Welcome to Novant Health Go

Healthy Headlines

Home About us Newsroom Healthy Headlines
Search by category:

Search by article date:

Search by media type:
Search within these results:


Female ob-gyns are now the majority
In a field of medicine where all the patients are female, obstetrics and gynecology used to be dominated by male physicians. Today the opposite is true. Here's the story behind the change.
Now’s the best time to get vaccinated
There’s no guarantee the flu vaccine will prevent you from getting sick. But experts agree: some protection is better than no protection.
Managing your health insurance dollars in 5 easy steps
Understanding your health plan options, knowing key terms and planning your medical needs are vital to making the best decisions. Here are five tips to better utilize your health insurance.
6 things parents should know about concussions
If you see symptoms and think your child may have a concussion, seek out an athletic trainer or another person qualified to diagnose concussions.
How rehabilitation hospitals make a difference
With different types of rehabilitation facilities opening up all of the time in recent years, it’s worth knowing they really aren’t all the same.
Pitching in on Hurricane Florence relief
Medical providers at Novant Health continue to pitch in to care for the needy and relieve other team members who worked in the eye of the storm in eastern North Carolina.
5 keys for controlling your sugar intake
Be especially careful about food labeled “fat-free. Fat is often replaced with sugar or sodium. How to read food labels and keep an eye on how much sugar you eat.
5 key myths behind cholesterol
Here are five more misconceptions about cholesterol that might surprise you.
Post-hurricane mold can lead to health problems
As the floodwaters from Hurricane Florence recede, worries over mold growing inside homes will rise. Here's what you need to know and how to protect yourself
Her tiny son had cancer. Here’s what she learned.
Her little boy was diagnosed with a rare form of cancer when he was just 3 months old. What she learned along the way may help other parents who get a difficult diagnosis.
Hurricane leads to marriage proposal at Brunswick Medical Center
Couple lands at a hospital during Hurricane Florence...and he decides to pop the question.
5 hidden dangers of storm cleanup
Cleaning up after a major storm includes hidden dangers. Often, people in a rush to clean or repair suffer unnecessary injuries.Here's how to protect yourself.
Hurricane baby delivered at Brunswick Medical Center
With pounding rain and surging winds as the backdrop, Amber Simmons and Conner Faulk welcomed their first child at Novant Health Brunswick Medical Center in Bolivia, N.C. on Thursday night.
A doctor’s 6 do’s and don’ts of online medical research
A doctor offers her expert advice on Googling your own diagnosis or medical condition. There's a wrong way, and a right way...
'Picture-perfect' phone apps can shatter teens’ self-image
Kids can develop unrealistic expectations of how they should look after a few swipes on their cellphone. Here's what parents can do to help.
Just how bad are flip-flops for your feet?
The airy sandals are comfortable for many people around the pool, on a beach trip or quick errand close to home. But wearing such flimsy footwear on a regular basis could lead to foot problems.
A new pain relief option for delivering moms
Women giving birth at two Novant Health hospitals will soon have a new way to ease the pain of labor – nitrous oxide. Forsyth Medical Center in Winston-Salem and Huntersville Medical Center in Charlotte are making it available.
Jellyfish stings – does urine really work?
Going to the beach this summer? Along the southeast Atlantic coast, you are far more likely to be stung by a jellyfish than bitten by a shark. Here's advice on the best way to treat those painful stings.
When hand, foot and mouth disease strikes
As hand, foot and mouth disease grabs headlines for striking cities across the U.S. this summer, here’s what you need to know.
How to battle school germs coming home with your kid
The average child gets sick between four and six times during the school year. Here are some simple safeguards you can put in place.
5 things to do when your child gets pink eye
While pink eye is highly contagious — there are 3 million cases a year in the U.S. — it’s easily treatable and rarely has long-lasting effects.
30-plus awesome links for kicking off a healthy new school year
Here’s a helpful checklist for parents who want to get the school year off to a great start. From making sure shots are up to date to easy breakfast and lunch moves, we have answers.
Answers to 6 of the most common breastfeeding questions
While some new mothers sail through the breastfeeding, others experience sore nipples, low milk production and problems with babies latching to breasts. And their questions often start with: “Is this normal? Or “Is it safe to…?
