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    • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

      Detailed information on abdominal aortic aneurysms, including description of abdominal aortic aneurysm, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical and procedure illustrations

    • About Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases

      Arthritis, itself a group of more than 100 different diseases, is one category of rheumatic diseases.

    • About Breast Cancer in Men

      Breast cancer in men is rare—less than 1 percent of all breast carcinomas occur in men.

    • About Clinical Trials: Information from the National Cancer Institute

      Clinical trials are studies, managed by government agencies, educational institutions, private not-for-profit organizations, or commercial businesses, to develop, produce, and evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments and therapies for diseases.

    • About Tamoxifen

      Tamoxifen has been used to treat both advanced and early stage breast cancer. More recently, tamoxifen is being used as an additional therapy following primary treatment for early stage breast cancer.

    • About Taxol

      Taxol, or paclitaxel, is a drug used for treating certain women who have advanced breast or ovarian cancer. Paclitaxel is a compound that is extracted from the bark of the Pacific yew tree.

    • Accomplishments of Environmental Medicine

      One highlight: Exposure to fine particles, sulfur dioxide, and acid aerosols has been linked to an increase in respiratory symptoms and reduced lung capacity.

    • Achalasia

      Achalasia is a disease that makes it hard to eat and drink normally. It affects your esophagus, which is the swallowing tube that connects the back of your throat to your stomach.

    • Achilles Tendon Injuries

      Your Achilles tendon withstands a lot of stress and pressure during everyday activities, as well as during athletic and recreational play.

    • Acne

      Detailed information on acne, including causes, symptoms, and different types of treatment such as medication, dermabrasion, chemical peels, collagen injections, laser resurfacing, punch grafts, phototherapy/blue light therapy, and autologous fat transfer

    • Acne Scar Removal

      Detailed information on different techniques for acne scar removal, including dermabrasion, chemical peels, collagen injections, laser resurfacing, punch grafts, and autologous fat transfer

    • Acoustic Neuroma

      Acoustic neuroma is a noncancerous tumor that may develop from an overproduction of Schwann cells that press on the hearing and balance nerves in the inner ear.

    • Acquired Brain Injury

      Acquired brain injury occurs when a sudden, external, physical assault damages the brain. It is one of the most common causes of disability and death in adults.

    • Acromegaly

      Detailed information on acromegaly, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Actinic Keratosis (a precancerous condition)

      Detailed information on actinic keratosis, including causes and treatment

    • Acupuncture

      Acupuncture is the practice of puncturing the skin with needles at certain anatomical points in the body to relieve specific symptoms associated with many diseases.

    • Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis

      Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) is an infection of both your nasal cavity and sinuses. It is caused by bacteria.

    • Acute Bronchitis

      Detailed information on acute bronchitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Acute Liver Failure

      Acute liver failure is a rare condition that happens when your liver suddenly begins to lose its ability to function. This is frequently the immediate result of an overdose of medication or poisoning.

    • Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

      Detailed information on acute lymphocytic leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

      Detailed information on acute myelogenous leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Acute Spinal Cord Injury

      Many types of trauma can cause an acute spinal cord injury. The more common types occur when the area of the spine or neck is bent or compressed.

    • Adjustment Disorders

      Adjustment disorders are quite common in children and teens. They are characterized by an excessive reaction to stress.

    • Adrenal Tumors / Pheochromocytoma

      Detailed information on adrenal gland tumors and pheochromocytoma, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Advances in Therapeutic Radiology

      One newer therapy combines radiation and chemotherapy, because in some cases, radiation may improve the effects of chemotherapy, and vice versa. Another therapy uses external beam radiation during surgery to treat cancerous tumors or certain other forms of cancer.

    • African Trypanosomiasis (African Sleeping Sickness)

      Detailed information on African trypanosomiasis, also called African sleeping sickness, including symptoms, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment

    • After Surgery: Discomforts and Complications

      Detailed information on postoperative discomforts and potential complications, including shock, hemorrhage, wound infection, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary complications, urinary retention, and reaction to anesthesia

    • After You Return

      Detailed information on health considerations after returning home from traveling abroad

    • Age-Appropriate Speech and Hearing Milestones

      A hearing problem may be suspected in a child who is not responding to sounds or who is not developing language skills appropriately.

    • Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

      Age-related macular degeneration is a disease that affects an individual's central vision, making it difficult of read, drive, or perform other daily activities.

    • Air Pollution

      Detailed information on air pollution and air pollution prevention

    • Air Travel

      Detailed information on healthy considerations for air travel, including ways to prevent motion sickness and jet lag

    • Airway Obstruction

      Detailed information on airway obstruction and children, including choking, suffocation, and strangulation

    • Alcohol and Pregnancy

      Alcohol consumption by the mother is a leading cause of preventable birth defects in the fetus. In addition, the risk for miscarriage and stillbirth increases with alcohol consumption.

    • Alcohol Use and People with Diabetes

      Alcohol can lower blood sugar levels to the point of hypoglycemia. Keep careful track of your blood sugar levels when drinking alcohol, because certain diabetes medications also lower blood glucose levels.

    • Alcoholic Hepatitis

      Detailed information on alcoholic hepatitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease

      Detailed information on alcohol induced liver disease, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • All About Allergy

      Detailed information on allergy, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • All About Asthma

      Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory lung disease with recurrent breathing problems.

    • Allergen: Insect Stings

      Detailed information on allergic reactions to insect bites and stings

    • Allergens: Animals

      Household pets, like cats and dogs, are the most common sources of animal allergens.

    • Allergens: Chemical Sensitivity

      Detailed information on synthetic and natural substances that cause sensitivity to the skin

    • Allergens: Dust and Dust Mites

      Dust mites are microscopic organisms that can live and thrive throughout homes and businesses.

    • Allergens: Food

      Detailed information on food allergy, including food intolerance and food allergy symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Allergens: Mold

      Mold spores or fragments may be inhaled through the nose and into the lungs, where they cause allergic reactions or asthma.

    • Allergens: Poison Ivy / Poison Oak

      Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac can all cause bumps and blisters that itch. Teach your children what these plants look like and how to avoid them.

    • Allergens: Pollen

      Pollen is the most common cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis, sometimes known as "hay fever."

    • Allergens: Triggers of Allergy Attacks

      Detailed information on allergy triggers and symptom control

    • Allergic Rhinitis

      Pollen, dust mites, mold, and animal dander are the most common causes of allergic rhinitis.

    • Allergies

      Detailed information on allergies in children, including information on allergic rhinitis and food allergies

    • Allergies and the Immune System

      Most allergic reactions are a result of an immune system that responds to a "false alarm."

    • Allergy and Asthma Statistics

      More than 22 million Americans have been diagnosed with asthma. Find out other facts and figures on this chronic disease.

    • Alpha Thalassemia

      Detailed information on alpha thalassemia, including cause, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Alzheimer's Disease

      Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, a disorder in which mental functions deteriorate and break down.

    • Amenorrhea

      Amenorrhea is a menstrual condition in which a woman's menstrual periods are absent for more than three monthly cycles. Pregnancy is one possible cause of amenorrhea.

    • Amputation

      Detailed information on amputation, including causes and types of rehabilitation programs for amputations

    • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

      Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurological disorder marked by the progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain. It is often referred to as Lou Gehrig’s disease, after a famous baseball player who died from it.

    • Anal Fissures

      An anal fissure is a small, painful tear in the lining of the anus. Anal fissures may hurt and bleed during or after a bowel movement, but about 90 percent heal without surgery.

    • Anal Fistula

      An anal fistula is an abnormal opening in the skin near the anus that leads to the inside of the anal canal in the colon,

    • Analgesic Nephropathy

      Detailed information on analgesic nephropathy, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and acute kidney failure

    • Anaplasmosis

      Anaplasmosis is an illness caused by bacteria that’s spread by ticks. The bacteria are called Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The illness causes fever, muscle aches, and other symptoms

    • Anatomical Pathology

      Detailed information on several of the different divisions of anatomical pathology, including biopsy, surgical pathology, cytology, and autopsy

    • Anatomy and Development of the Mouth and Teeth

      Children's teeth begin developing in the fetus. Good nutrition from the mother during pregnancy is important in the development of the teeth.

    • Anatomy and Function of the Coronary Arteries

      Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. There are two main coronary arteries: the right and the left.

    • Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves

      Detailed anatomical description of the heart valves, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

    • Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves

      Heart valves prevent the backward flow of blood. They act as one-way inlets of blood on one side of a ventricle and one-way outlets of blood on the other side of a ventricle.

    • Anatomy and Function of the Heart's Electrical System

      The heart is a pump made of muscle tissue. Its pumping action is regulated by electrical impulses.

    • Anatomy of a Joint

      Joints are the areas where two or more bones meet. Most joints are mobile, allowing the bones to move.

    • Anatomy of Female Pelvic Area

      The female pelvic area contains a number of organs and structures: the endometrium, uterus, ovaries, cervix, vagina, and vulva.

    • Anatomy of the Bone

      A typical bone in your body contains three types of tissue—a hard outer tissue, a sponge-like inner tissue, and smooth tissue at the ends.

    • Anatomy of the Brain

      The brain is an important organ that controls thought, memory, emotion, touch, motor skills, vision, respiration, temperature, hunger, and every process that regulates your body.

    • Anatomy of the Breasts

      Each breast has 15 to 20 sections (lobes), which are arranged like the petals of a daisy. Each lobe has many smaller lobules, which end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk.

    • Anatomy of the Endocrine System

      The endocrine system includes not only the pancreas—the organ involved in the development of diabetes—but also the pituitary, thyroid, and other glands.

    • Anatomy of the Eye

      The structures of the eye include the cornea, iris, pupil, macula, retina, and the optic nerve.

