Welcome to Novant Health Go

Health library

Quick Search    


Search Alphabetically

 


Diseases & Conditions

Return

    • 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

      22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder marked by hypoparathyroidism, certain heart defects, and a cleft lip or palate.

    • About Cancer

      Detailed information on cancer in children, including causes, diagnosis, treatment, and coping

    • About Pediatric Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases

      Detailed information on pediatric arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, including causes, symptoms, and members of the treatment team

    • Abrasions

      An abrasion is a superficial rub or wearing off of the skin, usually caused by a scrape or a "brush burn." Abrasions are usually minor injuries that can be treated at home.

    • Achondroplasia

      Detailed information on achondroplasia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Acne in Children

      Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. With acne, the sebaceous glands are clogged, which leads to pimples and cysts.

    • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

      HIV can be passed to a child when he or she is in the mother's womb or as the infant passes through the birth canal. The virus has also been detected in breast milk.

    • Acute Bronchitis in Children

      Detailed information on acute bronchitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy

      Acute fatty liver of pregnancy is a rare, but serious, condition of pregnancy in which there is an excessive accumulation of fat in the liver or liver cells.

    • Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Children

      Many types of trauma can cause an acute spinal cord injury. The more common types occur when the area of the spine or neck is bent or compressed.

    • Adenovirus Infections

      Detailed information on adenovirus infections, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Adjustment Disorders

      Adjustment disorders are quite common in children and teens. They are characterized by an excessive reaction to stress.

    • Adolescent Health Problems and Injuries

      Detailed information on adolescent health problems and injuries, including acne, asthma, breast conditions, breast self-examination, diabetes, eye care, eye safety, gynecological conditions, menstrual conditions, gynecologic problems, pap test, vaginitis, vulvitis, menstrual disorders, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), high blood pressure, infectious mononucleosis, obesity, oral health, orthodontics, braces, wisdom teeth extraction, p

    • Adolescent Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

      Detailed information on adolescent problems of the teeth and mouth

    • Allergens: Poison Ivy / Poison Oak

      Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac can all cause bumps and blisters that itch. Teach your children what these plants look like and how to avoid them.

    • Allergic Rhinitis

      Pollen, dust mites, mold, and animal dander are the most common causes of allergic rhinitis.

    • Allergy

      Detailed information on allergy, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Alpha Thalassemia in Children

      Detailed information on alpha thalassemia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Amenorrhea in Teens

      Amenorrhea is a menstrual condition in which a woman's menstrual periods are absent for more than three monthly cycles. Pregnancy is one possible cause of amenorrhea.

    • Amniotic Fluid Problems/Hydramnios/Oligohydramnios

      Too much or too little amniotic fluid around the fetus can cause problems. These include preterm labor, birth defects, and underdeveloped lungs in the fetus.

    • Anaphylaxis

      Detailed information on anaphylaxis, including causes, symptoms, and treatment

    • Anemia

      Detailed information on anemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, causes, types, and treatment

    • Anemia in Pregnancy

      Doctor appointments and baby showers aren’t the only things that can tucker you out when you’re pregnant. Anemia is a condition that also can make you feel fatigued. Find out what you need to know to safeguard yourself.

    • Anencephaly

      Anencephaly is a type of neural tube defect present at birth. It affects the formation of the brain and the skull bones that surround the head.

    • Animal Bites

      Detailed information on animal bites and rabies, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Animals

      Detailed information on animals as allergens

    • Anorectal Malformation

      An anorectal malformation is a birth defect in which the anus and rectum do not develop properly.

    • Anorexia Nervosa

      Anorexia nervosa (or simply anorexia) is an eating disorder that causes people to obsess about their weight and food.

    • Anorexia Nervosa in Children

      Anorexia nervosa (AN) is eating disorder that is a form of self-starvation. A child or teen with AN has abnormally low body weight, a distorted body image, and an intense fear of gaining weight.

    • Antiphospholipid Syndrome (aPL)

      This disease can have serious effects in pregnancy, both for the mother and the baby. These include strokes, blood clots, and recurrent miscarriage.

    • Anxiety Disorders in Children

      Detailed information on the most common types of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias

    • Aortic Stenosis

      Aortic stenosis affects the amount of blood that can flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. Symptoms vary with the degree of blockage.

    • Aphthous Stomatitis

      Detailed information on aphthous stomatitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Aplastic Anemia in Children

      Detailed information on aplastic anemia, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Apnea of Prematurity

      It’s a cliché that many new parents need to reassure themselves that the baby is still breathing. But what if your baby really is having breathing problems? A breathing condition called apnea of prematurity affects some babies, especially if they’re born early. But you can learn what symptoms to look for.