The World Cup is a great time to talk youth soccer safety
While concussion safety is important, I often stress that it doesn’t stop at headers. Most concussions in soccer do not occur as a result of heading the ball.
Understanding new alternatives to open heart surgery
For patients with structural heart disease, a rise in the availability of minimally-invasive procedures gives significant cause for hope. They go by these acronyms: TAVR and TMVR
Minimally invasive brain clot surgery using new device is a first in NC
New minimally invasive stroke surgery option increases patient chances for a better recovery.
How to minimize the pain and damage high heels can cause
Some common-sense solutions to solving the misery that can come with wearing high heels.
TMVR heart procedure has 90-year-old burning up the streets
The procedure, TMVR (transcatheter mitral valve repair), is a simple, less risky alternative to open-heart surgery but offers the same results.
Why you, or your kids, probably don’t need a sports drink
While staying hydrated is always a high priority as the weather heats up, most of us should just stick with water in most cases.
5 ways to get your guy to see the doctor
Men with proactive partners are more likely to seek preventive care that helps keep deadly threats like heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes and cancer at bay.
Is protein ice cream really better for you?
“Proceed with caution. At the end of the day, it is still ice cream. It should still be considered a treat.” said Kimberly Spatola, Novant Health register dietitian.
New migraine drug raises patient hopes
The Food and Drug Administration approved in May the first drug designed to prevent migraines. For those who suffer from the condition regularly, the possibility of some relief looks to be a big deal.
You no longer need to use your mouth for most CPR. Here’s why.
For 50 years, CPR has been a lifesaving technique of chest compressions and mouth-to-mouth breathing for people whose heart has stopped.Now research shows that using only compressions can be just as effective.
What to do when your child is sick after hours
When your child isn’t feeling well and your pediatrician’s office has closed, you’re left with a decision: Can this wait until morning, or does my child need to be seen now? Here are some general tips.
He’s back with his accordion, thanks to TAVR heart procedure
“I had surgery on a Thursday morning and there I am sitting at home at noon on Saturday, shaking my head in amazement. What a difference a couple days make.”
How service animals can play a huge role for patients
Service dogs are playing a bigger role than ever in American health care. While they aren't an everyday event at most hospitals, they aren’t uncommon.
9 things you need to know about treating varicose veins
There are “spider” veins that resemble “granddaddy long legs” and may be unappealing to some who have them. Varicose veins — which cause discomfort — are a different story.
Here’s why doctors can diagnose asthma earlier today
When it comes to asthma and kids — particularly infants and toddlers — the thinking among pediatricians has changed considerably in the past couple of decades.
5 tips for staying close to your kids as they hit adolescence
The best thing parents can do is develop trust and offer children a secure place to land no matter what happens in their world. Dr. Kerry Van Voorhis, a pediatrician with Novant Health Pediatrics Symphony Park, offers advice to parents of preteens.
We need to change the words used in fighting the opioid epidemic
Novant Health is adding a fresh new strategy in the fight against the opioid epidemic by changing the everyday language used in the description of patients.
6 tools every parent needs for raising teens
Smart phones and social media have complicated being a teenager and a parent alike. Dr. Andy Shulstad offers his take on how parents can raise a happy and healthy teen.
Weight-loss surgery is a commitment, not a quick fix
Contrary to widespread belief, weight-loss surgery is not a quick way to effortlessly shed pounds. Having a gastric bypass or vertical sleeve procedure that reduces the size of the stomach is not a fast fix.
Sleep apnea can be a gateway to heart disease, stroke and dementia
“Undiagnosed or untreated sleep apnea can lead to serious long-term health problems overtime such as heart disease, stroke and even dementia.”
5 things to know about restless leg syndrome
Restless legs syndrome is an irresistible, often maddening urge to move the legs that usually starts when you’re at rest. The good news: there are ways to treat it.
Lesson Learned: Ignoring persistent pain is a bad idea
“Everybody has that feeling of invincibility sometimes and you don’t realize your sense of mortality, but this woke me up.”
Working through the good…and sometimes awkward ages of 6-10
The 6-to-10-year age range often begins as a time of fun for children and their parents. But around the age of 9 or so, things often get a little more challenging as children often start going through an awkward phase.