    • Anatomy of the Hand

      Each of your hands has three types of bones: phalanges in your fingers; metacarpals in your mid-hand, and carpals in your wrist.

    • Anatomy of the Prostate Gland

      The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the neck of a man’s bladder and urethra—the tube that carries urine from the bladder.

    • Anatomy of the Respiratory System

      The respiratory system includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs.

    • Anatomy of the Skin

      The skin is the body's largest organ. It serves as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection.

    • Anatomy of the Urinary System

      Detailed anatomical description of the urinary system, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations

    • Anatomy: Fetus in Utero

      A thin-walled sac surrounds the fetus during pregnancy. The sac is filled with amniotic fluid, which protects the fetus from injury.

    • Anemia of Folate Deficiency

      Detailed information on anemia of folate deficiency, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Anemias

      Detailed information on the different types of anemia, including aplastic anemia, anemia of folate deficiency, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, hemolytic anemia, iron deficiency anemia, megaloblastic anemia, and sickle cell disease

    • Aneurysm

      Detailed information on the dangers of aneurysm, how an aneurysm develops, and aneurysm diagnosis

    • Angina Pectoris

      Angina pectoris occurs when the heart muscle doesn't receive enough blood and oxygen for a given level of work.

    • Angiogenesis Inhibitors

      Sometimes called antiangiogenic therapy, this treatment may prevent the growth of cancer by blocking the formation of new blood vessels.

    • Animal Bites and Rabies

      Detailed information on animal bites and rabies, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Aniridia

      Aniridia is a serious and rare eye disorder in which the iris is partly or completely gone.

    • Ankle Dislocation

      A joint dislocation is when there is an abnormal separation between the bones of a joint. When this happens in your ankle joint, it’s known as an ankle dislocation. It is a severe injury.

    • Ankyloglossia

      Ankyloglossia, or “tongue-tie,” is a type of anatomical problem of the tongue that is present from birth. It causes speech and eating difficulties in some children.

    • Ankylosing Spondylitis

      Detailed information on ankylosing spondylitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Anorectal Abscess

      An anorectal abscess is a collection of pus under the skin in the area of the anus and rectum.

    • Anorexia Nervosa

      Anorexia nervosa (or simply anorexia) is an eating disorder that causes people to obsess about their weight and food.

    • Antibiotic Resistance

      Antibiotics are medicines used to kill bacteria. Over time, certain groups of these germs may adapt to these medicines. They may change in such a way that antibiotics can′t kill them. The term for this is antibiotic resistance.

    • Antibiotics

      Detailed information on the use of antibiotics and children

    • Anxiety Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common types of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias

    • Aortic Valve Regurgitation

      Aortic valve regurgitation is when a person’s aortic valve leaks. The aortic valve is one of the heart’s four valves. These valves help the blood flow through the heart and out to the body. Normally, the aortic valve stops blood from flowing back into the left ventricle. With aortic valve regurgitation, some blood leaks back through the valve as the heart relaxes.

    • Aphasia

      Detailed information on aphasia, including cause, diagnosis, types, and treatment

    • Aplastic Anemia

      Detailed information on aplastic anemia, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Appendicitis

      Detailed information on appendicitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Arrhythmias

      An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart that can cause the heart to pump less effectively.

    • Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia

      Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (or ARVD) is a disease of the heart muscle. In this disease, fatty fibrous tissue replaces normal heart muscle. This interrupts normal electrical signals in the heart and may cause irregular and potentially life-threatening heart rhythms. The heart also becomes weaker over time leading to heart failure.

    • Art, Dance, and Music

      Detailed information on art therapy, dance therapy, and music therapy as a form of alternative therapy

    • Arteriogram

      Detailed information on arteriogram, also called angiogram, including information on how the procedure is performed

    • Arthritis

      Arthritis and other rheumatic diseases are characterized by pain, swelling, and limited movement in joints and connective tissues in the body.

    • Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases Statistics

      Rheumatic diseases are the leading cause of disability among people ages 65 and older.

    • Arthroscopy

      Orthopedic surgeons use arthroscopy to diagnose and treat joint problems. An arthroscope is a small, tube shaped instrument that is used to look inside a joint.

    • Aspiration from Dysphagia

      Aspiration is when something enters the airway or lungs by accident. It may be food, liquid, or some other material. This can cause serious health problems, such as pneumonia. Aspiration can happen when a person has trouble swallowing normally. This is known as dysphagia.

    • Aspiration in Babies and Children

      Aspiration is when something enters the airway or lungs by accident. It may be food, liquid, or some other material. This can cause serious health problems, such as pneumonia.

    • Assistive Equipment for the Home

      Assistive equipment includes shower seats and bathtub mats; walkers, canes, and wheelchairs; and telephones for the hearing-impaired.

    • Asthma

      Detailed information on asthma, including triggers of an asthma attack, symptoms, diagnosis, management, and treatment

    • Asthma and Children

      How asthma will affect a child throughout his/her lifetime varies, depending on the child.

    • Asthma and Exercise

      Exercise-induced asthma is different from the typical asthma that is triggered by allergens and/or irritants.

    • Asthma and Pregnancy

      With proper asthma management and good prenatal care, most women with asthma can have healthy pregnancies.

    • Asthma Attacks

      Detailed information on asthma attack triggers and avoidance of allergens and other irritants

    • Asthma Triggers

      Detailed information on asthma triggers

    • Ataxia

      Ataxia is a symptom—not a disorder. It refers to a failure of muscle control in the arms and legs, resulting in a lack of balance, coordination, and possibly a disturbance in gait.

    • Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T)

      The risk for breast cancer may be increased for women who carry the A-T gene. Ataxia telangiectasia is a rare childhood disease that affects the nervous system and other body systems.

    • Atherosclerosis

      Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis caused by a build-up of plaque in the inner lining of an artery.

    • Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema)

      Atopic dermatitis is a hereditary and chronic skin disorder that mostly affects infants and young children, but may last until a child reaches adolescence or adulthood.

    • Atrial Fibrillation

      Atrial fibrillation is a type of arrhythmia in which the electrical signals in the atria, or the two small chambers of the heart, are fired in a very fast and uncontrolled manner.

    • Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke Prevention

      Atrial fibrillation increases the risk for stroke. So stroke prevention is an important part of treatment for atrial fibrillation.

    • Atrial Flutter

      Atrial flutter is a common type of arrhythmia, where your atria beat more quickly than they should. Although usually not life-threatening, the condition makes it difficult for your heart to pump blood efficiently.

    • Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children

      ADHD is a behavior disorder marked by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity.

    • Audiologist

      Audiologists measure and evaluate a person's ability to hear sounds, and specialize in the treatment of people with hearing disorders.

    • Audiology

      Audiologists address hearing and balance problems in people of all ages. They also help with the fitting and management of hearing aids.

    • Autoimmune Hepatitis

      Detailed information on autoimmune hepatitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Automated External Defibrillator

      An AED is a small, portable, battery-powered machine with a computer in it. The machine detects heart activity. It can give an electric shock to someone if needed.

    • Autopsy

      Detailed information on autopsy, including who performs the procedure and how an autopsy is performed

    • Avascular Necrosis

      Detailed information on avascular necrosis, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Avoiding Eye Injuries

      Detailed information on eye safety and tips to avoid eye injury

    • Ayurveda

      Ayurveda is a system of medicine based on the idea that disease is caused by an imbalance or stress in a person's consciousness.

    • Back and Neck Pain

      Pain in the back or neck area can be acute, which comes on suddenly and intensely, or chronic, which can last for weeks, months, or even years. The pain can be continuous or intermittent.

    • Bacterial Endocarditis: Adult

      Bacterial endocarditis is a bacterial infection of the inner layer of the heart or the heart valves. The heart has four valves. These valves help the blood flow through the heart and out to the body. When a person has bacterial endocarditis, these valves may not be able to work properly. This can force the heart to work harder to get blood out to the body. Sometimes the heart can’t keep up with this increased demand, and it does not pump out enough blood.

    • Bacterial Skin Infections

      Detailed information on the most common bacterial skin infections, including cellulitis, folliculitis, boils, carbuncles, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

    • Baker’s Cyst

      A Baker’s cyst (popliteal cyst) is a fluid-filled sac that forms behind the knee.

    • Balance Disorders

      Detailed information on balance disorders, including acoustic neurinoma and Ménière's disease

    • Baldness (Alopecia)

      Baldness is usually most noticeable on the scalp, but can occur anywhere on the body where hair grows. The condition is more common in men than in women.

    • Barium X-Rays (Upper and Lower GI)

      Detailed information on barium x-rays, also called upper and lower GI series, including information on how the procedure is performed

    • Barrett's Esophagus

      Detailed information on Barrett's esophagus, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Basal Cell Carcinoma

      Detailed information on basal cell carcinoma, including risk factors and how the disease develops

    • Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome)

      The risk for ovarian cancer and skin cancer is increased with basal cell nevus syndrome, a rare genetic disorder.

    • Basic Anatomy of the Heart

      Located almost in the center of the chest, the adult human heart is about the size of two fists held side-by-side.

    • Bed Sores

      Detailed information on bed sores, including causes, prevention, and treatment

    • Bedwetting (Enuresis)

      Detailed information on bedwetting (enuresis) in children, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment of urinary incontinence

    • Bee Stings

      Detailed information on bee sting and other insect stings, including symptoms and treatment

    • Behavior Disorders

      Detailed information on behavior problems in adolescents, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder

    • Behcet’s Disease

      Behcet’s disease is a type of autoimmune disease. It causes inflammation of blood vessels. It’s a rare disease in the United States, but it is more common in the Middle East and Asia. It’s more common in people in their 20’s or 30’s, but it can happen at any age.

