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    Diseases & Conditions : Cardiovascular Diseases

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      • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

        Detailed information on abdominal aortic aneurysms, including description of abdominal aortic aneurysm, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical and procedure illustrations

      • Anatomy and Function of the Coronary Arteries

        Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. There are two main coronary arteries: the right and the left.

      • Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves

        Heart valves prevent the backward flow of blood. They act as one-way inlets of blood on one side of a ventricle and one-way outlets of blood on the other side of a ventricle.

      • Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves

        Detailed anatomical description of the heart valves, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

      • Anatomy and Function of the Heart's Electrical System

        The heart is a pump made of muscle tissue. Its pumping action is regulated by electrical impulses.

      • Aneurysm

        Detailed information on the dangers of aneurysm, how an aneurysm develops, and aneurysm diagnosis

      • Angina Pectoris

        Angina pectoris occurs when the heart muscle doesn't receive enough blood and oxygen for a given level of work.

      • Arrhythmias

        An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart that can cause the heart to pump less effectively.

      • Atherosclerosis

        Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis caused by a build-up of plaque in the inner lining of an artery.

      • Atrial Fibrillation

        Atrial fibrillation is a type of arrhythmia in which the electrical signals in the atria, or the two small chambers of the heart, are fired in a very fast and uncontrolled manner.

      • Basic Anatomy of the Heart

        Located almost in the center of the chest, the adult human heart is about the size of two fists held side-by-side.

      • Calculating Calories and Fat Grams

        Here's a formula to help you figure out how many calories and fat grams you need each day to maintain your current weight.

      • Cardiac Arrest

        Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart suddenly stops functioning. With no heartbeat, the brain and other vital organs are deprived of blood, leading to death within minutes.

      • Cardiac Arrest and Heart Disease

        Victims of cardiac arrest typically have undiagnosed coronary artery disease (CAD)—the most common cause of the dangerous heart rhythm problems that can lead to this condition.

      • Cardiac Catheterization

        Detailed information on a cardiac catheterization procedure, including how the procedure is performed, reasons for the procedure, and pre- and post-evaluation instructions

      • Cardiac Conditions and Diseases

        Detailed information on the most common cardiovascular diseases, including full-page descriptions detailing the most common types of heart disease, related symptoms, diagnostic, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, ICDs, and treatment information

      • Cardiac Diagnostic Tests

        Here's a look at just a few of the tests that have been used or are being used to understand and identify cardiovascular disease.

      • Cardiac Procedures

        These procedures are often used in the evaluation and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

      • Cardiac Rehabilitation

        Cardiac rehabilitation programs can be conducted while a person is a hospital inpatient or on an outpatient basis.

      • Cardiac Sarcoma

        Cardiac sarcoma is a rare type of cancerous tumor that occurs in the heart.

      • Cardiomyopathy

        Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.

      • Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

        Detailed information on heart disease prevention

      • Cardiovascular Disease Statistics

        Heart disease is one of the most serious health problems in the United States. Find out more facts and figures on this topic.

      • Carotid Artery Disease

        Carotid artery disease occurs when the carotid arteries, the main blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to the brain, become narrowed.

      • Cerebral Aneurysm

        A cerebral aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of an artery in the brain. This weak spot raises the risk that the artery wall will burst open.

      • Cholesterol in the Blood

        The cholesterol in your blood comes from the foods you eat and your liver—but your liver makes all of the cholesterol your body needs.

      • Chronic Venous Insufficiency

        Detailed information on chronic venous insufficiency, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical illustrations

      • Claudication

        Detailed information on claudication, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and a labeled, full-color anatomical illustration

      • Components of Food

        When trying to make heart-healthy changes to your lifestyle and diet, it is helpful to know some basics about nutrition.

      • Congenital Heart Defects

        When the heart or blood vessels near the heart do not develop normally before birth, a condition called congenital heart defect occurs.

      • Coronary Heart Disease

        A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.

      • Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Thrombophlebitis

        Detailed information on deep vein thrombosis and thrombophlebitis, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical illustrations

      • Designing an Exercise Program

        To improve your heart and lung fitness, aim for 30 to 60 minutes of aerobic exercise three to four times a week.

