. It can cause breathing problems and other symptoms. In community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), you get infected in a community setting. It doesn’t happen in a hospital, nursing home, or other healthcare center.
- Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Diabetes
Are you tempted to try herbal remedies that promise to “cure” diabetes without prescription medication? Be sure you understand the limitations.
- Complications of Diabetes
Detailed information on the most common types of diabetes complications and ways to prevent future problems
- Complications of Multiple Pregnancy
Having more than one baby is especially exciting—and complicated. Find out what to watch for, including a greater chance of anemia and preterm birth.
- Complications of Pregnancy
Some of the more common complications of pregnancy are miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and bleeding.
- Components of Food
When trying to make heart-healthy changes to your lifestyle and diet, it is helpful to know some basics about nutrition.
- Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation
A psychiatric evaluation will look at symptoms and when they happen, as well as what impact they have on family and work relationships.
- Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan
Detailed information on computed tomography scans, also called CT scan or CAT scan, including information on how the procedure is performed
- Computer Vision Syndrome
Computer vision syndrome is a group of eye and vision problems related to extended computer use.
- Conditions Commonly Treated By Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Detailed information on the conditions most commonly treated by physical medicine and rehabilitation, including acquired brain injury, arthritis, burns, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic pain, back pain, neck pain, multiple sclerosis, spinal
- Conditions Investigated by Environmental Medicine Programs
Allergies, asthma, heart disease, and cancer are among the long list of health conditions with ties to environmental factors.
- Conditions of Concern to Men
Detailed information on the most common health concerns for men, including male breast cancer, gynecomastia, colorectal cancer, erectile dysfunction (impotence), hair loss, heart attack, high blood pressure (hypertension), insomnia, low back pain, inferti
- Conduct Disorder in Children
A child with a conduct disorder has antisocial behaviors that violate the rights of others as well as basic social standards and rules.
- Congenital Hand Deformities
When one of those precious little hands isn’t as perfectly formed as it should be, an early visit to a hand surgeon should be at the top of your agenda for your newborn.
- Congenital Heart Defects
When the heart or blood vessels near the heart do not develop normally before birth, it's called a congenital heart defect.
- Congenital Liver Defects
Congenital liver defects are liver disorders that are present at birth. They are rare. These liver disorders usually block the bile ducts. This affects the flow of bile.
You had conjunctivitis as a child, now your baby has symptoms of it. Your first step should be a call to your doctor, who will make a diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment.
Constipation is when your stools are painful or they do not happen often enough. It is the most common GI (gastrointestinal) problem.
- Contact Dermatitis
Contact dermatitis is a reaction that happens after your skin comes in contact with certain substances. Skin irritants cause most contact dermatitis reactions. Other cases are caused by allergens, which trigger an allergic response.
- Contraception/Birth Control
You have a lot of options when it comes to birth control. Some methods don't require a doctor's visit, but others, like oral contraceptives, are available only by prescription.
- Controlling Asthma Triggers at Work
Many people with asthma have symptoms from triggers in the workplace. This is called occupational asthma.
- Convergence Insufficiency
Convergence insufficiency (CI) is when the eyes have trouble working together while focusing on an object at that is close by.
- Coping with Prostate Cancer
Detailed information for family members coping with prostate cancer, including how to help the man in your life cope with a diagnosis of prostate cancer
- Coping with Swallowing Difficulties
Swallowing difficulties can happen for reasons ranging from dehydration to illness. Most cases are short-lived, but sometimes you might need medical treatment or special home care.
- Coping with the Diagnosis of Cancer
Learn as much as possible about your disease. Arm yourself with information in order to lessen frustration. Don't hesitate to ask questions about your disease. Consider keeping a notebook with all of the medical records and information about your diagnosis.
- Corneal Ulcer
A corneal ulcer is an open sore on your cornea. Usually, but not always, it’s caused by an infection.
- Coronary Heart Disease
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.
- Correcting or Improving Vision Problems
Detailed information on correcting or improving vision problems
- Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Overview
Cosmetic plastic surgery is performed in order to change one's appearance. For some, it may mean redesigning the body's contour and shape or the elimination of wrinkles. Others may choose varicose vein treatment or breast augmentation.
- Cosmetic Safety for Contact Lens Wearers
Detailed information on cosmetic safety for contact lens wearers
- Cowden Syndrome
The risk for breast cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and thyroid cancer is increased with Cowden syndrome, a rare genetic disorder.
- Cradle Cap/Seborrheic Dermatitis
Detailed information on cradle cap, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Craniosynostosis is a condition where one or more of the bones of the skull close too early. This can cause problems with normal brain and skull growth.
- Crohn's Disease
Crohn’s disease is part of a group of diseases known as inflammatory bowel disease or IBD.
- Cruise Ships
Detailed information on traveling healthy while on cruise ships
Cryptosporidiosis is an infection that causes diarrhea. It is sometimes called Crypto. It is caused by a parasite found in stool.
- Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
Cubital tunnel syndrome happens when the ulnar nerve, which passes through the inside of the elbow, is injured and becomes inflamed, swollen, and irritated.The pain of cubital tunnel syndrome feels like the pain you feel when you hit your "funny bone."
- Current Investigations in Environmental Medicine
Listing of current investigations in environmental medicine
- Cushing Syndrome
Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. It’s caused when you have high levels of the hormone cortisol over a long time. Cushing's syndrome is fairly rare. It most often affects adults who are 20 to 50 years old. It is sometimes called hypercortisolism.
- Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma
Detailed information on cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.
- Cystic Fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited life-threatening disease that affects many organs. It causes changes in the electrolyte transport system causing cells to absorb too much sodium and water. CF is characterized by problems with the glands that make sweat and mucus. Symptoms start in childhood. On average, people with CF live into their mid to late 30s. Some people can carry the CF gene without being affected by the disease. They usually do not know that they are carriers.
When the wall between the bladder and the vagina weakens, the bladder may drop or sag into the vagina. This disorder in women is called cystocele.
Detailed information on cytology, the study of individual cells to find abnormal cells
- Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Detailed information on deep vein thrombosis and thrombophlebitis, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical illustrations
- Dehydration and Heat Stroke
Dehydration and heat stroke are two very common heat-related diseases that can be life-threatening if left untreated.