    • Being a Caregiver

      "Formal" caregivers are paid for their services and have had training and education in providing care. "Informal" caregivers, also called family caregivers, are people who provide care to family or friends, usually without payment.

    • Bell's Palsy

      Bell's palsy is an unexplained weakness or paralysis of the facial muscle that begins suddenly and worsens over three to five days. It can strike at any age, but it occurs most often in pregnant women, and in people who have diabetes, influenza, or another upper respiratory ailment.

    • Benign Bone Tumors

      Detailed information on the most common benign bone tumors, including chondroblastoma, enchondroma, giant cell tumor, and osteochondroma

    • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

      Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a disease of the vestibular system of your inner ear. When you change your head position, it causes vertigo. Vertigo is a feeling that the room is spinning around you.

    • Benign Prostate Problems

      The prostate gland can develop several conditions that are not cancerous. Pain, inflammation, and impotency are common problems.

    • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

      BPH is a condition in which the prostate gland becomes very enlarged and may cause problems associated with urination.

    • Beta Thalassemia (Cooley's Anemia)

      Detailed information on beta thalassemia, including diagnosis and treatment

    • Bicuspid Aortic Valve

      Bicuspid aortic valve is a type of abnormality in the aortic valve in the heart. In bicuspid aortic valve, the valve has only two small parts, called leaflets, instead of the normal three. This condition is present from birth. It often occurs with other heart defects.

    • Biliary Cirrhosis / Bile Duct Cancer

      Detailed information on biliary cirrhosis and bile duct cancer, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Binge Eating Disorder

      Binge eating disorder is an illness that resembles bulimia nervosa and is characterized by episodes of uncontrolled eating or bingeing. It differs from bulimia because its sufferers do not purge their bodies of the excess food.

    • Biopsy

      Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy

    • Birthmarks

      Detailed information on birthmarks and the different types, including vascular birthmarks, hemangiomas, and port-wine stains

    • Bites and Stings

      Detailed information on insect bites, including bee stings, flea bites, mite bites, chigger bites, spider bites, tick bites, and lyme disease

    • Bladder Cancer

      Detailed information on bladder cancer, including symptoms, types, causes, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Bleaching

      Detailed information on teeth bleaching, including potential risks and side effects

    • Bleeding / Clotting Disorders

      Detailed information on bleeding/clotting disorders, including hemophilia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and thrombosis

    • Blisters

      Detailed information on blisters, including cause, first-aid, and treatment

    • Blocked Intestine

      An intestinal blockage interrupts the normal digestive process. Many possible causes can lead to intestinal blockage including scarring, a hernia, or tumors.

    • Blood Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common blood disorders, including hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, thrombocythemia, leukemia, and lymphoma

    • Blood Donations / Blood Banking

      Detailed information on blood donations and blood banking

    • Blood Transfusions

      Detailed information on blood transfusion, including the components of blood and potential risks involved in a blood transfusion

    • Body Dysmorphic Disorder

      If you have body dysmorphic disorder, you may be so upset about the appearance of your body, that it interferes with your ability to function normally.

    • Body Movement

      Tai chi and yoga are two forms of non-aerobic movement and controlled breathing that can be practiced to reduce stress and anxiety.

    • Bone Bruise

      A bone bruise is a traumatic injury to a bone that is less severe than a bone fracture.

    • Bone Cancers

      Detailed information on bone cancers, including chondrosarcoma, ewings sarcoma, myeloma bone disease, multiple myeloma, and osteosarcoma

    • Bone Density Test

      A bone density test measures the strength and density of your bones as you approach menopause and, when the test is repeated sometime later, can help determine how quickly you are losing bone mass and density.

    • Bone Disorders

      Detailed information on bone disorders, including avascular necrosis, fibrous dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta, osteomyelitis, Paget's disease of the bone, and primary hyperparathyroidism

    • Bone Marrow Transplantation

      Detailed information on bone marrow transplant, including preparation, types of transplant, transplant team, and possible procedure-related complications or side effects

    • Borderline Personality Disorder

      Borderline personality disorder is a type of mental illness. If you have BPD, you may have problems with daily tasks, obligations, and life events.

    • Bottle-Feeding

      Detailed information on bottle-feeding, including information on the different types of baby formula

    • Boxer’s Fracture

      A boxer’s fracture is a break in the neck of the fifth metacarpal bone in the hand. It gets its name because the injury is common in inexperienced boxers.

    • Brachytherapy

      Brachytherapy is radiation treatment that is given inside the patient, as close to the cancer as possible. The radiation is delivered to the body site with radioactive isotopes inside wires, seeds, or rods. These devices are called implants.

    • Brain Cyst

      A brain cyst is a type of abnormal fluid-filled sac in the brain. They are usually non-cancerous.

    • Brain Tumors

      A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The tumor can either originate in the brain itself or come from another part of the body and travel to the brain.

    • Breast Augmentation

      Breast augmentation is a procedure to reshape the breast in order to make it larger. The procedure can also be performed to reconstruct the breast after breast surgery.

    • Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT)

      BCPT was a clinical trial that studied tamoxifen as a prevention therapy for those at high risk for breast cancer. Data showed the results of tamoxifen treatment to be "highly significant," with a 49 percent reduction in the number of invasive breast cancers seen across all age groups.

    • Breast Cancer Statistics

      Breast cancer ranks second among cancer deaths in women after lung cancer.

    • Breast Health

      Detailed information on breast health, including anatomy of the breast, normal breast development, breast cancer prevention, breast self-examination, mammography, breast conditions, mastalgia (breast pain), breast lump, fibrocystic breast changes, nipple

    • Breast Health: Three-Step Plan for Preventive Care

      To monitor your breast health, you should do a monthly breast self-exam, get a year clinical exam, and get mammograms as directed by your doctor.

    • Breast Infections and Inflammations

      The most common type of breast infection is lactational mastitis, which occurs when a woman is breastfeeding. The nipples become cracked and sore, allowing bacteria from the baby's mouth to enter the ducts and rapidly multiply in the milk.

    • Breast Milk Is the Best Milk

      Your milk contains just the right balance of nutrients, and it contains them in a form most easily used by the human baby's immature body systems.

    • Breast Reconstruction

      Breast reconstruction surgery involves creating a breast mound that comes as close as possible to the form and appearance of the natural breast.

    • Breast Reduction in Men With Gynecomastia

      Detailed information on gynecomastia, including causes, facts, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Breastfeeding

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and starting to breastfeeding

    • Breastfeeding Chart
    • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby

      Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the baby, including ineffective latch-on, ineffective sucking, slow infant weight gain, poor infant weight gain, mismanaged breastfeeding, over-active breast milk let down

    • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother

      Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the mother, including sore nipples, low breast milk production, flat nipples, plugged milk ducts, and mastitis

    • Breastfeeding Your Baby

      Detailed information on breastfeeding, including information on breast milk, starting breastfeeding, breast milk production, effective breastfeeding, breastfeeding difficulties, sore nipples, insufficient breast milk production, delayed breast milk production, low breast milk production, flat nipples, inverted nipples, plugged milk ducts, mastitis, breastfeeding latch-on difficulties, and poor infant weight gain

    • Bridges

      Detailed information on healthcare for dental bridges

    • Bronchiectasis

      Bronchiectasis is a condition that affects the airways to the lungs. It’s usually caused by an infection or other inflammatory condition. You can also be born with it. Bronchiectasis injures the walls of the airways. Over time, they become scarred and flabby and can’t clear out mucus. This can lead to serious lung infections and other major health problems.

    • Brown Syndrome

      Brown syndrome is a mechanical problem with the superior oblique muscle tendon attached to the outside of your eyeball. In Brown syndrome, this tendon cannot move freely. This limits your eye’s normal movements.

    • Brugada Syndrome

      Brugada syndrome is a disorder that causes an irregular heartbeat. A mutation in the SCN5A gene causes the genetic form of this condition.

    • Brushing and Toothpaste

      Detailed information on brushing and toothpaste

    • Bruxism

      Detailed information on bruxism, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment

    • BSE ('Mad Cow Disease') and vCJD

      BSE is a cattle disease, and vCJD is the equivalent disease in humans. Both are fatal brain diseases. Researchers believe that people become infected by eating beef contaminated with BSE.

    • Buerger’s Disease

      Buerger’s disease (thromboangiitis obliterans) is one of many types of vasculitis. This is inflammation that involves your blood vessels.

    • Bulimia Nervosa in Adolescents

      Bulimia nervosa is defined as uncontrolled episodes of overeating (bingeing) usually followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, enemas, or medications in an attempt to control weight.

    • Burns in Children

      Detailed information on burns, burn types, classification of burns, and burn treatment

    • Bursitis

      A bursa is a fluid-filled sac that cushions a joint. When a bursa becomes inflamed, the condition is known as bursitis.

    • Calculating a Due Date

      First, determine the first day of your last menstrual period. Next, count back three calendar months and add one year and seven days to that date.

    • Calculating Calories and Fat Grams

      Here's a formula to help you figure out how many calories and fat grams you need each day to maintain your current weight.

    • Calluses and Corns

      Detailed information on calluses and corns

    • Cancer Overview

      Cancer cells don't function properly, and they can spread to many areas of the body. Tumors are clusters of cells that are capable of growing and dividing uncontrollably; their growth is not regulated.

    • Cancer Rehabilitation

      Detailed information on cancer rehabilitation, including members of the rehabilitation team

    • Cancer Treatment Team

      Your cancer treatment may involve several types of health care professionals who, with you, form the "cancer care team."