Should you store baby’s cord blood?
It’s not uncommon for expectant mothers to find brochures on donating cord blood in the waiting rooms of their obstetricians’ offices. But what’s the hype around umbilical cord blood from newborns?
The truth about ‘nervous tics’
Roughly 3 to 8 people out of 1,000 suffer from what are commonly called “nervous tics.” Dr. James Battista, a neurologist at Novant Health, treats those patients and said there are medication and other options for those with the disorder.
How to prevent overuse injuries in active kids
Keeping kids active early sets them up to win for a number of reasons, but with any activity comes certain risks. Read on to learn how to keep young people safe and healthy, whatever their sport.
Drug, surgery and implant options for people with epilepsy
An estimated 3.4 million Americans live with epilepsy. Still, many people with the condition lead a normal life and described treatment options, which can include medication, surgery and implanted devices.
What does a pediatric neurosurgeon do?
Today, doctors can cure about 80 percent of children with brain tumors or epilepsy. Dr. Erin Kiehna joined Novant Health this September as a pediatric neurosurgeon to help children with these conditions and others. Here’s a look inside her world.
New NC law toughens rules on opioid prescriptions
A new North Carolina state law that went into effect Jan. 1 could help curb the opioid epidemic by reducing the amount of pills in circulation in the community, says Bridget Bridgman, Novant Health director of medication safety.
The ‘widow-maker’ heart attack hits women, too
Every 40 seconds, someone in the United States has a heart attack. And each year nearly 800,000 Americans will suffer a heart attack. Here's what you can do to prevent having one.
Who needs to get tested for cervical cancer
A major new study says some women who had negative results from previous cervical cancer screening can wait for as long as five years before their next Pap test.
What new blood pressure guidelines mean to you
The nation’s top heart experts this week lowered the new designation for high blood pressure, a sweeping decision which means nearly half of all Americans could now fall into that category.
Why expecting moms should get the whooping cough vaccine
Babies are especially vulnerable to whooping cough because there is no vaccination for them. But there is a way to protect them. The Tdap vaccine given during pregnancy is 78 percent effective.
Add festive fresh vegetables to your holiday table.
Why it's important to incorporate some fresh vegetables into your holiday feast.
Serving turkey over the holidays? Here's a heart-friendly recipe
The registered dietitians at Novant Health Heart & Vascular Institute have created a simple and delicious bird that highlights the turkey’s best attributes.
Sweet potato classic gets a remake
The registered dietitians at Novant Health Heart & Vascular Institute have created a delicious and healthy version of a classic holiday dish for your table.
Here are 5 things you need to know about the 2019 health insurance marketplace
Last year, more than 8.7 million Americans enrolled in a Health Insurance Marketplace plan. On Nov. 1, the marketplace opens for 2019. Here are some things you’ll want to know whether you're renewing or joining for the first time.
New doctors join to provide advanced critical care to the smallest patients
Big changes are transforming the pediatric intensive care unit at Novant Health Hemby Children’s Hospital — from the addition of eight spacious, private patient rooms, to the arrival of a new team of doctors.
With a hurricane threatening, now is the time to think ahead
People with worrisome medical conditions and their families need to start thinking now about what they’ll need in the event of heavy flooding or power outages from hurricane Irma.
Eating a hearty breakfast may have merits, but consider this…
While eating a breakfast fit for royalty might sound like an enjoyable adjustment for some, it’s probably best to keep it reasonable.
How a doctor got his first lesson in dementia from beloved grandmother
Novant Health’s new Memory Care in Winston-Salem is designed with patients and their families in mind. The outpatient facility was created to deliver specialized care at a single location.
Study suggests new dads can suffer from postpartum depression
Dads suffering from depression should also be considered a legitimate health issue, according to a recent study.
How making simple health changes now can make a big impact in quality of life
Take the online heart health risk assessment, which analyzes factors, such as blood pressure, cigarette smoking, diabetes and body mass index.
Millions have diabetes. But this patient shows you can fight back
Janice Thompson Grant has a self-professed love affair with food- particularly baked goods- and that obsession nearly was her undoing. After a diabetes diagnosis, she decided to regain control of her health.