In preparation of the delivery, you may be moved into a birthing room or delivery room, or you may remain in the same room for both labor and delivery.
- Dengue Fever
Dengue (pronounced DEN-gee) fever is a viral disease. It is transmitted by mosquitoes mainly in tropical and subtropical areas of the world.
- Dental Care for Infants and Children
Detailed information on dental care for infants and children
- Dental Health
Detailed information on dental health for children
- Dental Implants
Detailed information on dental implants, including types and potential risks
- Dental Procedures
Detailed information on the most common dental procedures, including braces, bleaching, bridges, dentures, dental implants, fillings, root canal, sealants, and wisdom teeth extraction
- Dental Sealants
Detailed information on dental sealants
Detailed information on the most common types of dentures
Depression is a whole-body illness. It involves the body, mood, and thoughts. Depression affects the way you eat and sleep. It also can affect the way you feel about yourself and things. It is not the same as being unhappy or in a “blue” mood. It is not a sign of personal weakness or a condition that can be willed or wished away. When you have depression, you can’t “pull yourself together” and get better. Treatment is often needed and many times crucial to recovery.
- Depression and Suicide
Most people who commit suicide have a mental disorder, most commonly a depressive disorder or a substance abuse disorder.
- Dermabrasion and Dermaplaning
Dermabrasion involves a surgeon using a high speed rotating brush to remove the top layer of skin. This is done to remove fine wrinkles or minimize scars.
Detailed information on dermatitis, including the different types of dermatitis such as atopic dermatitis (eczema), contact dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, localized scratch dermatitis, numm
- Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an intensely itchy skin disease. It causes clusters of small blisters and bumps.
- Describing a Skin Condition
Here are some common terms that may help you describe your skin condition to your healthcare provider.
- Designing an Exercise Program
To improve your heart and lung fitness, aim for 30 to 60 minutes of aerobic exercise three to four times a week.
- Determining Your Body Mass Index
Your BMI gives a fairly accurate assessment of how much of your body is composed of fat.
- Deviated Septum
A wall of cartilage divides the nose into 2 separate chambers. It’s called the nasal septum. A deviated septum is when this wall is shifted away from the midline. This may cause congestion, problems with breathing, or nasal discharge.
- Diabetes (Type 1, 2, and Gestational)
Detailed information on type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes, including causes, symptoms, complications, risk factors, and treatment
- Diabetes and High Blood Pressure
If you have diabetes, you are twice as likely to have high blood pressure. Untreated, high blood pressure can raise your risk for heart disease.
- Diabetes and Periodontal (Gum) Disease
Poorly controlled diabetes can lead to gum disease, which is an infection of the gums and bone that hold the teeth in place.
- Diabetes Insipidus
Diabetes insipidus occurs when your body doesn’t make enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or your kidneys don’t respond to it. ADH helps keep the right amount of water in your body.
- Diabetes Statistics
Looking for vital diabetes facts and figures? Here are statistics for both patients and consumers.
- Diabetic Foot Problems
Diabetes can damage the nerves in your feet, as well as lead to blood vessel disease. These conditions make it more difficult to notice when you injure your foot or develop a sore.
- Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis (or DKA) is a serious condition that can happen to some people with diabetes. It happens when chemicals called “ketones” build up in your blood. Diabetic ketoacidosis is somewhat common. It is more common in younger people, and women experience it more often than men do.
- Diabetic Nephropathy (Kidney Disease)
Nephropathy means your kidneys are not working well. The final stage of nephropathy is called kidney failure, end-stage renal disease, or ESRD. Diabetes, both type 1 and type 2, is the most common cause of kidney disease. Type 1 is more likely to lead to ESRD. There are 5 stages of diabetic nephropathy. The final stage is ESRD. Progress from one stage to the next can take many years.
- Diabetic Neuropathy
Diabetic neuropathy is nerve damage due to diabetes. Over time, high blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels that supply your nerves, especially in the legs.
- Diabetic Retinopathy and Other Eye Problems
Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness in American adults. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of the retina.
- Diagnosing Benign (Noncancerous) Breast Conditions
To diagnose a breast condition, your healthcare provider will examine your breasts and may order imaging tests or a biopsy.
- Diagnosing Bone Disorders
Detailed information on diagnostic procedures for bone disorders, including bone densitometry, radionuclide bone scan, and biopsy
- Diagnosing Diabetes
If you're older than 45, you should be tested for diabetes. If you are younger, you should be tested if you are at high risk.
- Diagnosing Hand Conditions
In some cases, a diagnosis can be made simply based on a physical exam. In other cases, though, tests may be needed to help confirm the diagnosis.
- Diagnosis and Treatment for Migraines
To help diagnose a migraine, your doctor may ask you when your headaches occur, how long they last, and what they feel like.
- Diagnostic and Evaluation Procedures
Your doctor may evaluate possible prostate problems with an annual physical and a digital rectal exam or a test for prostate-specific antigen.
- Diagnostic Procedures for Cancer: Overview
Detailed information on the most common diagnostic procedures for cancer
- Diagnostic Radiology
- Diagnostic Tests for Allergies
Detailed information on allergy testing, including blood testing (rast testing) and scratch testing
- Diagnostic Tests for Neurological Disorders
Evaluating and diagnosing damage to the nervous system is complicated and complex. Many of the same symptoms occur in different combinations among the different disorders.
Diarrhea is when your stools are loose and watery. You may also need to go to the bathroom more often.
- Diarrheal Diseases
Detailed information on the most common types of diarrheal diseases, including cryptosporidiosis, diarrhea, traveler's diarrhea, salmonella infection, and giardiasis
- Diet for Lactose Intolerance
Detailed information on lactose intolerance, including a list of foods that contain lactose
- Diet to Help Prevent Heart Disease
The Choose My Plate plan from the federal government is a guideline to help you eat a healthy diet.
- Dietary Changes for Celiac Disease
Celiac disease is a digestive disorder that damages your small intestine and keeps it from absorbing the nutrients in food. A protein found in wheat, barley, and rye called gluten is what causes the damage to the intestinal tract.