    • Cancer Treatment: Overview

      Detailed information on the most common types of cancer treatment, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, biological therapy, and cancer clinical trials

    • Candida Infection: Thrush

      Thrush is a type of fungal infection. It occurs in your mouth and throat. Thrush does not usually affect healthy adults. It is more common in people with impaired immune systems. It is also more likely in those who take certain kinds of medications.

    • Candidiasis (Yeast Infection)

      Candidiasis is an infection caused by yeast on the skin and/or mucous membranes. The symptoms vary depending on the location of the infection.

    • Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome

      Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a condition that leads to repeated and severe bouts of vomiting. It results from long-term use of marijuana (cannabis).

    • Car Safety

      Detailed information on car safety

    • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

      Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a type of bacteria. They can cause infections. These infections can be hard to treat.

    • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

      Detailed information on carbon monoxide poisoning

    • Cardiac Arrest

      Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart suddenly stops functioning. With no heartbeat, the brain and other vital organs are deprived of blood, leading to death within minutes.

    • Cardiac Arrest and Heart Disease

      Victims of cardiac arrest typically have undiagnosed coronary artery disease (CAD)—the most common cause of the dangerous heart rhythm problems that can lead to this condition.

    • Cardiac Catheterization

      Cardiac catheterization is a procedure in which a catheter is moved through a blood vessel to the heart in order to better diagnose coronary heart disease, valvular heart disease, congestive heart failure and other heart conditions.

    • Cardiac Conditions and Diseases

      Detailed information on the most common cardiovascular diseases, including full-page descriptions detailing the most common types of heart disease, related symptoms, diagnostic, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, ICDs, and treatment information

    • Cardiac Diagnostic Tests

      Here's a look at just a few of the tests that have been used or are being used to understand and identify cardiovascular disease.

    • Cardiac Procedures

      These procedures are often used in the evaluation and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    • Cardiac Rehabilitation

      Cardiac rehabilitation programs can be conducted while a person is a hospital inpatient or on an outpatient basis.

    • Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

      Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) uses pulses of electricity to help the ventricles, or the two lower chambers of the heart, beat as they should.

    • Cardiac Sarcoma

      Cardiac sarcoma is a rare type of cancerous tumor that occurs in the heart.

    • Cardiac Tamponade

      Cardiac tamponade happens when extra fluid builds up in the space around the heart. This fluid puts pressure on the heart and prevents it from pumping well.

    • Cardiomyopathy

      Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.

    • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

      Detailed information on cpr, including how to become properly trained in cpr

    • Cardiovascular Disease Statistics

      Heart disease is one of the most serious health problems in the United States. Find out more facts and figures on this topic.

    • Care and Management of Multiple Pregnancy

      A woman with a multiple pregnancy needs more calories and nutrients, more frequent prenatal visits, and more rest.

    • Care of the Baby in the Delivery Room

      A newborn baby is wet from the amniotic fluid and can easily become cold. Drying the baby and using warm blankets and heat lamps can help prevent heat loss. Often a knitted hat is placed on the baby's head.

    • Care of the Mouth and Teeth

      Detailed information on care of the mouth and teeth for children

    • Care of the Uncircumcised Penis

      In an uncircumcised boy, the foreskin will begin to separate from the glans, or the tip of the penis. This happens naturally while the male is an infant. This is called foreskin retraction.

    • Caring for the Mother: Physically and Emotionally

      Nap when your baby naps. Take warm, shallow baths several times a day if you had stitches after delivery. Wear a supportive bra and use warm compresses to help with milk letdown.

    • Carnitine Deficiency

      Carnitine deficiency is when not enough of the nutrient carnitine is available to cells in the body. This can cause muscle weakness and heart or liver problems.

    • Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase Deficiency

      Carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) deficiency is a very rare condition that causes muscle weakness and other symptoms. It happens because of a problem with one of two enzymes, CPT1 or CPT2. Enzymes are substances in the body that help cause chemical reactions.

    • Carotid Artery Disease

      Carotid artery disease occurs when the carotid arteries, the main blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to the brain, become narrowed.

    • Carotid Dissection

      A carotid dissection is a type of tear in one of your carotid arteries.It is a common cause of stroke in people under age 50.

    • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

      Women develop carpal tunnel syndrome three times more frequently than men. It usually occurs only in adults.

    • Cat Scratch Disease

      Detailed information on cat scratch disease, including symptoms and treatment

    • Cataracts and Cataract Surgery

      A cataract is a clouding or opaque area over the lens of the eye—an area that's normally transparent. As less light reaches the retina, it becomes increasingly harder to see and vision may become dull and blurry.

    • Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia

      Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, or CPVT, is a rare genetic condition. It causes an irregular heart rhythm that can be life threatening. It often shows up in childhood. The first sign is often fainting or near fainting during exercise or strong emotion.

    • Causes of Skin Cancer

      Detailed information on causes and risk factors for skin cancer, including heredity and environment

    • Celiac Disease

      Detailed information on celiac disease, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Cellulitis

      Detailed information on cellulitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Cerebral Aneurysm

      A cerebral aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of an artery in the brain. This weak spot raises the risk that the artery wall will burst open.

    • Cervical Cancer

      Cervical cancer develops from abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix that spread deeper or to other tissues or organs. This type of cancer occurs most often in women older than 40.

    • Cervicitis

      Cervicitis is an irritation of the cervix. Acute cervicitis can be caused an infection such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, or herpes. Chronic cervicitis is common in women following childbirth.

    • Chagas Disease

      The parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis). The feces of insects called triatomine, or “kissing” bugs, transmits the parasite to people.

    • Chaplain

      Chaplains act as spiritual counselors to help patients and families through periods of crisis.

    • Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

      Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a group of conditions also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy. CMT develops because of a defective gene that causes abnormalities in the nerves that supply your feet, legs, hands, and arms.

    • Checklist for Surgery/Consent Forms/Insurance Information

      The decision to have surgery is an important one. Here is a checklist to help you prepare. You'll need to arrange a time for any preoperative lab tests and for an interview with the anesthesiologist. Check with your health plan regarding costs and coverage of the surgery.

    • Chemical Peel

      Detailed information on chemical peels, including potential complications and what substances are used for chemical peels

    • Chemical Poisoning and Syrup of Ipecac

      Detailed information on chemical poisoning and syrup of ipecac

    • Chemotherapy

      Detailed information on chemotherapy for treatment of gynecological cancers

    • Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Treatment

      Your oncologist will determine how long and how often you will have chemotherapy treatments. Chemotherapy can be administered intravenously or by pill, and is usually a combination of drugs.

    • Chemotherapy For Prostate Cancer

      Chemotherapy may be used when the cancer has spread outside of the prostate gland, or it may be used in combination with other therapies.

    • Chickenpox

      Detailed information on chickenpox, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, complications, and immunity

    • Childhood Apraxia of Speech

      Childhood apraxia of speech is a type of speech disorder. It is present from birth. A child with this condition has problems making sounds correctly and consistently. Apraxia is a problem with the motor coordination of speech.

    • Chin, Cheek, or Jaw Reshaping / Facial Implants

      Detailed information on chin reshaping, cheek reshaping, jaw reshaping, and facial implants, including possible facial implant complications

    • Chinese Medicine

      Detailed information on traditional Chinese medicine as a form of alternative therapy

    • Chiropractic Medicine

      Chiropractic medicine is based on the relationship between the alignment of the spine and the function of the body and the belief that the body can heal itself.

    • Choking and the Heimlich Maneuver

      Detailed information on choking, choking prevention, and the Heimlick maneuver

    • Cholangitis

      Detailed information on cholangitis, including symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Cholecystitis

      Detailed information on cholecystitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Cholera

      Detailed information on cholera, including causes, prevention, and treatment

    • Cholesterol in the Blood

      The cholesterol in your blood comes from the foods you eat and your liver—but your liver makes all of the cholesterol your body needs.

    • Chondroblastoma

      A chondroblastoma is a rare type of benign bone tumor that originates from cartilage.

    • Chondrosarcoma

      Chondrosarcoma is a malignant type of bone cancer that primarily affects the cartilage cells of the femur, arm, pelvis, knee, and spine.

    • Choosing a Provider

      When looking for a home health and hospice care provider, consider quality of care, availability of services, personnel training and expertise, and payer coverage.

    • Choosing a Rehabilitation Unit/CARF

      Rehabilitation services are provided in many different places, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, and community health centers.

    • Choroid Plexus Papilloma

      Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) is a rare type of brain tumor. These tumors are usually not cancerous. This condition is most common in young children, but can also occur in adults.

    • Chronic Bronchitis

      Chronic bronchitis is a long-term inflammation of the bronchi, which results in increased production of mucus.

    • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

      Detailed information on chronic fatigue syndrome, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy

      Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune disorder, meaning the body attacks its own tissues. In CIDP, the myelin sheaths — the fatty covering on the fibers that insulate and protect your body’s nerves — are under attack.

    • Chronic Liver Disease/Cirrhosis

      Detailed information on cirrhosis, chronic liver disease, and fibrosis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

      Detailed information on chronic lymphocytic leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

      Detailed information on chronic myelogenous leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

      Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the two most common conditions of COPD.

    • Chronic Pain

      Chronic pain is longstanding pain that persists beyond the usual recovery period or occurs along with a chronic health condition, such as arthritis.

    • Chronic Venous Insufficiency

      Detailed information on chronic venous insufficiency, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical illustrations

    • Circumcision

      Whether you decided to have your baby boy circumcised or not, it’s important to know how to care for his special needs. Find tips for caring for both circumcised and uncircumcised babies.