Reducing stress can make for a healthier, happier life
There are many things that we can do to help ourselves become more resilient. Consider these seven ways to de-stress
Study: Common anti-inflammatory painkillers may raise heart attack risk
The next time you reach for an anti-inflammatory like ibuprofen, consider this: These common painkillers, also called NSAIDs, can be associated with the risk of heart attack.
3 big misconceptions about Parkinson's Disease
As many as 1 million Americans live with Parkinson’s disease (PD), according to the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation. Dr. James Battista noted there are three common misconceptions regarding Parkinson’s disease.
What makes the 'widow-maker' so deadly?
Here’s a sobering fact: Every 43 seconds, someone in the United States has a heart attack. And while all heart attacks can wreak serious havoc on your health, some are deadlier than others.
Video visits assess cancer risk from the comfort of your home
Novant Health has launched the Triad area’s first genetics counseling video visits for assessing cancer risk, expanding access to potentially life-saving preventive care conversations.
Many adults are not up-to-date on their shots
Americans are not getting their recommended vaccinations, putting themselves and others at risk of serious disease.
NIH study encourages parents to give kids peanuts early in life
New guidelines from the National Institutes of Health recommend introducing peanut-containing foods to a child’s diet as early as four months of age to reduce the risk of developing a peanut allergy.
Four surprising ways millennials approach and engage with health care
Novant Health today released findings of its first Consumer Attitudes About Health Study noting the latest trends in millennial health attitudes and behavior. Read about four surprising ways millennials approach and engage with health care.
Pediatricians urged to screen for depression, suicide
Teen suicide is the second-leading cause of death in teens between ages 15 and 19, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The physicians’ group urges pediatricians to screen for suicide risks among teens.
Know the facts about the global killer
Each year, approximately 1.3 million people across the globe die from viral hepatitis, a disease which the World Health Organization says is highly preventable with vaccinations.
How to know if you're at risk
A new study found that the number of advanced prostate cancer cases in the United States has risen 72 percent in the past decade. Here's how to know if you’re at risk.
Overcoming incontinence with expert help
An increasing number of American women are impacted by pelvic floor disorders. To help address the growing need, Novant Health has opened a new center in Winston-Salem, the region's first integrated, patient-centered approach to pelvic floor issues.
Protect yourself from Zika this mosquito season
Following a review of existing research on Zika virus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has concluded that Zika virus causes microcephaly and other severe brain defects in babies.
World Health Day aims to put diabetes in check
This year’s World Health Day is dedicated to beating diabetes. The epidemic of type 2 diabetes is rapidly growing worldwide, but the problem – if caught early – is highly preventable.
Novant Health medical group awarded for electronic health record adoption
Novant Health is the first health system worldwide to be revalidated for the prestigious HIMSS Analytics Stage 7 Ambulatory Award for its adoption and use of an electronic health record.
Five things to know about colorectal cancer
Nearly 135,000 people will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the U.S. this year, and more than 50,000 will die of the disease. Here are five things to know about colorectal cancer.
Prevent viral infection with immunization, good hygiene
An outbreak of mumps in the Charlotte metro area has residents seeking information about the infectious disease.
What you need to know about this mosquito-borne virus
A mosquito-borne virus is raising concern and many questions in the United States and worldwide. The illness known as Zika virus has been spreading through Central America and South America.
Cancer survivors often unaware of cancer treatment-related heart disease
As cancer treatments advance and life expectancies improve, another complication has emerged: increased cardiovascular disease among cancer survivors.
Local experts say women should be screened sooner rather than later
As medical advice is constantly updated, it can be hard to keep up with conflicting guidelines and misconceptions about breast screenings – particularly when to have them done. It’s difficult to really know what’s what.
More children developing diseases typically seen in adults
More and more children are being diagnosed with diseases usually found in older people, such as high blood pressure, fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol and sleep apnea.
How is your mental health these days?
An estimated 16 million U.S. adults had at least one major depressive episode in the past year, where their symptoms interfered with their ability to work, sleep, study, eat or enjoy life.
Diet and other lifestyle factors can help prevent breast cancer
Can diet lead to a lower risk of breast cancer? A new study published in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine suggests that women who eat a Mediterranean-style diet high in extra-virgin olive oil had a lower risk of breast cancer.