- Dietary Supplements
Adding anything to your regular diet to improve your health or healing is considered a dietary supplement.
- Difficulty with Latching On or Sucking
Detailed information on ineffective latch-on or sucking during breastfeeding
- Digestive Diagnostic Procedures
Detailed information on the most common tests and procedures used to diagnosis digestive disorders
- Digestive Disorders
Detailed information on the most common types of digestive disorders, including appendicitis, Barrett's esophagus, celiac disease, constipation, crohn's disease, diarrhea, diverticular disease, gas, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastr
- Digestive System -- An Overview
Detailed information on how the digestive system works, including a full-color, labeled illustration of the digestive system
- Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Dilated cardiomyopathy, or DCM, is when the heart chambers stretch and become thin. It often starts in the left ventricle. As the disease gets worse, it may spread to the right ventricle and to the atria. As the muscle stretches, it becomes weak and does not contract well. Eventually, the heart can't pump as much blood forward as it normally would. This causes fluid to back up in the lungs and build up in the body. This is called heart failure.
Detailed information on diphtheria, including symptoms, transmission, treatment, and prevention
- Discharge Planning After Surgery
Once you leave the recovery room, you may be released to go home, or you may be moved to a hospital room. Here are questions to ask your doctor.
- Disorders of the Adrenal Glands
Detailed information on disorders of the adrenal glands
- Disorders of the Biliary System
Detailed information on the most common disorders of the biliary system, including gallstones, cholangitis, cholecystitis, biliary cirrhosis, and biliary duct cancer
- Disorders of the Liver
Detailed information on disorders of the liver, including alcohol-induced liver disease, chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, congenital defects, hepatitis, liver tumors, and liver transplantation
- Disorders of the Pancreas
Detailed information on pancreas disorders, including pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer
- Disorders of the Parathyroid Glands
Detailed information on disorders of the parathyroid gland
- Disorders of the Pituitary Gland
Detailed information on pituitary gland disorders, including acromegaly, diabetes insipidus, empty sella syndrome, hypopituitarism, and pituitary gland tumors
- Disorders of the Thyroid
Detailed information on disorders of the thyroid, including hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, toxic nodular goiter, thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, thyroid tumor, hypothyroidism and pregnancy, postpartum thyroiditis, and thyroid horm
- Diverticular Disease
Diverticular disease is an infection in the tiny pouches that some people get in their colon. The pouches are called diverticula. These pouches bulge out through weak spots in your colon. The pouches can become inflamed (red, swollen) or infected.
- Domestic Violence
Abuse often begins with verbal behaviors such as name-calling, threats, and hitting or throwing objects. It can become worse, including pushing, slapping, and holding against the victim's will.
- Drug Rashes
Detailed information on different types of drug rashes, including acne, exfoliative dermatitis, fixed drug eruption, hives, and more.
- Drug-Induced Hepatitis
Drug-induced hepatitis is a redness and swelling (inflammation) of the liver that is caused by a harmful (toxic) amount of certain medicines.
- Dry Skin
Dry skin is a very common skin condition. It can make your skin feel irritated and itchy. Dry skin often worsens in the winter when the air is cold and dry. Bathing often also makes it worse. With no treatment, dry skin may become flaky or scaly.
- Dupuytren's Contracture
Dupuytren's contracture is an abnormal thickening of the skin in the palm of your hand at the base of your fingers. This thickened area may develop into a hard lump or thick band. Over time, it can cause the fingers to curl in toward your palm.
- Dyshidrotic Eczema
Dyshidrotic eczema is an ongoing (chronic) skin condition. It causes a burning, itching feeling. Severe dyshidrotic eczema may also cause a blistering rash. It can affect your palms, the sides of your fingers, and the soles of your feet. It’s most common in people in their 20s, 30s, and 40s, but can happen at any age.
Dysmenorrhea causes severe cramps and pain during a woman's period. It can start with your first period, or begin later in life. It can be related to an underlying conditions such as endometriosis.
When something goes wrong with the muscles that direct swallowing, it’s called dysphagia.
Dysthymia is a milder, yet long-lasting form of depression.
- Ear Barotrauma
Pressure differences between the inside of the ear and the outside of the ear can cause ear barotrauma or ear damage. It can cause pain and sometimes permanent hearing loss. It can be caused by scuba diving, air travel, or exposure to an explosion.
- Ear Infections
Detailed information on ear infections, including otitis externa (swimmer's ear) and otitis media
- Ear Pinning
Detailed information on ear pinning surgery, including who might be a candidate for the procedure and possible complications of the procedure
- Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
Detailed information on ear, nose, and throat disorders, including hearing disorders, balance disorders, smell disorders, taste disorders, chemosensory disorders, speech disorders, voice disorders, language disorders, vocal cord disorders, and laryngeal cancer.
- Ear, Nose, and Throat Facts
The ear consists of three areas—the outer, middle, and inner ear. The nose is the organ of smell and is part of the peripheral nervous system. The throat is a ring-like muscular tube that acts as the passageway for air, food, and liquid.
- Ears and Airplane Travel, Ear Wax, and Ear Cleaning
Detailed information on ears and airplane travel, ear wax, and ear cleaning
- Eating Disorders
Detailed information on the most common types of eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder
- Eating Well for Digestive Health
If you're like most people, you may have gas, constipation, or heartburn every now and then.
Ebola is a virus that causes problems with how your blood clots. Here's a look at the disease, from symptoms to treatment and prevention.
An echocardiogram is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure used to assess the heart's function and structures.
Ectropion is a sagging or outward turning of an eyelid. It usually affects a lower eyelid. Ectropion often affects both lower eyelids. Sometimes it only affects one side.
- Effective Sucking
It’s important for your baby’s health to be able to effectively remove milk from your breast during nursing. To do this, your baby must learn the proper way to suck. But how do you know if your baby is actually getting the nutrition he or she needs? Here’s a guide to help you.
- Effects of Rehabilitation on the Family
One of the most important factors in a patient's recovery is family involvement and support in his or her rehab.