    • Claudication

      Detailed information on claudication, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and a labeled, full-color anatomical illustration

    • Cleft Lip/Cleft Palate

      Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including cleft lip and cleft palate

    • Clinical Chemistry

      Detailed information on clinical chemistry and the most common clinical chemistry tests

    • Clinical Pathology

      Detailed information on clinical pathology and its variety of laboratory specialties, including blood banking, clinical chemistry, hematology, immunology, serology, and microbiology

    • Clinical Pathology Overview

      Detailed information on clinical pathology and the specimens that are tested

    • Clinical Social Worker

      A clinical social worker is a professional counselor who helps alleviate problems related to personal, family, or social situations.

    • Clinical Trials For Prostate Cancer

      Several clinical trials to evaluate prostate cancer have been completed or are currently underway.

    • Cluster Headaches

      Cluster headaches occur in groups, or clusters, and individual attacks last one to three hours on average. They may occur every other day—or several times a day.

    • CMV and Transplant Patients

      Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a type of virus. Viruses are tiny organisms that can enter your body and cause disease. CMV is related to the virus that causes herpes. Like many other viruses, CMV can invade human cells. It can then use those cells to reproduce and spread. If the virus makes many copies of itself, it may disrupt how cells normally work. 

    • Cold Sores

      Detailed information on cold sores, including symptoms and treatment

    • Collagen / Fat Injectable Fillers

      Collagen/fat injectable fillers, also called soft-tissue augmentation, is a cosmetic plastic surgery procedure performed to correct wrinkles, depressions in the skin, and/or scarring.

    • Collagenous Colitis

      Collagenous colitis (CC) is a condition that affects your large intestine. It leads to episodes of watery diarrhea and belly pain.

    • Color Blindness

      Color blindness is when you are unable to see colors in a normal way. It does not mean you can’t see color. It means you perceive color in a different way.

    • Colorectal Cancer

      Most people who have colorectal cancer are older than 50. This type of cancer is also associated with a diet high in fat and calories and low in fiber.

    • Common Benign Lumps

      The two most common types of benign breast lumps are cysts and fibroadenomas. A cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops in the breast tissue. Fibroadenomas are solid, smooth, firm, benign lumps that are most commonly found in women in their late teens and early 20s.

    • Common Breast Conditions

      Detailed information on the most common breast conditions, including mastalgia (breast pain), benign breast lumps, fibrocystic breast changes, nipple problems, nipple discharge, breast infections, and breast inflammation

    • Common Breast Lumps

      Detailed information on common benign breast lumps, including breast cysts, fibroadenomas, fat necrosis, and sclerosing adenosis

    • Common Characteristics of Liver Disease

      Detailed information on liver diseases, including the most common characteristics of liver disease such as jaundice, cholestasis, liver enlargement, portal hypertension, esophageal varices, ascites, liver encephalopathy, and liver failure

    • Common Childhood Illness and Concerns

      Detailed information on common childhood illnesses and concerns

    • Common Cold

      Detailed information on the common cold, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Common Dermatological Procedures

      Detailed information on common dermatological procedures, including acne scar removal, chemical peels, dermabrasion, dermaplaning, and laser skin surgery

    • Common Discomforts During Pregnancy

      Nausea and vomiting are common in the first trimester, as is fatigue. Other common discomforts are hemorrhoids and heartburn.

    • Common Disorders of the Spine, Shoulder, and Pelvis

      Detailed information on the most common disorders of the spine, shoulder, and pelvis, including arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, avascular necrosis, bursitis, hip problems, hip replacement, kyphosis, low back pain, neck problems, neck pain, torticollis,

    • Common Eye Disorders

      One common eye disorder is conjunctivitis, sometimes called pink eye. It's an inflammation of the blood vessels in the eye membrane. Another common disorder is a chalazion—a small bump that develops on the upper or lower eyelid.

    • Common Health Problems Associated With Travel in Developing Countries

      Detailed information on common health problems associated with travel in developing countries

    • Common Infectious Diseases

      Detailed information on the most common infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS, chickenpox, chronic fatigue syndrome, common cold, diphtheria, E. coli, giardiasis, infectious mononucleosis, influenza (flu), lyme disease, malaria, measles, meningitis, mum

    • Common Liver Function Tests

      Detailed information on the most common liver function tests, including serum bilirubin test, serum albumin test, serum alkaline phosphatase test, serum aminotransferases, prothrombin time test, alanine transaminase test, aspartate transaminase test, gamm

    • Common Orthopedic Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common orthopedic disorders, including arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, bursitis, elbow pain, elbow problems, cubital tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow), medial epicondylitis (golfers el

    • Common Skin Disorders

      Detailed information on common skin disorders, including acne, bed sore, dry skin, calluses, corns, keratosis pilaris, psoriasis, pityriasis rosea, rosacea, and sebaceous cysts

    • Common Surgical Procedures

      Detailed information on the most common surgical procedures, including appendectomy, breast biopsy, carotid endarterectomy, cataract surgery, cesarean section, cholecystectomy, coronary artery bypass surgery, debridement of wound, dilation and curettage,

    • Common Tests During Pregnancy

      Certain tests and screenings may be scheduled during your pregnancy. Your health care provider will advise you on which tests you'll need.

    • Common Types of Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases

      Detailed information on the most common types of arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, including ankylosing spondylitis, bursitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, fibromyalgia, gout, infectious arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, lyme disease, low back pa

    • Community Re-Entry

      One of the main goals of rehabilitation is to prepare the patient for life after discharge.

    • Community-Acquired MRSA

      Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of bacteria. Bacteria that can’t be killed by the antibiotic methicillin and other similar medicines are called methicillin-resistant. Community-acquired means that you didn’t get the infection in a hospital or other healthcare setting. MRSA infections are sometimes very hard to treat.

    • Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

      Pneumonia is a type of lung infection. It can cause breathing problems and other symptoms. In community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), you get infected in a community setting. It doesn’t happen in a hospital, nursing home, or other healthcare center. 

    • Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Diabetes

      Are you tempted to try herbal remedies that promise to “cure” diabetes without prescription medication? Be sure you understand the limitations.

    • Complications of Diabetes

      Detailed information on the most common types of diabetes complications and ways to prevent future problems

    • Complications of Multiple Pregnancy

      Having more than one baby is especially exciting—and complicated. Find out what to watch for, including a greater chance of anemia and preterm birth.

    • Complications of Pregnancy

      Some of the more common complications of pregnancy are miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and bleeding.

    • Components of Food

      When trying to make heart-healthy changes to your lifestyle and diet, it is helpful to know some basics about nutrition.

    • Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

      A psychiatric evaluation will look at symptoms and when they occur, as well as what impact they have on family and work relationships.

    • Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan

      Detailed information on computed tomography scans, also called CT scan or CAT scan, including information on how the procedure is performed

    • Computer Vision Syndrome

      Computer vision syndrome is a group of eye and vision problems related to extended computer use.

    • Conditions Commonly Treated By Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

      Detailed information on the conditions most commonly treated by physical medicine and rehabilitation, including acquired brain injury, arthritis, burns, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic pain, back pain, neck pain, multiple sclerosis, spinal

    • Conditions Investigated by Environmental Medicine Programs

      Allergies, asthma, heart disease, and cancer are among the long list of health conditions with ties to environmental factors.

    • Conditions of Concern to Men

      Detailed information on the most common health concerns for men, including male breast cancer, gynecomastia, colorectal cancer, erectile dysfunction (impotence), hair loss, heart attack, high blood pressure (hypertension), insomnia, low back pain, inferti

    • Conduct Disorder

      A child with a conduct disorder has antisocial behaviors that violate the rights of others and age-appropriate social standards and rules.

    • Congenital Hand Deformities

      When one of those precious little hands isn’t as perfectly formed as it should be, an early visit to a hand surgeon should be at the top of your agenda for your newborn.

    • Congenital Heart Defects

      When the heart or blood vessels near the heart do not develop normally before birth, a condition called congenital heart defect occurs.

    • Congenital Liver Defects

      Detailed information on congenital liver defects, including biliary atresia and choledochal cyst

    • Conjunctivitis

      You had conjunctivitis as a child, now your baby has symptoms of it. Your first step should be a call to your doctor, who will make a diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment.

    • Constipation

      Constipation is a condition in which a person has uncomfortable or infrequent bowel movements. Generally, a person is considered to be constipated when bowel movements result in passage of small amounts of hard, dry stool.

    • Contact Dermatitis

      Detailed information on contact dermatitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Contraception / Birth Control

      You have a lot of options when it comes to birth control. Some methods don't require a doctor's visit, but others, like oral contraceptives, are available only by prescription.

    • Controlling Asthma Triggers at Work

      Many people with asthma have symptoms from triggers in the workplace. This is called occupational asthma.

    • Convergence Insufficiency

      Convergence insufficiency (CI) is when the eyes have trouble working together while focusing on an object at that is close by.

    • Coping with Prostate Cancer

      Detailed information for family members coping with prostate cancer, including how to help the man in your life cope with a diagnosis of prostate cancer

    • Coping with Swallowing Difficulties

      Swallowing difficulties can occur for reasons ranging from dehydration to illness. Most cases are short-lived, but sometimes you might need medical treatment or special home care.

    • Coping with the Diagnosis of Cancer

      Learn as much as possible about your disease. Arm yourself with information in order to lessen frustration. Don't hesitate to ask questions about your disease. Consider keeping a notebook with all of the medical records and information about your diagnosis.

    • Corneal Ulcer

      A corneal ulcer is an open sore on your cornea. Usually, but not always, it’s caused by an infection.

    • Coronary Heart Disease

      A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.

    • Correcting or Improving Vision Problems

      Detailed information on correcting or improving vision problems

    • Corrective Eye Surgery for Refractive Errors

      Detailed information on the most common types of corrective eye surgery for refractive errors, including lasik surgery, photorefractive keratectomy surgery, radial keratotomy surgery, astigmatic keratotomy surgery, and automated lamellar keratoplasty surg

    • Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Overview

      Cosmetic plastic surgery is performed in order to change one's appearance. For some, it may mean redesigning the body's contour and shape or the elimination of wrinkles. Others may choose varicose vein treatment or breast augmentation.

