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Diseases & Conditions : Cardiovascular Disorders

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    • 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

      22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder marked by hypoparathyroidism, certain heart defects, and a cleft lip or palate.

    • A Child Living with a Pacemaker or Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

      Detailed information on living with a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    • About the Heart and Blood Vessels

      Detailed anatomical description of the heart's blood vessels, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

    • Anatomy and Function of the Electrical System

      Detailed anatomical description of the heart's electrical system, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

    • Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves

      Detailed anatomical description of the heart valves, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

    • Anomalous Coronary Artery (ACA)

      An anomalous coronary artery is a coronary artery that has an abnormality or malformation.

    • Aortic Stenosis

      Aortic stenosis affects the amount of blood that can flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. Symptoms vary with the degree of blockage.

    • Arrhythmias in Children

      Detailed information on arrhythmias, including symptoms, types, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)

      An atrial septal defect is an opening in the dividing wall between the two upper chambers of the heart known as the right and left atria.

    • Atrioventricular Canal (AV Canal or AVC)

      AV canal is a complex heart problem that involves several abnormalities of structures inside the heart.

    • Bacterial Endocarditis

      Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart. This infection can occur in anyone who has congenital heart disease.

    • Blood Tests

      Detailed information on blood tests used to diagnosis heart disease

    • Cardiac Catheterization in Children

      Detailed information on cardiac catheterization, including how is a cardiac catheterization performed and what happens after the test

    • Cardiomyopathy and Your Child

      Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.

    • Chest X-Ray and Children

      Detailed information on chest x-rays, including reasons for the procedure

    • Coarctation of the Aorta

      Coarctation of the aorta refers to a narrowing of the aorta that restricts the amount of oxygen-rich blood that can travel to the lower part of the body.

    • Complex Heart Problems

      Detailed information on complex heart problems

    • Components of Food

      When trying to make heart-healthy changes to your lifestyle and diet, it is helpful to know some basics about nutrition.

    • Congenital Heart Disease

      Heart problems are the most common kind of birth defects. While children with some heart defects can be monitored by a doctor and treated with medicine, others will need to have surgery.

    • Congenital Heart Disease Index

      Detailed information on congenital heart disease, including patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal, tricuspid atresia, pulmonary atresia, transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle, truncus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, aortic stenosis, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    • CT (Computed Tomography) Scan

      Detailed information on CT scan, including how the CT scan is performed and what happens after the procedure

    • Diagnosing and Evaluating Heart Disease in Children

      Detailed information on diagnosing and evaluating heart disease in children

    • Echocardiography

      Detailed information on echocardiography, including types and how the procedure is performed

    • Eisenmenger's Syndrome

      Eisenmenger’s syndrome primarily affects adolescents and adults with congenital heart defects that were repaired after their first birthday or that were never repaired.

    • EKG/ECG

      Detailed information on electrocardiogram, including how the EKG/ECG is performed and what happens after the procedure

    • Emotional and Family Issues

      A child's emotions can be affected by the way his/her family members cope with the illness, as well as other issues including the stress felt by the family.

    • Exercise and Physical Stamina

      Many children with congenital heart disease can play and participate in activities with friends, but may tire faster and will naturally stop when they are tired.

    • Exercise EKG/ECG Testing for Children

      Detailed information on exercise electrocardiogram, including how the exercise EKG/ECG is performed and what happens after the procedure

    • Factors Contributing to Congenital Heart Disease

      In up to 90 percent of cases of congenital heart defect, the cause is thought to be a combination of genetics and environment.

    • Fetal Circulation

      Through the blood vessels in the umbilical cord, the fetus receives all the necessary nutrition, oxygen, and life support from the mother through the placenta.

    • Fetal Echocardiography

      Detailed information on fetal echocardiography, including how the fetal echocardiography is performed and what happens after the procedure

    • Genetic Disorders Associated with Congenital Heart Disease

      Detailed information on congenital heart disease, including patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal, tricuspid atresia, pulmonary atresia, transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle, truncus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, aortic stenosis, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    • Glossary - Cardiovascular Disorders

      Glossary of terms relating to cardiovascular disorders in children

    • Growth and Development

      Children with congenital heart disease often grow and develop more slowly than other children.