- Effects of Stroke
When an area of the brain is damaged, which typically occurs with a stroke, an impairment may result. An impairment is the loss of normal function of part of the body. Sometimes, an impairment may result in a disability, or inability to perform an activity in a normal way.
- Effects of UV Exposure
Detailed information on the effects of ultraviolet light and the increased risk of skin cancer, premature aging, cataracts, and immune system damage
- Egg Allergy Diet
Detailed information on egg allergy, a type of food allergy, including egg-free recipes and egg substitutes
Ehrlichiosis is an illness caused by bacteria that’s spread by ticks. The bacteria are in the Ehrlichia group of bacteria. The illness causes fever, muscle aches, and other symptoms. It’s an uncommon illness that can affect people of all ages.
- Elbow Pain and Problems
Detailed information on elbow pain and problems
- Elder Care
Elder care includes many different issues. These range from choosing the right provider for an older adult, to making decisions about moving an older adult to a residential care setting. Here's what you need to know.
- Electric and Magnetic Fields
Detailed information on electric and magnetic fields
- Electrocardiogram (EKG) / Stress Test / Holter Monitor
Detailed information on an electrocardiogram (EKG) procedure, including how the procedure is performed, reasons for the procedure, and pre- and post-evaluation instructions
- Electromagnetic Therapy
Detailed information on electromagnetic therapy, also called bioelectricity, magnetic field therapy, and magnetic healing, as a form of alternative therapy
- Emergency Information Form
In an emergency, it is easy to "forget" even the most well-known information. That's why it is crucial for you to complete the information in this form for each member of your household.
- Emerging Infectious Diseases
Detailed information on emerging infectious diseases and how travelers can reduce their risk of infectious diseases
- Emotions and Heart Health
Since ancient times, the heart has been a symbol of our emotions. But in recent years, scientists have uncovered a clear physical link between emotions and heart health.
- Empty Sella Syndrome
Empty sella syndrome (ESS) may occur if you have an enlarged sella turcica. This is a bony structure where the pituitary gland sits at the base of the brain.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell, which leads to changes in neurological function, resulting in mental confusion and seizures.
An enchondroma is a type of noncancerous bone tumor that begins in cartilage. An enchondroma most often affects the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones. It often affects the tiny long bones of the hands and feet. It may also affect other bones such as the femur (thighbone), humerus (upper arm bone), or tibia (one of the two lower leg bones).
- Endocrinology Statistics
Statistics relating to endocrine disorders
- Endometrial Cancer: Diagnosis
Cancer of the endometrium is a disease in which cancerous cells are found in the lining of the uterus. It is highly curable when found early.
The tissue that lines the uterus is called the endometrium. Normally, if a woman doesn’t get pregnant, this tissue is shed each month during her period. In endometriosis, tissue that looks and acts like endometrial tissue implants outside the uterus.This can cause pain, heavy periods, and infertility.
- Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
One Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain that causes a severe intestinal infection in humans is known as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). It’s the most common strain to cause illness in people. It’s different from other E. coli because it produces a potent toxin called Shiga toxin. This toxin damages the lining of the intestinal wall, causing bloody diarrhea.
- Environmental Disease Factors
Detailed information on environmental disease factors, including mold, air pollution, asthma triggers, carbon monoxide poisoning, lead poisoning, radon, multiple chemical sensitivity, electric and magnetic fields, and Gulf war syndrome
- Eosinophilic Esophagitis
When you think of allergic reactions, you probably envision itchy eyes and a runny nose. But an allergic reaction can happen in the esophagus—your food pipe—as well.
Ependymoma is a rare type of tumor of the brain or spinal cord. It can happen in both children and adults. In children, these tumors tend to be in the brain. In adults, they are often in the spinal cord.
Epidemiology is the study of the occurrence of disease in people, and the use of that information to control health problems.
- Epilepsy and Seizures
Epilepsy is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system and affects people of all ages, races, and ethnic backgrounds.
- Epilepsy and Seizures in Children
Epilepsy is a brain condition that causes a child to have seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system.
- Erythema Multiforme
Detailed information on erythema multiforme, including symptoms and treatment
- Erythema Nodosum
Detailed information on erythema nodosum, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Esophageal Cancer
Detailed information on esophageal cancer, including symptoms, stages, types, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
Esophagitis is the irritation and inflammation of the lining of your esophagus, or food pipe. Because the lining of the esophagus is sensitive, many things can cause swelling and irritation.
- Estrogen's Effects on the Female Body
In addition to regulating the menstrual cycle, estrogen affects the reproductive tract, the urinary tract, the heart and blood vessels, bones, breasts, skin, hair, mucous membranes, pelvic muscles, and the brain.
- Evaluation Procedures for Orthopedic Problems
To help the orthopedist determine your treatment, you'll need a physical exam, a medical history profile, and a description of symptoms.
- Evaluation Procedures for Stroke
Tests that may be used to help diagnose a stroke include a CT scan or MRI, and an electroencephalogram.
- Ewing Sarcoma: Chances of Recovery (Prognosis)
Prognosis is a word your healthcare team may use to describe the likely outcome from cancer and cancer treatment. Learn about the chances of recovery from Ewing sarcoma.
- Excessive Hairiness (Hirsutism)
Detailed information on excessive hairiness, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment
- Excessive Sweating
Detailed information on excessive sweating, including symptoms and treatment
Exercise doesn't have to be vigorous to offer health benefits. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity daily, or on most days of the week.
- Exercise and the Older Adult
Exercise is good for people of all ages. It helps lower blood pressure, reduces the risks for falls and serious injuries, and slows the body's loss of muscle and bone mass.
- Exercise During Pregnancy
If you exercised before pregnancy, you can safely continue exercising. If you were inactive or you have medical complications, talk with your healthcare provider before beginning to exercise.
- Exercise: Before Starting an Exercise Program
It's always important to talk with your healthcare provider before starting an exercise program. This is especially true if you have certain health conditions.
- Exercise: The Right Program and the Right Preparation
You don't have to exercise for long periods of time—or even vigorously—to become fit. You do need to aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate activity most days of the week.