    • Cosmetic Safety for Contact Lens Wearers

      Detailed information on cosmetic safety for contact lens wearers

    • Cowden Syndrome

      The risk for breast cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and thyroid cancer is increased with Cowden syndrome, a rare genetic disorder.

    • Cradle Cap/Seborrheic Dermatitis

      Detailed information on cradle cap, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Craniosynostosis

      Craniosynostosis is a condition in which the fibrous joints between the skull’s bony plates close too early, causing problems with normal brain and skull growth.

    • Creeping Eruption

      Detailed information on creeping eruption, including symptoms and treatment

    • Crohn's Disease

      Detailed information on Crohn's disease, including symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Cruise Ships

      Detailed information on traveling healthy while on cruise ships

    • Cryptosporidiosis

      Detailed information on cryptosporidiosis, including transmission, location, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

      Cubital tunnel syndrome feels similar to the pain that occurs from hitting the "funny" bone in your elbow. The condition may occur if you frequently bend your elbows, constantly lean on your elbows, or sustain a direct injury to the area.

    • Current Investigations in Environmental Medicine

      Listing of current investigations in environmental medicine

    • Cushing’s Syndrome

      Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. It’s caused when you have high levels of the hormone cortisol over a long time. Cushing's syndrome is fairly rare. It most often affects adults who are 20 to 50 years old. It is sometimes called hypercortisolism.

    • Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

      Detailed information on cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Cystic Fibrosis

      Detailed information on cystic fibrosis, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and genetics

    • Cystocele (Fallen Bladder)

      Cystocele is the name for a hernia-like disorder in women that occurs when the wall between the bladder and the vagina weakens, causing the bladder to drop or sag into the vagina.

    • Cytology

      Detailed information on cytology, the study of individual cells to detect abnormal cells

    • Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Thrombophlebitis

      Detailed information on deep vein thrombosis and thrombophlebitis, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical illustrations

    • Dehydration and Heat Stroke

      Dehydration and heat stroke are two very common heat-related diseases that can be life threatening if left untreated.

    • Delivery

      In preparation of the delivery, you may be moved into a birthing room or delivery room, or you may remain in the same room for both labor and delivery.

    • Dengue Fever

      Detailed information on dengue fever, including symptoms, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment

    • Dental Care for Infants and Children

      Detailed information on dental care for infants and children

    • Dental Health

      Detailed information on dental health for children

    • Dental Implants

      Detailed information on dental implants, including types and potential risks

    • Dental Procedures

      Detailed information on the most common dental procedures, including braces, bleaching, bridges, dentures, dental implants, fillings, root canal, sealants, and wisdom teeth extraction

    • Dental Sealants

      Detailed information on dental sealants

    • Dentures

      Detailed information on the most common types of dentures

    • Depression

      Depression involves the body, mood, and thoughts, and affects the way a person eats and sleeps, feels about himself or herself, and thinks about things.

    • Depression and Suicide

      More than 90 percent of people who commit suicide have a diagnosable mental disorder—most commonly a depressive disorder or a substance abuse disorder.

    • Dermabrasion / Dermaplaning

      Dermabrasion involves a surgeon using a high speed rotating brush to remove the top layer of skin. This is done to remove fine wrinkles or minimize scars.

    • Dermatitis

      Detailed information on dermatitis, including the different types of dermatitis such as atopic dermatitis (eczema), contact dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, localized scratch dermatitis, numm

    • Dermatitis Herpetiformis

      Detailed information on dermatitis herpetiformis, including symptoms, triggers, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Describing a Skin Condition

      Detailed information on questions a physician may ask you in describing your dermatological condition and its location

    • Designing an Exercise Program

      To improve your heart and lung fitness, aim for 30 to 60 minutes of aerobic exercise three to four times a week.

    • Determining Your Body Mass Index

      Your BMI gives a fairly accurate assessment of how much of your body is composed of fat.

    • Deviated Septum

      Detailed information on deviated septum and septoplasty, a reconstructive plastic surgery performed to correct an improperly formed nasal septum

    • Diabetes (Type 1, 2, and Gestational)

      Detailed information on type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes, including causes, symptoms, complications, risk factors, and treatment

    • Diabetes and Heart Disease

      Diabetes affects the cardiovascular system, but many problems aren't apparent until a person has a heart attack or stroke.

    • Diabetes and High Blood Pressure

      If you have diabetes, you are twice as likely to have high blood pressure. Untreated, high blood pressure can raise your risk for heart disease.

    • Diabetes and Periodontal (Gum) Disease

      Poorly controlled diabetes can lead to gum disease, which is an infection of the gums and bone that hold the teeth in place.

    • Diabetes Insipidus

      Detailed information on diabetes insipidus, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Diabetes Statistics

      Looking for vital diabetes facts and figures? Here are statistics for both patients and consumers.

    • Diabetic Foot Problems

      Diabetes can damage the nerves in your feet, as well as lead to blood vessel disease. These conditions make it more difficult to notice when you injure your foot or develop a sore.

    • Diabetic Ketoacidosis

      Diabetic ketoacidosis (or DKA) is a serious condition that can happen to some people with diabetes. It happens when chemicals called “ketones” build up in your blood. Diabetic ketoacidosis is somewhat common. It is more common in younger people, and women experience it more often than men do.

    • Diabetic Nephropathy (Kidney Disease)

      Nephropathy is the deterioration of the kidneys. The final stage of nephropathy is called end-stage renal disease, or ESRD.

    • Diabetic Neuropathy (Nerve Problems)

      The risk of developing nerve damage, or neuropathy, increases the longer a person has diabetes. About half of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy.

    • Diabetic Retinopathy and Other Eye Problems

      Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness in American adults. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of the retina.

    • Diagnosing Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases

      Diagnosing arthritis and other rheumatic diseases is often difficult, as many symptoms are similar among the different diseases.

    • Diagnosing Benign (Noncancerous) Breast Conditions

      To diagnose a breast condition, your doctor will examine your breasts and may order imaging tests or a biopsy.

    • Diagnosing Diabetes

      If you're older than 45, you should be tested for diabetes. If you are younger, you should be tested if you are at high risk.

    • Diagnosing Hand Conditions

      In some cases, a diagnosis can be made simply based on a physical examination. In other cases, though, tests may be needed to help confirm the diagnosis.

    • Diagnosis and Staging of Melanoma

      Detailed information on diagnosis and staging of melanoma, including use of excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy

    • Diagnosis and Treatment for Migraines

      To help diagnose a migraine, your doctor may ask you when your headaches occur, how long they last, and what they feel like.

    • Diagnostic and Evaluation Procedures

      Your doctor may evaluate possible prostate problems with an annual physical and a digital rectal exam or a test for prostate-specific antigen.

    • Diagnostic Procedures for Allergy

      Detailed information on allergy testing, including blood testing (rast testing) and scratch testing

    • Diagnostic Procedures for Bone Disorders

      Detailed information on diagnostic procedures for bone disorders, including bone densitometry, radionuclide bone scan, and biopsy

    • Diagnostic Procedures for Breast Cancer

      It is important to remember that a lump or other changes in the breast, or an abnormal area on a mammogram, may be caused by cancer or by other, less serious problems.

    • Diagnostic Procedures for Cancer: Overview

      Detailed information on the most common diagnostic procedures for cancer

    • Diagnostic Radiology

      Detailed information on the most common procedures used for diagnostic radiology, including arteriogram, barium x-ray, computed tomography scan, fluoroscopy, intravenous pyelogram, magnetic resonance imaging, mammogram, ultrafast CT scan, ultrasound, x ra

    • Diagnostic Tests for Neurological Disorders

      Evaluating and diagnosing damage to the nervous system is complicated and complex. Many of the same symptoms occur in different combinations among the different disorders.

    • Diarrhea

      Detailed information on diarrhea, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Diarrheal Diseases

      Detailed information on the most common types of diarrheal diseases, including cryptosporidiosis, diarrhea, traveler's diarrhea, salmonella infection, and giardiasis

    • Diet and Cardiovascular Disease

      The Choose My Plate plan from the federal government is a guideline to help you eat a healthy diet.

    • Diet for Lactose Intolerance

      Detailed information on lactose intolerance, including a list of foods that contain lactose

    • Dietary Changes for Celiac Disease

      Celiac disease is a digestive disorder that damages your small intestine and keeps it from absorbing the nutrients in food. A protein found in wheat, barley, and rye called gluten is what causes the damage to the intestinal tract.

    • Dietary Supplements

      Adding anything to your regular diet to improve your health or healing is considered a dietary supplement.

    • Digestive Diagnostic Procedures

      Detailed information on the most common procedures used to diagnosis digestive disorders

    • Digestive Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common types of digestive disorders, including appendicitis, Barrett's esophagus, celiac disease, constipation, crohn's disease, diarrhea, diverticular disease, gas, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastr

    • Dilated Cardiomyopathy

      Dilated cardiomyopathy, or DCM, is when the heart chambers stretch and become thin. It often begins in the left ventricle. As the disease gets worse, it may spread to the right ventricle and to the atria. As the muscle stretches, it becomes weak and does not contract well. Eventually, the heart cannot pump as much blood forward as it normally would. This causes fluid to back up in the lungs and build up in the body. This is called heart failure.