How to recognize the warning signs and risk factors
National Suicide Prevention Week is Sept. 7 to 13, and health authorities nationwide are raising awareness about suicide prevention and educating people about the prevalence of suicide.
Common treatments for lice losing their effectiveness
Let’s face it: Head lice are, in a word, lousy. An estimated 6 to 12 million American children get head lice every year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease raises questions on water vapor safety
An outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in a New York City borough has killed 12 people and sickened more than 100 people since mid-July, according to city’s Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.
August is National Immunization Awareness Month
If you have a child going back to school this August, you’ll want to make sure they are up-to-date on any immunizations their school requires.
Case of TSS turns attention back to tampons
Model Lauren Wasser says she lost her leg to toxic shock syndrome, claiming the disease was caused by using tampons. After a long recovery, she is sharing her story publicly in hopes of raising awareness about the dangers of TSS.
Recent outbreak spawns questions about the highly contagious virus
There is no cure for the highly contagious virus, and while this year no cases have been reported in the United States, it’s important to understand how the disease is transmitted – and what to know if you travel internationally.
Bird flu has spread across the Midwest, but risk to humans is low
Although millions of U.S. birds have been infected with avian influenza, doctors say the biggest threat to people is the rising cost of breakfast.
Parents: Do you suffer from obliviobesity?
Would you be able to recognize if your child was overweight? Research shows that parents are increasingly oblivious when it comes to kids’ weights.
Conflicting guidance on cancer screenings
A recent report released in the New England Journal of Medicine is reigniting the debate of when women should get mammograms – and who is most likely to benefit from them.
Three ways women's health differs from men's health
Dr. Samuel Hall of Novant Health Winston-Salem Gynecology shed light on three key differences between the sexes that women should keep in mind to stay healthy.
Men's Health Week promotes men's health and well-being
National Men's Health Week is June 15-21 and aims to heighten awareness about ways men can be healthier and stronger.
New research shows loneliness is a bigger threat to health than obesity
According to a recent study by Brigham Young University, loneliness and social isolation could be more deadly than obesity.
Buddy Kemp Cancer Support Center hosts annual Cancer Survivors Day event
Local cancer survivors and their families celebrate National Cancer Survivors Day at the Novant Health Buddy Kemp Cancer Support Center.
Study: Sleep apnea linked to earlier memory loss in older people
In the study, older individuals whose sleep apnea was left untreated began to experience mental loss at an average age of 77, compared to those without breathing problems who saw decline in cognitive function at age 90.
People continue to pass on prevention despite education, access
Many Americans continue to skip screenings for breast, cervical and colorectal cancers, according to a national survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
There’s no escaping germs, but you can keep them from spreading
From your keyboard to your cellphone and from the bathroom to the kitchen, germs can exist on every surface.
E-cigarettes likely won't help you quit smoking
Even though they may seem like a safer option, experts do not recommend using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool.
Men can get osteoporosis, too
While it’s true that nearly half of postmenopausal women have low bone density, or osteoporosis, studies have shown that it afflicts one in four men age 50 and older.
Close the immunization gap
An estimated 1 in 5 children is missing out on routine life-saving immunizations.
Skin cancer can strike in the dark
It may be tempting to get outside and enjoy the sunshine, but experts warn to take it easy and put on sunscreen.
More seniors, survivors and great expectations
More than 1.6 million people in the United States are diagnosed with cancer every year. Amid so many new cases it’s easy to wonder why it seems everyone knows someone with cancer.
Talk with your teen about dating violence
Ah, prom season is here. Now is a good time to have a conversation with your teenager about dating and how to identify an abusive or violent relationship.
St. Jude affiliate clinic named at Novant Health Hemby Children's Hospital
Charlotte, North Carolina, is now home to one of seven St. Jude Children's Research Hospital affiliates in the country.
Helping parents navigate autism spectrum disorder
Today, 1 in 68 children are diagnosed with autism nationwide. Caitlin Rissler wants to be a resource for parents who have children with autism. Read her story.
How to prevent foodborne illness
This year, 1 in 6 Americans will suffer from foodborne illness. Learn how proper food preparation might keep you healthy.