- Exercise-Related Heat Exhaustion
Exercise-related heat exhaustion is an illness caused by getting too hot when you exercise. During heat exhaustion, your body temperature rises above normal.
- Expectant Therapy
Expectant therapy is to "watch and wait" while carefully observing and monitoring the prostate cancer.
- External Beam Therapy
External beam therapy is a type of therapeutic radiology that is delivered externally from a machine directed to the cancer inside the patient. Examples of external beam therapy machines include linear accelerators, cobalt machines, or orthovoltage X-ray machines.
- Eye Care Specialists
An ophthalmologist is either a medical doctor (M.D.) or an osteopathic physician (D.O.). An optometrist is a doctor of optometry (O.D.) but is not a medical doctor. An optician is a technician who fits eyeglasses.
- Eye Conditions
Detailed information on eye conditions in children
- Eye Disorders
Detailed information on the most common eye disorders, including age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, refractive errors, and retinitis pigmentosa
- Eye Injury (Black Eye)
Detailed information on ecchymosis or bruising of the eye
- Eye Safety
Detailed information on eye safety and tips to avoid eye injury
- Eye Twitching
An eye twitch is an involuntary, abnormal blinking of your eyelid. This abnormal blinking may happen many times per day. If eye twitching is severe, it can impair vision.
- Eyeglasses and Contact Lenses
Eyeglasses are the most common form of eyewear used to correct or improve many types of vision problems. Contact lenses are worn directly on the cornea of the eye.
- Eyelid Lift
This procedure can remove puffiness or bags under the eyes, and can also correct droopy eyelids.
During a facelift procedure, excess facial fat is removed, facial muscles are tightened, and the skin is stretched to make a smoother appearance.
- Facts About Blood
Detailed information on blood, including components of blood, functions of blood cells and common hematology tests.
- Facts About Diabetes
Diabetes affects the way the body metabolizes, or uses, digested food to make glucose, the main source of fuel for the body.
- Facts About the Spine, Shoulder, and Pelvis
Detailed anatomical description of the spine, shoulder, and pelvis, including full-color, labeled illustrations
A fever is a body temperature that is higher than normal. It usually means there is an abnormal process occurring in the body.
- Fibrocystic Breast Changes
Fibrocystic breast changes are symptoms you may feel in your breasts right before your period. Learn what these common symptoms feel like, what causes them--and how to care for your breasts with breast self-awareness.
Fibromyalgia is a condition that causes pain in muscles and soft tissues all over the body. It is an ongoing (chronic) condition. It can affect your neck, shoulders, back, chest, hips, buttocks, arms and legs.
- Fibrous Dysplasia
Fibrous dysplasia is a chronic disorder in which an abnormal development of fibrous tissue causes bones to expand. Any bone can be affected. More than one bone can be affected at any one time, and, when multiple bones are affected, it is not unusual for them to all be on one side of the body. However, fibrous dysplasia does not spread from one bone to another.
- Fifth Disease in Children
Fifth disease is a viral illness that causes a rash. It occurs most often in the winter and spring.
- Fire Safety
Detailed information on fire and burn safety
- Firearms Safety
Detailed information on firearm safety and prevention
- First Aid for Eyes
Detailed information on first-aid for eyes and eye safety
- First Trimester
A healthy first trimester is crucial to the normal development of your baby. You may not be showing much on the outside, but inside, all the major body organs and systems of the fetus are forming.
- First-Aid Kit
Detailed list of recommended items for a household first-aid kit
- Fish and Shellfish Poisoning
At certain times of the year, various species of fish and shellfish contain toxins, even if well cooked. The most common type of fish poisoning in travelers is ciguatera fish poisoning.
- Flat or Inverted Nipples
Detailed information on breastfeeding and flat or inverted nipples
- Fleas, Mites, and Chiggers
Detailed information on flea, mite, and chiggers bites
Detailed information on the importance of proper flossing technique
- Fluency Disorder
A person with fluency disorder has trouble speaking in a fluid or flowing way. They may repeat parts of words (stutter) or speak fast and jam words together (clutter).
Detailed information on fluoride
- Fluoroscopy Procedure
Fluoroscopy is a study of moving body structures. It’s much like an X-ray "movie" and is often done while a contrast dye moves through the part of the body being examined. Fluoroscopy, as an imaging tool, allows healthcare providers to look at many body systems. These include the skeletal, digestive, urinary, respiratory, and reproductive systems.
- Folate-Deficiency Anemia
Folate deficiency is the lack of folic acid in the blood. Folic acid is a B vitamin needed to make normal red blood cells. Low levels can cause megaloblastic anemia.
- Folliculitis, Boils, and Carbuncles
Detailed information on folliculitis, boils, and carbuncles
- Food Allergies
Detailed information on food allergy, including food intolerance and food allergy symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Food Allergies in Children
Detailed information on food allergy, including cause, symptoms, and treatment
- Food Allergies in Children
A food allergy is when your child’s body has a bad immune reaction to a certain food. This is different than a food intolerance which does not affect the immune system. This is true even though some of the same signs may be present.
- Food Allergy
A food allergy is when your body has a bad immune reaction to a certain food. This is different than a food intolerance which does not affect the immune system. This is true even though some of the same signs may be present.
- Food Poisoning
Food poisoning (foodborne illness) is caused by bacteria or viruses found in food. Food poisoning symptoms often look like stomach flu (gastroenteritis). Many people with a mild case think they have stomach flu or a virus.
- Food-Drug Interactions
A food-drug interaction can happen when the food you eat affects the ingredients in a medicine you are taking, preventing the medicine from working the way it should.
- Foot Pain and Problems
Foot pain is often caused by improper foot function. Improperly fitted shoes can worsen and, in some cases, cause foot problems.
- For Parents: Bicycle, In-Line Skating, Skateboard, and Scooter Safety
Detailed information on bicycle, in-line skating, skateboarding, and scooter safety
- Forehead Lift
A forehead lift is a type of cosmetic surgery. It removes excess fat and skin and tightens the muscles in the forehead area. It can also correct sagging brows or deep furrows between the eyes. It is often done in conjunction with a facelift, for a smoother facial appearance.