    • Diphtheria

      Detailed information on diphtheria, including symptoms, transmission, treatment, and prevention

    • Discharge Planning

      Detailed information on discharge planning after surgery

    • Disorders of the Adrenal Glands

      Detailed information on disorders of the adrenal glands

    • Disorders of the Biliary System

      Detailed information on the most common disorders of the biliary system, including gallstones, cholangitis, cholecystitis, biliary cirrhosis, and biliary duct cancer

    • Disorders of the Liver

      Detailed information on disorders of the liver, including alcohol-induced liver disease, chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, congenital defects, hepatitis, liver tumors, and liver transplantation

    • Disorders of the Pancreas

      Detailed information on pancreas disorders, including pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

    • Disorders of the Parathyroid Glands

      Detailed information on disorders of the parathyroid gland

    • Disorders of the Pituitary Gland

      Detailed information on pituitary gland disorders, including acromegaly, diabetes insipidus, empty sella syndrome, hypopituitarism, and pituitary gland tumors

    • Disorders of the Thyroid

      Detailed information on disorders of the thyroid, including hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, toxic nodular goiter, thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, thyroid tumor, hypothyroidism and pregnancy, postpartum thyroiditis, and thyroid horm

    • Diverticular Disease

      Detailed information on diverticular disease, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Doctors and Specialists

      Detailed information on the physicians and specialists that treat disorders of the spine, shoulder, and pelvis

    • Domestic Violence

      Abuse often begins with verbal behaviors such as name-calling, threats, and hitting or throwing objects. It can become worse, including pushing, slapping, and holding against the victim's will.

    • Drug Rashes

      Detailed information on different types of drug rashes, including acne, exfoliative dermatitis, fixed drug eruption, hives, morbiliform/maculopapular rash, purpuric eruptions, Stevens-Johnson syndrome

    • Drug-Induced Hepatitis

      Detailed information on drug-induced hepatitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Dry Skin

      Detailed information on dry skin, including treatment

    • Dupuytren's Contracture

      This disease usually begins with a thickening of the skin in the palm of the hand. This may develop into a hard lump or thick band that eventually causes the fingers to contract.

    • Dyshidrotic Eczema

      Dyshidrotic eczema is an ongoing (chronic) skin condition. It causes a burning, itching feeling. Severe dyshidrotic eczema may also cause a blistering rash. It can affect your palms, the sides of your fingers, and the soles of your feet. It’s most common in people in their 20s, 30s, and 40s, but can occur at any age.

    • Dysmenorrhea

      Dysmenorrhea is a menstrual condition marked by severe and frequent menstrual cramps and pain. Dysmenorrhea can be either lifelong or caused by another medical condition.

    • Dysphagia

      When something goes wrong with the muscles that direct swallowing, it’s called dysphasia.

    • Dysthymia

      Dysthymia is a mood disorder similar to major depression. It has less severe symptoms than depression, but the symptoms linger for several years.

    • Ear Barotrauma

      Pressure differences between the inside of the ear and the outside of the ear can cause ear barotrauma or ear damage. It can cause pain and sometimes permanent hearing loss. It can be caused by scuba diving, air travel, or exposure to an explosion.

    • Ear Infections

      Detailed information on ear infections, including otitis externa (swimmer's ear) and otitis media

    • Ear Pinning

      Detailed information on ear pinning surgery, including who might be a candidate for the procedure and possible complications of the procedure

    • Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

      Detailed information on ear, nose, and throat disorders, including hearing disorders, balance disorders, smell disorders, taste disorders, chemosensory disorders, speech disorders, voice disorders, language disorders, vocal cord disorders, and laryngeal cancer.

    • Ear, Nose, and Throat Facts

      The ear consists of three areas—the outer, middle, and inner ear. The nose is the organ of smell and is part of the peripheral nervous system. The throat is a ring-like muscular tube that acts as the passageway for air, food, and liquid.

    • Ears and Airplane Travel, Ear Wax, and Ear Cleaning

      Detailed information on ears and airplane travel, ear wax, and ear cleaning

    • Eating Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common types of eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder

    • Eating Well for Digestive Health

      If you're like most people, you may have gas, constipation, or heartburn every now and then.

    • Ebola

      Ebola is a virus that causes problems with how your blood clots. It is known as a hemorrhagic fever virus. This is because the clotting problems lead to internal bleeding, as blood leaks from small blood vessels in your body.

    • Echocardiogram

      An echocardiogram is a procedure in which ultrasonic sound waves are used to assess the heart's function and structures.

    • Ectropion

      Ectropion is an sagging or outward turning of an eyelid. It usually affects a lower eyelid. Ectropion often affects both lower eyelids. Sometimes it only affects one side.

    • Effective Breastfeeding

      Think there’s only one way to breast-feed? Think again! Moms can position their babies in several positions during feeding time that can be comfortable for both.

    • Effective Sucking

      It’s important for your baby’s health to be able to effectively remove milk from your breast during nursing. To do this, your baby must learn the proper way to suck. But how do you know if your baby is actually getting the nutrition he/she needs? Here’s a guide to help you.

    • Effects of Rehabilitation on the Family

      One of the most important factors in a patient's recovery is family involvement and support in his or her rehab.

    • Effects of Stroke (Brain Attack)

      When an area of the brain is damaged, which typically occurs with a stroke, an impairment may result. An impairment is the loss of normal function of part of the body. Sometimes, an impairment may result in a disability, or inability to perform an activity in a normal way.

    • Effects of UV Exposure

      Detailed information on the effects of ultraviolet light and the increased risk of skin cancer, premature aging, cataracts, and immune system damage

    • Egg Allergy Diet

      Detailed information on egg allergy, a type of food allergy, including egg-free recipes and egg substitutes

    • Ehrlichiosis

      Ehrlichiosis is an illness caused by bacteria that’s spread by ticks. The bacteria are in the Ehrlichia group of bacteria. The illness causes fever, muscle aches, and other symptoms. It’s an uncommon illness that can affect people of all ages.

    • Elbow Pain and Problems

      Detailed information on elbow pain and problems

    • Elder Care

      Elder care encompasses a wide variety of issues, including choosing an appropriate doctor to care for an aging patient, and making decisions about moving an elderly adult from the home environment to a residential care setting.

    • Electric and Magnetic Fields

      Detailed information on electric and magnetic fields

    • Electrocardiogram (EKG) / Stress Test / Holter Monitor

      Detailed information on an electrocardiogram (EKG) procedure, including how the procedure is performed, reasons for the procedure, and pre- and post-evaluation instructions

    • Electromagnetic Therapy

      Detailed information on electromagnetic therapy, also called bioelectricity, magnetobiology, magnetic field therapy, and magnetic healing, as a form of alternative therapy

    • Emergency Information Form

      In an emergency, it is easy to "forget" even the most well-known information. That's why it is crucial for you to complete the information in this form for each member of your household.

    • Emerging Infectious Diseases

      Detailed information on emerging infectious diseases and how travelers can minimize their risk of infectious diseases

    • Emotions and Heart Health

      Since ancient times, the heart has been a symbol of our emotions. But in recent years, scientists have uncovered a clear physical link between emotions and heart health.

    • Empty Sella Syndrome

      Detailed information on empty sella syndrome, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Encephalitis

      Encephalitis is a term used to describe inflammation of the brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell, which leads to changes in a person's neurologic condition, including mental confusion and seizures.

    • Enchondroma

      Enchondromas are the most common type of hand tumor. Although they may affect people of any age, they are most common between ages 10 and 20.

    • End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)

      Detailed information on end-stage renal disease, including renal failure symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Endocrinology Statistics

      Statistics relating to endocrine disorders

    • Endometrial Cancer

      Cancer of the endometrium is a disease in which cancerous cells are found in the lining of the uterus. It is highly curable when found early.

    • Endometriosis

      Women with endometriosis develop tissue that looks and acts like endometrial tissue outside the uterus, usually on other reproductive organs inside the pelvis or in the abdominal cavity.

    • Environmental Disease Factors

      Detailed information on environmental disease factors, including mold, air pollution, asthma triggers, carbon monoxide poisoning, lead poisoning, radon, multiple chemical sensitivity, electric and magnetic fields, and Gulf war syndrome

    • Eosinophilic Esophagitis

      When you think of allergic reactions, you probably envision itchy eyes and a runny nose. But an allergic reaction can occur in the esophagus – your food pipe – as well.

    • Ependymoma

      Ependymoma is a rare type of tumor of the brain or spinal cord. It can occur in both children and adults. In children, these tumors tend to be in the brain. In adults, they are often in the spinal cord.

    • Epidemiology

      Epidemiology is the study of the occurrence of disease in people, and applying that information from the study to the control of health problems.

    • Epilepsy and Seizures

      Epilepsy is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system and affects people of all ages, races, and ethnic backgrounds.

    • Erythema Multiforme

      Detailed information on erythema multiforme, including symptoms and treatment

    • Erythema Nodosum

      Detailed information on erythema nodosum, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Escherichia coli 0157:H7

      This particular strain of E. coli causes a severe intestinal infection. You can get this infection by eating contaminated meat or by drinking unpasteurized juice or milk that has been contaminated.

    • Esophageal Cancer

      Detailed information on esophageal cancer, including symptoms, stages, types, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Esophagitis

      Esophagitis is the irritation and inflammation of the lining of your esophagus, or food pipe. Because the lining of the esophagus is sensitive, many things can cause swelling and irritation.

    • Estrogen's Effects on the Female Body

      In addition to regulating the menstrual cycle, estrogen affects the reproductive tract, the urinary tract, the heart and blood vessels, bones, breasts, skin, hair, mucous membranes, pelvic muscles, and the brain.

    • Evaluation Procedures

      To help the orthopedist determine your treatment, you'll need a physical exam, a medical history profile, and a description of symptoms.

    • Evaluation Procedures for Stroke

      Tests that may be used to help diagnose a stroke include a CT scan or MRI, and an electroencephalogram.