      • Determining Your Body Mass Index

        Your BMI gives a fairly accurate assessment of how much of your body is composed of fat.

      • Diet and Cardiovascular Disease

        The Choose My Plate plan from the federal government is a guideline to help you eat a healthy diet.

      • Echocardiography (Echo)

        Detailed information on a echocardiography (echo) procedure, including how the procedure is performed, reasons for the procedure, and pre- and post-evaluation instructions

      • Effects of Stroke (Brain Attack)

        When an area of the brain is damaged, which typically occurs with a stroke, an impairment may result. An impairment is the loss of normal function of part of the body. Sometimes, an impairment may result in a disability, or inability to perform an activity in a normal way.

      • Electrocardiogram (EKG) / Stress Test / Holter Monitor

        Detailed information on an electrocardiogram (EKG) procedure, including how the procedure is performed, reasons for the procedure, and pre- and post-evaluation instructions

      • Evaluation Procedures for Stroke

        Tests that may be used to help diagnose a stroke include a CT scan or MRI, and an electroencephalogram.

      • Exercise: Before Starting an Exercise Program

        It is always important to talk with your doctor before starting an exercise program, particularly if you have certain health conditions.

      • Frequently Asked Questions About Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs)

        Do cell phones interfere with pacemakers? Do ICDs need to be adjusted? Here are answers to these and other questions.

      • Gastric Bypass (Malabsorptive) Surgery

        Gastric bypass surgery involves bypassing a part of the small intestine that absorbs nutrients. For this reason, these surgeries are referred to as malabsorptive procedures.

      • Gastric Stapling (Restrictive) Surgery

        Gastric stapling surgery is a type of weight loss surgery that limits the amount of food a person can eat.

      • Glossary - Cardiovascular Diseases

        Glossary of terms relating to cardiovascular disease and heart healthy living

      • Heart Failure

        Heart failure, also called congestive heart failure, is a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body's other organs.

      • Heart Murmurs

        Heart murmurs may be caused by a number of factors or diseases, including defective heart valves, fever, and pregnancy.

      • Heart Valve Diseases

        Heart valves can malfunction on one of two ways: They can fail to close completely, allowing blood to flow backward, or they can become damaged, limiting blood flow.

      • High Blood Pressure/Hypertension

        High blood pressure, or hypertension, increases the risk for coronary heart disease (heart attack) and stroke (brain attack).

      • History of Stroke

        Hippocrates, the father of medicine, first recognized stroke over 2,400 years ago. At this time stroke was called apoplexy, which means "struck down by violence" in Greek.

      • Home Page - Cardiovascular Diseases

        Cardiovascular diseases include coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, and rheumatic heart disease.

      • Lifestyle Changes

        Living a healthier lifestyle can help to prevent heart disease. This means eliminating all tobacco, following a heart-healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.

      • Living with a Pacemaker or Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

        With advances in technology, pacemakers and ICDs generally last several years and, in most cases, allow a person to lead a normal life.

      • Maintaining Weight Loss

        Keeping extra weight off requires effort and commitment, just as losing weight does.

      • Medical Management of Vascular Conditions

        Detailed information on the medical management of vascular conditions, including description of the vascular system, risk factors for vascular conditions, causes of vascular conditions, medical management of risk factors, and full-color anatomical illustrations

      • Medical Treatment for Obesity

        Medical treatment can help with weight loss if your own efforts are unsuccessful—or if you have a medical condition that makes it crucial to lose weight.

      • Metabolic Syndrome

        Most people who have metabolic syndrome have insulin resistance. This may be a beginning of the development of type 2 diabetes.

      • Mitral Valve Prolapse

        Mitral valve prolapse is a condition in which blood leaks backward through the mitral valve in the heart. This backflow of blood may result in a heart murmur.

      • Obesity

        Detailed information on obesity, including obesity causes, obesity health effects, obesity medical treatment, obesity surgical treatment, maintaining weight loss, and obesity prevention

      • Obesity Treatment Overview

        Whatever treatment plan a person follows, losing weight slowly will be more effective and healthy over the long term.