- Forms of Diabetes
Detailed information on the three forms of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes
A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone.
- Frequently Asked Questions About Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs)
Do cell phones interfere with pacemakers? Do ICDs need to be adjusted? Here are answers to these and other questions.
- Frequently Asked Questions: Mammograms
Timing your mammogram when your breasts are not tender is important. In premenopausal women, this is usually 1 week after a menstrual period.
- Friedreich's Ataxia
Friedreich's ataxia is a rare, inherited, degenerative disease that damages the spinal cord, peripheral nerves and the cerebellum. It causes movement problems and loss of sensation due to nerve injury.
Detailed information on frostbite, including symptoms and what to do if frostbite occurs.
- Fungal Infections of the Skin
Detailed information on fungal infections of the skin, including candidiasis (yeast infection), tinea infection (ringworm), and tinea versicolor
- G6PD Deficiency
G6PD deficiency is an inherited condition. It is when the body doesn’t have enough of an enzyme called G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). This enzyme helps red blood cells work properly. A lack of this enzyme can cause hemolytic anemia. This is when the red blood cells break down faster than they are made.
Gallstones are lumps of solid material that form in your gallbladder. They are made when the digestive juice called bile gets hard and stone-like. Gallstones can be as small as a grain of sand or as big as a golf ball. Your gallbladder may form 1 large stone, hundreds of tiny stones, or both sizes at the same time.
- Gas in the Digestive Tract
Everyone has gas. It may be painful and embarrassing, but it is not dangerous. Your body gets rid of gas by burping or by passing it through your rectum. Most people make about 1 to 4 pints of gas a day. It is common to pass gas about 14 times a day.
- Gastric Bypass (Malabsorptive) Surgery
Gastric bypass surgery involves bypassing a part of the small intestine that absorbs nutrients. For this reason, these surgeries are referred to as malabsorptive procedures.
- Gastric Polyps
Gastric polyps are abnormal growths on the inner lining of your stomach. Most are harmless and don’t cause symptoms. But some of them turn into cancer.
- Gastric Restrictive Surgery
Gastric restrictive surgery is a type of bariatric surgery or weight loss surgery. It limits the amount of food you can eat. This surgery may be used to treat severe obesity when diet, exercise, and medicine have failed.
- Gastric Sleeve Surgery
Gastric sleeve surgery is a form of bariatric, or weight-loss, surgery.
Gastritis is when your stomach lining gets red and swollen (inflamed). Your stomach lining is strong. In most cases acid does not hurt it. But it can get inflamed and irritated if you drink too much alcohol, eat spicy foods, or smoke.
- Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)/Heartburn
GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) is a digestive disorder. It is caused when gastric acid from your stomach flows back up into your food pipe or esophagus.
- Gastrointestinal Conditions
Detailed information on gastrointestinal conditions in children
Gastroparesis is a stomach disorder. It happens when your stomach takes too long to empty out food. If food stays in your stomach for too long, it can cause problems.
- Gaucher Disease
Gaucher disease is a rare genetic disorder passed down from parents to children (inherited). When you have Gaucher disease, you are missing an enzyme that breaks down fatty substances called lipids. Lipids start to build up in certain organs such as your spleen and liver.
- General Information About Breast Cancer
Ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, and Paget's disease are several types of breast cancer.
- General Information About Cancer: Overview
Detailed information on cancer, including cancer diagnosis, cancer staging, cancer grading, cancer treatment, cancer surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, biological therapy, and cancer clinical trials
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
If you tend to worry a lot, even when there’s no reason, you may have generalized anxiety disorder or GAD. Medicine and lifestyle changes can help.
- Generalized Exfoliative Dermatitis
Detailed information on generalized exfoliative dermatitis, including symptoms, causes, and treatment
- Genetics of Breast Cancer
Detailed information on the genetics of breast cancer, including information on hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome, brca1, brca2, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden syndrome, and ataxia telangiectasia
- Genetics of Ovarian Cancer
Detailed information on the genetics of ovarian cancer, including hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, ovarian cancer and hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer, and basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)
- Genitourinary Conditions
Detailed information on genital and urinary conditions in children
- Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that happens during pregnancy. The symptoms of gestational diabetes usually go away after delivery. But sometimes they do not, or you may develop type 2 diabetes later.
- Giant Cell Tumor
A giant cell tumor is one that is made up of a large number of benign (noncancerous) cells that form an aggressive tumor. It usually develops near a joint at the end of the bone. The location of a giant cell tumor is often in the knee, but can also involve the bones of the arms and the legs, or the flat bones such as the breastbone or pelvis.
Giardiasis is an infection caused by a parasite called Giardia. It causes diarrhea.
Glaucoma is a health problem where the normal fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly builds up and doesn’t drain properly. Instead, the fluid collects and causes damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the retina with the brain. This damage leads to loss of eyesight.
- Glioblastoma Multiforme
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common brain tumor in adults.Treatment is aggressive and involves surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
When the kidneys' filters (glomeruli) become inflamed and scarred it is called glomerulonephritis. The kidneys slowly lose their ability to remove wastes and excess fluid from the blood to make urine.
Glomerulosclerosis is scarring in the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys called the glomeruli. These are the tiny units in the kidneys that filter urine from the blood.
- Glucose Monitoring Devices
You can monitor your blood sugar at home with one of a variety of devices that use a small sample of blood.
- Glycogen Storage Disease in Children
Glycogen storage disease (GSD) is a rare condition that changes the way the body uses and stores glycogen, a form of sugar or glucose.
- Goodpasture Syndrome
Goodpasture syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease that affects the lungs and kidneys. Normally, the immune system makes antibodies to fight off germs. With Goodpasture syndrome, however, the immune system mistakenly makes antibodies that attack the lungs and kidneys. This condition can quickly progress to glomerulonephritis and kidney failure.
Gout is a condition that causes inflamed, painful joints. The symptoms are caused by deposits of urate crystals at the joints.
- Grading and Staging of Cancer
Grading and staging cancer helps determine the best treatment.
- Grading of Prostate Cancer
The cancer grading system is based on a number range. The lower the number, the lower the grade, and the slower the cancer is growing.