    • Heart Defects Causing Obstructions to Blood Flow

      Detailed information on heart defects that cause obstructions in blood flow

    • Heart Defects Causing Too Little Blood Flow Through the Lungs

      Detailed information on heart defects that cause too little blood flow through the lungs

    • Heart Defects Causing Too Much Blood Flow Through the Lungs

      Detailed information on heart defects that cause extra blood flow through the lungs

    • Heart Failure in Children

      Detailed information on congestive heart failure, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Heart Murmurs in Children

      Your doctor may have told you your child has a heart murmur. While that can sound scary, there are many different kinds of heart murmurs. Some heart murmurs are not even related to heart disease.

    • Heart Transplantation in Children

      Detailed information on heart transplant, including why a heart transplant is recommended, what is involved in heart transplant surgery, and long-term outlook for a child after a heart transplant

    • Heart-Healthy Eating

      Detailed information on heart healthy eating

    • High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents

      Blood pressures vary depending on the age, height, weight, and gender of your child. Generally, blood pressure is low in infancy and rises slowly as children age.

    • Holter Monitoring

      Detailed information on Holter or event monitoring

    • Home Page - Cardiovascular Disorders

      Detailed information on cardiovascular diseases in children

    • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

      Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a combination of several abnormalities of the heart and great blood vessels.

    • Kawasaki Disease

      The main threat from Kawasaki disease comes from its effect on the heart and blood vessels.

    • Living With Congenital Heart Disease

      Detailed information for children living with a congenital heart disease

    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Children

      Detailed information on magnetic resonance imaging, including how the image is performed and what happens following the procedure

    • Marfan Syndrome

      Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder involving the body's connective tissue, including the heart, lungs, and spinal cord.

    • Online Resources - Cardiovascular Disorders

      List of online resources to find additional information on cardiovascular disorders in children

    • Overview of Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs) in Children

      Detailed information on living with a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

      PDA is a heart problem in which the connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery remains open after birth, instead of closing as it should.

    • Pericarditis in Children

      Pericarditis is inflammation or infection of the pericardium, the thin sac that surrounds the heart.

    • Physical Examination

      Detailed information on childhood physical examinations

    • Problems Affecting the Coronary Arteries and Blood Vessels

      Detailed information on problems affecting the coronary arteries and blood vessels of children

    • Problems Involving Heart Rhythm

      Detailed information on problems involving heart rhythm

    • Pulmonary Atresia (PA)

      PA is a serious heart defect in which the pulmonary valve does not allow blood to flow from the heart to the lungs to pick up oxygen.

    • Pulmonary Stenosis

      Pulmonary stenosis affects the leaflets of the pulmonary valve, making it difficult for blood to flow from the right ventricle to the lungs.

    • Rheumatic Heart Disease in Children

      Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which permanent damage to heart valves is caused by rheumatic fever.

    • Stroke in Children

      Stroke is much more common in adults than children, but children get strokes, too. The good news is that a child has a better ability to recover from stoke than an adult because a child's brain is still developing.

    • Syncope

      Detailed information on syncope, also called fainting, including causes, symptoms, diagnostic, and treatment information

    • Tetralogy of Fallot

      Tetralogy of Fallot is a complex condition of several congenital heart defects.

    • The Heart

      Detailed information on the anatomy of the heart and heart transplantation in children

    • Tilt Table Evaluation

      Detailed information on tilt table testing, also called upright tilt testing, including reasons for the procedure, risks of the procedure, what to expect, and discharge instructions

    • Topic Index - Cardiovascular Disorders

      Detailed information on cardiovascular diseases in children

    • Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

      In this condition, the four pulmonary veins are connected somewhere besides the left atrium.

    • Transesophageal Echocardiography

      Detailed information on transesophageal echocardiography, also called TEE or heart scan with endoscopy, including reasons for the procedure, risks of the procedure, what to expect, and discharge instructions

    • Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA)

      Because of abnormal development of the fetal heart, the large vessels that take blood away from the heart to the lungs, or to the body, are improperly connected.

    • Tricuspid Atresia (TA)

      In tricuspid atresia, the tricuspid valve, normally located between the right atrium and the right ventricle, does not develop properly.

    • Truncus Arteriosus

      Truncus arteriosus occurs when the aorta and the pulmonary artery fail to separate completely during fetal development.

    • Ultrafast/Electron Beam CT Scan

      Detailed information on ultrafast computed tomography (CT) scan, including reasons for the procedure, risks of the procedure, what to expect, and discharge instructions

    • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

      A ventricular septal defect is an opening in the dividing wall between the two lower chambers of the heart known as the right and left ventricles.