      • Online Resources - Cardiovascular Diseases

        List of Internet sites with information about cardiovascular diseases

      • Overview of Obesity

        Obesity is a serious, chronic disease that can inflict substantial harm to a person’s health. Learn about obesity causes and obesity health effects.

      • Overview of Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs)

        A pacemaker is a small device implanted under the skin that sends electrical signals to start or regulate a slow heartbeat.

      • Overview of Stroke

        Stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is disrupted. The disruption is caused when either a blood clot or piece of plaque blocks one of the vital blood vessels in the brain or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts.

      • Overview of the Vascular System

        Detailed information on vascular conditions, including a description of the vascular system, causes and effects of vascular disease, and a full-color anatomical illustration

      • Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs)

        Detailed information on living with a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator

      • Pericarditis

        Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium, the thin sac (membrane) that surrounds the heart.

      • Peripheral Vascular Disease

        Detailed information on peripheral vascular disease, including symptoms, diagnostic, and treatment information

      • Preventing Obesity

        Given the chronic diseases and conditions associated with obesity and the fact that obesity is difficult to treat, prevention is extremely important.

      • Pulmonary Embolism

        Detailed information on pulmonary embolism, including a description of a pulmonary embolism and the circulatory system, symptoms, risk factors, causes, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and 4 labeled, full-color anatomical illustrations

      • Rehabilitation for Stroke

        Stroke rehabilitation works best when the patient, family, and rehabilitation staff works together as a team. Family members must learn about impairments and disabilities caused by the stroke and how to help the patient achieve optimal function again.

      • Renal Vascular Disease

        Detailed information on renal vascular disease, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and a full-color anatomical illustration

      • Rheumatic Heart Disease

        Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which the heart valves have been permanently damaged by rheumatic fever.

      • Risks of Physical Inactivity

        Lack of physical activity has clearly been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

      • Signs and Symptoms of Stroke

        If you notice any of these symptoms, call 911 or your local emergency medical service immediately. Treatment for stroke is most effective when started as soon as possible.

      • Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease

        Smokers not only have increased risk of lung disease, including lung cancer and emphysema, but also have increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and oral cancer.

      • Statistics of Stroke

        Almost every 40 seconds in the United States, a person experiences a stroke.

      • Stroke (Brain Attack)

        Detailed information on stroke, also called brain attack, including history, statistics, symptoms, types, effects, diagnostic, treatment, and rehabilitation information

      • Surgical Treatment for Obesity

        Detailed information on obesity surgical treatment, including gastric bypass surgery, and gastric stapling surgery

      • Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Aortic Dissection

        Detailed information on thoracic aortic aneurysms, including description of a thoracic aortic aneurysm, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical illustrations

      • Topic Index - Cardiovascular Diseases

        Detailed information on the most common types cardiovascular diseases, including symptoms, prevention, diagnostic, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, ICDs, and treatment information

      • Treatment for Stroke

        Although there is no cure for stroke, advanced medical and surgical treatments are now available, giving many stroke victims hope for optimal recovery.

      • Treatment of Obesity

        Detailed information on obesity treatment, including obesity medical treatment, obesity surgical treatment, obesity gastric bypass (malabsorptive) surgery, and obesity gastric stapling (restrictive) surgery

      • Types of Stroke

        Strokes are classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes are caused by blockage of an artery. Hemorrhagic strokes are caused by bleeding in the brain.

      • Varicose Veins

        Detailed information on varicose veins, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and full-color anatomical illustrations

      • Vascular Conditions and Diseases

        Detailed information on vascular conditions and diseases

      • Ventricular Fibrillation

        Ventricular fibrillation is a dangerous, potentially life-threatening heart rhythm problem. This type of arrhythmia can cause the heart to stop beating abruptly and lead to death within minutes.

      • Vital Signs (Body Temperature, Pulse Rate, Respiration Rate, Blood Pressure)

        Vital signs are useful in detecting or monitoring medical problems. Vital signs can be measured in a medical setting, at home, at the site of a medical emergency, or elsewhere.