- Granuloma Annulare
Detailed information on granuloma annulare, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Grief and Loss
Grief moves in and out of stages from disbelief and denial, to anger and guilt, to finding a source of comfort, to eventually adjusting to the loss.
- Growth and Development in Children with Congenital Heart Disease
Children with congenital heart disease often grow and develop more slowly than other children.
- Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare neurological disorder in which the body's immune system attacks the peripheral nervous system.
- Gulf War Syndrome
Detailed information on Gulf war syndrome, including symptoms, causes, treatment, and research
- Gynecologic Inflammations and Infections
Detailed information on the most common gynecological inflammations and infections, including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease
- Gynecological Anatomy
Detailed anatomical description of the female pelvis, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations
- Gynecological Cancers
Detailed information on the most common types of gynecological cancers, including symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
- Gynecological Concerns
Detailed information on the most common gynecological concerns, including sexually transmitted diseases, endometriosis, pelvic pain, menstrual conditions, premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, gynec
- Gynecological Conditions
Detailed information on the most common gynecological conditions
- Gynecological Inflammations and Infections
Detailed information on the most common gynecological inflammations and infections, including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease
Gynecomastia is a swelling of the breast tissue in men or boys. The breasts become larger. They may grow unevenly.
- Hair Loss
Hair loss is believed to be primarily caused by a combination of factors, including aging, changing hormones, illness, and family history.
- Hair Problems
Detailed information on hair problems, including baldness (alopecia), excessive hairiness (hirsutism), and ingrown hairs
- Hair Replacement Surgery
Detailed information on hair loss and hair replacement surgery
- Halitosis (Bad Breath)
Detailed information on halitosis (bad breath), including causes and treatment
- Hand Pain and Problems
Common hand problems include arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and ganglion cysts.
- Hand Surgery
Detailed information on hand surgery for different hand conditions
At home or work, it's important to wash your hands often—and properly. Read on to learn how.
- Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
Thyroiditis is when your thyroid gland becomes irritated. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common type of this health problem. It is an autoimmune disease. It occurs when your body makes antibodies that attack the cells in your thyroid. The thyroid then can’t make enough of the thyroid hormone.
- Head Injury in Children
The more common causes of head injury in children are falls, motor vehicle accidents—in which the child is either a passenger or a pedestrian—or a result of child abuse.
- Head Lice in Children
Head lice are tiny parasitic bugs that can infest the skin. They live on people’s heads and feed on their blood. Head lice can cause intense itching.
Nearly everyone has suffered from a headache. This article discusses several types of headache, how they are diagnosed and treated.
- Health Promotion and Prevention
Detailed information on health promotion and disease prevention for women, including information on breast health, breast cancer prevention, breast self-examination, mammography, birth control, pap test, preconception care, heart disease prevention, safer
- Healthcare Guidelines For Men
Use these guidelines as a reminder to take care of your personal health care needs, and also as a list of topics to discuss with your doctor.
- Healthcare Providers and Specialists
Detailed information on the healthcare providers and specialists who treat disorders of the spine, shoulder, and pelvis
- Healthy Child Lifestyles
Detailed information on healthy child lifestyles, including information on dental health, nutrition, vision, speech, hearing, sleep, toilet-training, and discipline
- Healthy Cooking Tips for People with Diabetes
Steam vegetables in low-fat broth or water, and use vegetable oil spray instead of oil, shortening, or butter.
- Healthy Eating During Adolescence
Encourage your teen to eat three balanced meals a day, with fruits or vegetables as snacks.
- Healthy Sleep Habits
The normal amount of sleep varies depending on the age of your child. A 2-year-old needs 10 to 12 hours a night, plus naps during the day. By age 6, a child usually has dropped naps, but still needs 10 hours at night.
- Hearing Aids
Hearing aids are electronic or battery-operated devices that can amplify and change sound. A microphone receives the sound and converts it into sound waves. The sound waves are then converted into electrical signals.
- Hearing and Speech Communication Services and Devices
In addition to hearing aids, many other devices are available to help improve communication in daily life. These range from telephone amplifiers to visual alarm systems.
- Hearing Disorders
Detailed information on the most common types of hearing disorders, including hearing loss, presbycusis, tinnitus, usher syndrome, and noise-induced hearing loss
- Hearing Loss
In some people, hearing loss can be surgically corrected. For others, medical devices and rehabilitation therapies often can help reduce hearing loss.
- Hearing Problems and Speech and Language Milestones
Children may reach speech and language milestones at different ages. But in some cases a child that isn’t developing speech and language on track may have a hearing problem.
- Heart Attack
A heart attack happens when the blood supply is cut off from the heart muscle, usually because of a blood clot. Without blood and oxygen, the muscle cells are damaged and die.
- Heart Block
When you have heart block, there is interference with the electrical signals that usually move from the top chambers of your heart to the bottom chambers, telling your heart when to beat.
- Heart Failure
Heart failure is a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
- Heart Murmurs
Heart murmurs may be caused by a number of factors or diseases, including defective heart valves, fever, and pregnancy.
- Heart Transplant Rejection
Your immune system’s job is to make out and destroy strange substances in the body. It destroys bacteria and viruses to help keep you healthy. Normally, this is a good thing, but sometimes the immune system’s response can lead to problems.
- Heart Valve Diseases
Heart valves can malfunction on one of two ways: They can fail to close completely, allowing blood to flow backward, or they can become damaged, limiting blood flow.
- Heat-Related Illnesses (Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke)
Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.
- Helicobacter Pylori
H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) is a type of bacteria that infects your stomach. It can damage the tissue in your stomach and the first part of your small intestine (the duodenum). In some cases it can also cause painful sores called peptic ulcers in your upper digestive tract.
Detailed information on hematology, the study of blood and its disorders
- Hemolytic Anemia
Hemolytic anemia is a disorder in which red blood cells are destroyed faster than they are made.
- Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Detailed information on hemolytic uremic syndrome, including cause, progression, treatment, and statistics
- Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocystosis
If you have hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, your immune system does not work normally. Certain white blood cells — histiocytes and lymphocytes — attack your other blood cells. These abnormal blood cells accumulate in your spleen and liver, causing these organs to enlarge.