    • Ewing Sarcoma in Adults

      Ewing sarcoma can occur in any bone, but is most often found in the extremities and can involve muscle and the soft tissues around the tumor site.

    • Excessive Hairiness (Hirsutism)

      Detailed information on excessive hairiness, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Excessive Sweating

      Detailed information on excessive sweating, including symptoms and treatment

    • Exercise

      Exercise doesn't have to be vigorous to offer health benefits. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity daily, or on most days of the week.

    • Exercise and the Aging Person

      Exercise is good for people of all ages. It helps lower blood pressure, reduces the risks for falls and serious injuries, and slows the body's loss of muscle and bone mass.

    • Exercise During Pregnancy

      If you exercised before pregnancy, you can safely continue exercising. If you were inactive or you have medical complications, talk with your doctor before beginning to exercise.

    • Exercise: Before Starting an Exercise Program

      It is always important to talk with your doctor before starting an exercise program, particularly if you have certain health conditions.

    • Exercise: The Right Program and the Right Preparation

      You don't have to exercise for long periods of time—or even vigorously—to become fit. You do need to aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate activity most days of the week.

    • Exercise-Related Heat Exhaustion

      Exercise-related heat exhaustion is an illness caused by getting too hot when you exercise. During heat exhaustion, your body temperature rises above normal.

    • Expectant Therapy

      Expectant therapy is to "watch and wait" while carefully observing and monitoring the prostate cancer.

    • External Beam Therapy

      External beam therapy is a type of therapeutic radiology that is delivered externally from a machine directed to the cancer inside the patient. Examples of external beam therapy machines include linear accelerators, cobalt machines, or orthovoltage X-ray machines.

    • Eye Care Specialists

      An ophthalmologist is either a medical doctor (M.D.) or an osteopathic physician (D.O.). An optometrist is a doctor of optometry (O.D.) but is not a medical doctor. An optician is a technician who fits eyeglasses.

    • Eye Conditions

      Detailed information on eye conditions in children

    • Eye Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common eye disorders, including age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, refractive errors, and retinitis pigmentosa

    • Eye Examinations

      During an eye exam, an eye doctor reviews your medical history and completes a series of tests to determine the health of your eyes.

    • Eye Injury (Black Eye)

      Detailed information on ecchymosis or bruising of the eye

    • Eye Safety

      Detailed information on eye safety and tips to avoid eye injury

    • Eye Safety at the Computer

      Detailed information on eye safety at the computer and ways to avoid eye strain

    • Eye Twitching

      An eye twitch is an involuntary, abnormal blinking of your eyelid. This abnormal blinking may happen many times per day. If eye twitching is severe, it can impair vision.

    • Eyeglasses and Contact Lenses

      Eyeglasses are the most common form of eyewear used to correct or improve many types of vision problems. Contact lenses are worn directly on the cornea of the eye.

    • Eyelid Lift

      This procedure can remove puffiness or bags under the eyes, and can also correct droopy eyelids.

    • Facelift

      During a facelift procedure, excess facial fat is removed, facial muscles are tightened, and the skin is stretched to make a smoother appearance.

    • Facts About Blood

      Detailed information on blood, including components of blood, functions of blood cells and common hematology tests

    • Facts About Diabetes

      Diabetes affects the way the body metabolizes, or uses, digested food to make glucose, the main source of fuel for the body.

    • Facts About Skin Cancer

      Statistics relating to skin cancer

    • Facts About the Spine, Shoulder, and Pelvis

      Detailed anatomical description of the spine, shoulder, and pelvis, including full-color, labeled illustrations

    • Fever

      Detailed information on fever, including when to call your physician

    • Fibrocystic Breast Changes

      Detailed information on common fibrocystic breast changes, including what fibrocystic changes feel like

    • Fibromyalgia

      Detailed information on fibromyalgia, including cause, triggers, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Fibrous Dysplasia

      Fibrous dysplasia is a chronic disorder in which bone expands because of abnormal development of fibrous tissue.

    • Fifth Disease

      Fifth disease is caused by the human parvovirus. It is most prevalent in the winter and spring and is usually seen in school-aged children.

    • Fire Safety

      Detailed information on fire and burn safety

    • Firearms Safety

      Detailed information on firearm safety and prevention

    • First-Aid for Eyes

      Detailed information on first-aid for eyes and eye safety

    • First-Aid Kit

      Detailed list of recommended items for a household first-aid kit

    • Fish Poisoning

      At certain times of the year, various species of fish and shellfish contain toxins, even if well cooked. The most common type of fish poisoning in travelers is ciguatera fish poisoning.

    • Flat or Inverted Nipples

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and flat or inverted nipples

    • Fleas, Mites, and Chiggers

      Detailed information on flea, mite, and chiggers bites

    • Flossing

      Detailed information on the importance of proper flossing technique

    • Fluency Disorder

      A person with fluency disorder has trouble speaking in a fluid or flowing way. They may repeat parts of words (stutter) or speak fast and jam words together (clutter).

    • Fluoride

      Detailed information on fluoride

    • Fluoroscopy Procedure

      Fluoroscopy is a study of moving body structures—similar to an X-ray "movie."

    • Folliculitis, Boils, and Carbuncles

      Detailed information on folliculitis, boils, and carbuncles

    • Food Allergies

      Detailed information on food allergy, including food intolerance and food allergy symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Food Allergies

      Detailed information on food allergy, including food intolerance and food allergy symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Food Allergies in Children

      Detailed information on food allergy, including cause, symptoms, and treatment

    • Food Poisoning

      Detailed information on food poisoning, including causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention

    • Food-Drug Interactions

      A food-drug interaction can occur when the food you eat affects the ingredients in a medication you are taking, preventing the medicine from working the way it should.

    • Foot Pain and Problems

      Foot pain is often caused by improper foot function. Improperly fitted shoes can worsen and, in some cases, cause foot problems.

    • For Family Members Coping With Prostate Cancer

      What can you do to help the man in your life with prostate cancer? Keep the lines of communication open.

    • For Parents: Bicycle, In-Line Skating, Skateboard Safety

      Detailed information on bicycle, in-line skating, and skateboarding safety

    • Forehead Lift

      A forehead lift can correct sagging brows or deep furrows between the eyes. It is often done in conjunction with a facelift, in order to create a smoother facial appearance overall.

    • Forms of Diabetes

      Detailed information on the three forms of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes

    • Fractures

      A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone. When a fracture occurs, it is classified as either open or closed.

    • Frequently Asked Questions About Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs)

      Do cell phones interfere with pacemakers? Do ICDs need to be adjusted? Here are answers to these and other questions.

    • Frequently Asked Questions: Mammograms

      Timing your mammogram when your breasts are not tender is important. In premenopausal women, this is usually one week after a menstrual period.

    • Friedreich’s Ataxia

      Friedreich’s ataxia (FA) is a degenerative disease that damages your spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and the cerebellum portion of your brain.

    • Frostbite

      Detailed information on frostbite, including symptoms and what to do if frostbite occurs

    • Fungal Infections of the Skin

      Detailed information on fungal infections of the skin, including candidiasis (yeast infection), tinea infection (ringworm), and tinea versicolor

    • G6PD (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) Deficiency

      Detailed information on g6pd deficiency, including cause, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Gallstones

      Detailed information on gallstones, including symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Gas in the Digestive Tract

      Detailed information on gas in the digestive tract, including a list of foods that cause gas, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Gastric Bypass (Malabsorptive) Surgery

      Gastric bypass surgery involves bypassing a part of the small intestine that absorbs nutrients. For this reason, these surgeries are referred to as malabsorptive procedures.

    • Gastric Polyps

      Gastric polyps are abnormal growths on the inner lining of your stomach. Most are harmless and don’t cause symptoms. But some of them turn into cancer.

    • Gastric Sleeve Surgery

      Gastric sleeve surgery is a form of bariatric, or weight-loss, surgery. Your doctor may recommend this procedure if you have severe health problems related to obesity.

    • Gastric Stapling (Restrictive) Surgery

      Gastric stapling surgery is a type of weight loss surgery that limits the amount of food a person can eat.

    • Gastritis

      Detailed information on gastritis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)/Heartburn

      Gastroesophageal reflux is the return of acidic stomach juices, or food and fluids, back up into the esophagus.

    • Gastrointestinal Conditions

      Detailed information on gastrointestinal conditions in children

    • Gastroparesis

      Detailed information on gastroparesis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Gaucher Disease

      Gaucher disease is an inherited metabolic disorder known as a lipid storage disease. When you have gaucher disease, you’re missing an enzyme needed to break down lipids normally.

    • General Information About Breast Cancer

      Ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, and Paget's disease are several types of breast cancer.

    • General Information About Cancer: Overview

      Detailed information on cancer, including cancer diagnosis, cancer staging, cancer grading, cancer treatment, cancer surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, biological therapy, and cancer clinical trials

    • Generalized Anxiety Disorder

      A person with generalized anxiety disorder often worries excessively about health, money, family, or work, and continually anticipates disaster.

    • Generalized Exfoliative Dermatitis

      Detailed information on generalized exfoliative dermatitis, including symptoms, causes, and treatment

    • Genetics of Breast Cancer

      Detailed information on the genetics of breast cancer, including information on hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome, brca1, brca2, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden syndrome, and ataxia telangiectasia

    • Genetics of Ovarian Cancer

      Detailed information on the genetics of ovarian cancer, including hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, ovarian cancer and hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer, and basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    • Genitourinary Conditions

      Detailed information on genital and urinary conditions in children

    • Gestational Diabetes

      Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a pregnant woman has elevated glucose levels and other symptoms of diabetes—but did not have diabetes before she became pregnant.