All the ways alcohol affects your health
Many studies have touted the heart health benefit from drinking one glass of red wine a day, but too much alcohol can negatively impact your health and even cause death.
To give or not to give kids peanuts early in life
Food allergies affect 1 in 13 children. New research suggests that witholding potential allergens at a young age could be part of the problem.
Colon cancer cases in younger patients could double by 2030
Rindy Comer and Tommy Mitchell are two of a growing number of young adults diagnosed with colon cancer, a disease that usually affects older Americans. Read their stories.
Study shows colorectal cancer is on the rise in 20- to 49-year-olds
Colorectal cancer was once thought to only affect those over age 50. But it appears that younger patients are not exempt as colon cancer is cropping up more often in young adults.
The effects of stress on the mind-gut connection and the promise of prebiotics
New research suggests that the connection between your head, nerves and gut may be stronger than anticipated.
Patients not using life-saving drugs because of cost
Nearly 8 percent of Americans are not taking their prescription drugs as indicated by a physician because they can’t afford to pay for them.
Medicare will now pay for lung cancer screenings for those at the highest risk
Lung cancer kills 160,000 people a year. The mortality rate is so high because lung cancer doesn’t cause symptoms until it’s too late to treat effectively.
Novant Health birthing centers receive prestigious designation
Novant Health Matthews Medical Center and Novant Health Forsyth Medical Center recently earned the globally recognized “baby-friendly” designation.
Study: Managing hypertension spares lives, saves money
If all Americans managed their high blood pressure, there would be 56,000 fewer strokes and heart attacks each year, according to a new study in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Study finds link between negative tweets and heart disease
Tweeting isn’t just a mode of self-expression. It may also be a good indicator of whether the tweeter is at risk of heart disease, according to a new study conducted by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania.
Study indicates many girls don’t receive vaccine in recommended age range
Only 55 percent of girls receive the HPV vaccine in the recommended age range of 11-12. Most recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention changed its recommendation for dosages required for children under age 15.
A toxic relationship
Why dialing back stress is critical for better health.
How wearable technology could fit in the future of health care
An estimated 130 million people are expected to be using wearable devices by 2018.
Why is the infection spreading despite vaccinations?
An outbreak of measles linked to two Disney theme parks in California has put the spotlight back on an infectious disease that was considered eradicated in the United States a decade ago.
Is sleep apnea a serious problem?
About 18 million Americans have sleep apnea, a condition in which breathing pauses repeatedly during sleep. People who have the disorder can often stop breathing hundreds of time a night up to a minute at a time.
What treatments work
Doctors at the North Carolina Department Health and Human Services Department have said that the state has experienced a spike in flu activity since the middle of December. More worrying, they caution the heightened activity may cause more deaths.
Experts reinforce the need for education, screening and treatment
Statistics show there is continued room for improvement as new HIV cases develop and people with diagnosed HIV don’t seek the treatment they need.
Should you be worried?
This year alone, nearly 1,100 Americans have contracted mumps, doubling the cases reported in 2013.
Hospice celebrates 40 years of caring for U.S. patients, families
Hospice care in the U.S. celebrated its 40th birthday this year but, according to experts, many people are still unaware of the services a trained hospice team can provide.
Symptoms, complications and treatment of strep throat
While many sore throats will resolve without treatment, some – including strep throat – may require antibiotics
Study shows that 70 minutes a day leads to improved thinking, school performance
When considering how much activity your child needs, balance is key
Health advisory suggests virus strain has mutated
Report encourages use of antivirals, continued vaccination and infection prevention
Six tips to stop aggressive behavior in its tracks
Aggressive behavior is common in children at any age
Hundreds of children across the country are being treated for this respiratory illness - learn about it here
Video and e-visits save time and money
Health systems and providers across the country and around the globe add online appointment scheduling, video doctor visits and more to their service rosters.
It may be time for your mammogram
There’s never been a better time than now for your mammogram.
Encouraging healthy dating choices
While it may seem more like puppy love, the things teenagers learn in their first dating relationships – such as how to treat others and how they expect to be treated – will affect their future relationships.
How to avoid diabetes and heart disease
People with prediabetes have a one-and-a-half times greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease than people with normal glucose levels.