- Hemophilia in Children
Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder. Children with hemophilia can’t stop bleeding because they don’t have enough clotting factor in their blood. Clotting factors are needed for blood to clot. Blood clots to prevent excessive bleeding.
Hemorrhoids are when the veins or blood vessels in and around your anus and lower rectum become swollen and irritated. This happens when there is extra pressure on these veins.
Detailed information on the different types of hepatitis, including viral hepatitis, hepatitis a, hepatitis b, and hepatitis c
- Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A is a liver disease that is easily spread from person to person (highly contagious). Hepatitis is a redness or swelling (inflammation) of the liver that sometimes causes lasting damage. Hepatitis A is one type of hepatitis.
- Hepatitis B
Hepatitis is a redness and swelling (inflammation) of the liver. It sometimes causes permanent liver damage.
- Hepatitis C
Hepatitis C is a liver disease that is caused by the hepatitis C virus. It is a redness and swelling (inflammation) of the liver that sometimes causes lasting damage. The liver isn’t able to work the way it should.
- Herbal Medicine
Detailed information on herbal medicine and warnings for use of herbal supplements, including Black cohosh, Echinacea, Evening primrose, Feverfew, Garlic, Gingko biloba, Ginseng, Goldenseal, Green tea, Hawthorn, Saw palmetto, and St. John's wort
- Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (BRCA1 / BRCA2)
A woman with this syndrome may develop breast cancer before age 50 and is at higher risk for developing cancer in both breasts or in both the breasts and ovaries.
- Hereditary Hemochromatosis
Hereditary hemochromatosis is one of the most common genetic disorders in the U.S. Itcauses your body to absorb too much iron from the food you eat.
- Herpes Eye Disease
Herpes eye disease is a group of eye disorders that result from infection with the herpes simplex virus (HSV).
- Hiatal Hernia
In a hiatal hernia, part of your stomach pushes up into an opening (the hiatus) in your diaphragm. The diaphragm is the muscle between your stomach and your chest.
- Hidradenitis Suppurativa
Hidradenitis suppurativa, or acne inversa, is a condition that causes deep, painful boils or abscesses in your skin.
- High Blood Pressure/Hypertension
High blood pressure, or hypertension, increases the risk for coronary heart disease (heart attack) and stroke (brain attack).
- High-Risk Diseases for Travelers
Detailed information on the most common high risk diseases for travelers, including African trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness), mad cow disease, HIV, AIDS, cholera, e. coli, dengue fever, diarrheal disease, cryptosporidiosis, diarrhea, traveler's
- Hip Fracture
A hip fracture is a break in the thigh bone (femur) of your hip joint. The majority happen to people older than 60 years of age, and women get more hip fractures than men.
- Hip Problems
Detailed information on the most common types of hip problems, including arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, traumatic arthritis, avascular necrosis, bursitis, trochanteric bursa, ischial bursa, and hip pointer
- Hip Replacement Surgery
This surgery may be considered as treatment after a hip fracture or for someone who has severe arthritis.
- History of Stroke
Hippocrates, the father of medicine, first recognized stroke over 2,400 years ago. At this time stroke was called apoplexy, which means "struck down by violence" in Greek.
- HIV and AIDS
AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, which kills or impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers.
- Hodgkin Disease
Detailed information on Hodgkin's lymphoma, including symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment
- Home Health Care Statistics
Medical conditions that most frequently require home health care include diabetes, heart failure, chronic ulcer of the skin, osteoarthritis, and hypertension.
- Home Healthcare Overview
Many types of medical and social home healthcare services are available: nursing care, physical therapy, pharmacy services, transportation, and home-delivered meals.
Detailed information on homeopathy as a form of alternative therapy
- Hookworm Infection: Creeping Eruption
Creeping eruption is a skin infection caused by hookworms. The infection is also called cutaneous larva migrans or sandworm disease. Creeping eruption causes severe itching, blisters, and a red growing, winding rash. The rash can grow up to 1 to 2 centimeters per day.
- Hormone Therapy for Cancer
Detailed information on hormone therapy as one type of cancer treatment
- Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer
The goal of hormone therapy is to lower the level of male hormones in the body, particularly testosterone.
- Hormones and the Endocrine System
Detailed information on hormones and their role in the workings of the endocrine system
- Hormones During Pregnancy
Many hormone levels are affected in the body during pregnancy, with several hormones playing major roles.
- Hospice Care Overview
Hospice care usually involves relieving symptoms and providing psychological and social support for the patient and family. The goal of hospice care is to provide the terminally ill patient peace, comfort, and dignity.
- Hospice Care Statistics
Less than half of hospice recipients are cancer patients. The five leading non-cancer conditions admitted to hospice are end-stage heart disease, dementia, feebleness, lung disease, and end-stage renal disease.
- Household Safety Checklist
Use this list as part of a thorough safety check of your home. It can help prevent accidents and injuries.
- How a Migraine Happens
One theory says that migraine pain occurs because of waves of activity by groups of excitable brain cells, which trigger chemicals, such as serotonin to constrict blood vessels.
- How Breast Milk Is Made
Detailed information on how breast milk is made for breastfeeding
- How Genes Cause Cancer
Genes that have alterations, or mutations, can cause cells to become cancerous. Some mutations are inherited and others are "acquired," happening by chance over time.
- Human Bites
Detailed information on human bites, including treatment for human bites
Hyperparathyroidism occurs when 1 or more of your parathyroid glands are overactive. You have 4 of these tiny glands. Each one is about the size of a grain of rice. They are found in your neck, next to the thyroid gland. They keep the amount of calcium in your blood in a normal range. If these glands are overactive, they make too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). That raises the level of calcium in your blood.
Hyperthyroidism means your thyroid gland is too active. This tiny gland is found in your neck. An overactive thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormone. This makes your metabolism work at a faster rate.
- Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or HCM, is a disease that causes thickening (hypertrophy) of the heart muscle. The heart cells enlarge more than they should and scarring is often found between the cells.
Hypnosis is an altered, relaxed state of mind, often used to help learn to control bad habits, pain,