    • Appendicitis in Children

      Detailed information on appendicitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Arrhythmias in Children

      Detailed information on arrhythmias, including symptoms, types, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Asthma and Pregnancy

      With proper asthma management and good prenatal care, most women with asthma can have healthy pregnancies.

    • Asthma Attack Triggers

      Your child's asthma may be triggered by a number of things: pollen, molds, certain foods, strong odors, or even exercise.

    • Atopic Dermatitis in Children

      Detailed information on eczema, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)

      An atrial septal defect is an opening in the dividing wall between the two upper chambers of the heart known as the right and left atria.

    • Atrioventricular Canal (AV Canal or AVC)

      AV canal is a complex heart problem that involves several abnormalities of structures inside the heart.

    • Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children

      ADHD is a behavior disorder marked by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity.

    • Autistic Disorder

      A child with autism appears to live in his or her own world, showing little interest in others and a lack of social awareness.

    • Autoimmune Diseases

      Detailed information on autoimmune diseases and pregnancy

    • Autosomal Dominant: Marfan Syndrome

      Detailed information on Marfan Syndrome, one type of autosomal dominant condition

    • Autosomal Recessive: Cystic Fibrosis, Sickle Cell Anemia, Tay Sachs Disease

      Detailed information on autosomal recessive inheritance, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Tay Sachs disease

    • Bacterial Endocarditis

      Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart. This infection can occur in anyone who has congenital heart disease.

    • Bacterial Skin Infections in Children

      Detailed information on bacterial skin infections, including impetigo, cellulitis, scarlet fever, folliculitis, boils, carbuncles, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

    • Behavior Changes

      Although a baby's activity level, appetite, and cries normally vary from day to day, even hour to hour, a distinct change in any of these areas may signal illness.

    • Behavior Disorders

      Detailed information on behavior problems in adolescents, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder

    • Benign Skin Growths and Pigmentation Disorders

      Detailed information on benign skin growths and pigmentation disorders in children

    • Beta Thalassemia (Cooley's Anemia) in Children

      Detailed information on beta thalassemia (Cooley's anemia), including diagnosis and treatment

    • Biliary Atresia

      Detailed information on biliary atresia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Bipolar Disorder/Manic Depression in Children

      Detailed information on manic depression, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Birth Injury

      Detailed information on birth injury, including the most common types of birth injury

    • Birthmarks

      Detailed information on birthmarks and the different types, including vascular birthmarks, hemangiomas, and port-wine stains

    • Bites

      Detailed information on bites, including human bites, animal bites, and insect bites

    • Bleeding Disorders

      Detailed information on bleeding disorders, including Hemophilia and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura

    • Bleeding in Pregnancy/Placenta Previa/Placental Abruption

      Bleeding may occur at various times in pregnancy. Although bleeding is alarming, it may or may not be a serious complication.

    • Blepharitis

      Detailed information on blepharitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Blisters in Children

      Detailed information on blisters, including cause, first-aid, and treatment

    • Blocked Tear Duct (Dacryostenosis)

      A blocked tear duct can occur in one or both eyes. The blockage may be present at all times, or it may come and go.

    • Blood Clotting Disorders in Children

      Clotting disorders are a group of conditions in which people are more likely than normal to experience excessive clotting. The medical term for this is thrombophilia. These disorders may first be spotted in childhood but are usually identified in adolescence and young adulthood.

    • Blood Donations and Blood Banking

      Detailed information on blood donations and blood banking

    • Blood in the Eye (Hyphema)

      Symptoms of hyphema include blood visible in the eye, usually following some type of trauma. Immediate medical care is necessary.

    • Bone Cancers in Children

      Detailed information on bone cancer in children, including Ewing sarcoma and osteogenic sarcoma

    • Brain Abscess

      A brain abscess is a rare infection in the brain caused by viruses or bacteria. Symptoms include fever, severe headache, and nausea or vomiting.

    • Brain Tumors in Children

      Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Brain tumors that occur in infants and children are very different from adult brain tumors, both in terms of the type of cells and the responsiveness to treatment.

    • Branchial Cleft Abnormalities

      Detailed information on branchial cleft abnormality, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Breast Conditions

      Some breast changes or conditions are related to a young woman's menstrual cycle, but others may occur at any time. Most breast conditions are benign.

    • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby

      Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the baby, including ineffective latch-on, ineffective sucking, slow infant weight gain, poor infant weight gain, mismanaged breastfeeding, over-active breast milk let down

    • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother

      Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the mother, including sore nipples, low breast milk production, flat nipples, plugged milk ducts, and mastitis

    • Breathing Problems

      If you listen closely, you’ll notice that your baby’s breathing isn’t like yours. Babies breathe much more frequently and with different patterns than adults. Here’s how to recognize normal breathing in your infant—and how to spot signs of respiratory distress.

    • Bronchiolitis

      Detailed information on bronchiolitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Bruises

      A bruise is a collection of blood underneath the skin that is caused by trauma to an area of the body. Sometimes, enough bleeding occurs so that a lump also forms.

    • Bruising or Black Eye (Ecchymosis)

      A black eye should be seen by a doctor to make sure no injury has occurred to the eye itself. Most black eyes heal completely and do not cause any damage.

    • Bulimia Nervosa in Adolescents

      Bulimia nervosa is defined as uncontrolled episodes of overeating (bingeing) usually followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, enemas, or medications in an attempt to control weight.

    • Burns Overview

      Burns are a type of injury caused by thermal, electrical, chemical, or electromagnetic energy. Most burn accidents occur at home.

    • Campylobacter Infection in Children

      Campylobacter is more common in summer than in winter. Symptoms typically include cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.

    • Candidiasis (Yeast Infection) in Children

      Detailed information on candidiasis (yeast infection), including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

      Carbon monoxide is a poisonous, colorless, tasteless, odorless gas. It is the most common cause of accidental poisoning-related deaths and is often called "the silent killer."

    • Cardiomyopathy and Your Child

      Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.

    • Cat Scratch Disease in Children

      Cat scratches and bites can cause cat scratch disease, a bacterial infection carried in cat saliva. Young kittens younger than a year old are more likely to scratch, increasing the likelihood of infection.

    • Cat Scratch Disease in Children

      Cat scratch disease is most common in children under age 10. In almost all cases of cat scratch disease, the person who develops it will have had contact with a cat or kitten.

    • Cataracts in Children

      Detailed information on cataracts, including causes, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Cellulitis in Children

      Detailed information on cellulitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Cerebral Palsy

      Cerebral palsy is a life-long condition that affects the communication between the brain and the muscles, causing a permanent state of uncoordinated movement and posturing.

    • Chalazion

      Detailed information on chalazion, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Chemical Burns

      Chemical burns can occur when strong acids or alkalies come in contact with the skin and/or the eyes.

    • Chemical Burns of the Eye

      A chemical burn occurs when a child gets any type of chemical in his or her eye. This is a medical emergency, and the child should receive immediate medical care.

    • Chiari Malformation

      A Chiari malformation is a birth defect in the area of the back of the head where the brain and spinal cord connect.

    • Childhood Glaucoma

      Detailed information on childhood glaucoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Children and Folliculitis, Boils, and Carbuncles

      Detailed information on folliculitis, boils, and carbuncles

    • Cholestasis of Pregnancy

      Cholestasis of pregnancy is a condition in which the normal flow of bile in the gallbladder is slowed or stopped resulting in itching and jaundice.

    • Chorioamnionitis

      Chorioamnionitis is an infection of the membranes and amniotic fluid. It occurs in about 1 to 2 percent of all pregnancies, but is much more common in preterm births.

    • Chromosome Abnormalities

      Detailed information on chromosome abnormalities, including trisomies, monosomies, and genetic translocations

    • Chronic Hypertension

      When a woman has pre-existing hypertension or develops hypertension before the 20th week of pregnancy, this is called chronic hypertension.

    • Chronic Lung Disease

      If your baby was born premature and needed to be on a respirator, her lungs may have been damaged. This can cause a condition called chronic lung disease (CLD). But CLD can be treated, and as lungs mature the condition can improve. Learn about the symptoms and treatments for CLD.

    • Cleft Lip/Cleft Palate

      Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including cleft lip and cleft palate

    • Clubfoot

      Detailed information on clubfoot, including causes, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and cast care

    • Coarctation of the Aorta

      Coarctation of the aorta refers to a narrowing of the aorta that restricts the amount of oxygen-rich blood that can travel to the lower part of the body.

    • Colic

      Though the name sounds like a disease, colic is really just a term for excessive crying in an infant. Unfortunately, nobody knows for sure what causes colic, but there are several theories and possible risk factors for the condition.

    • Common Childhood External Ear Problems

      Detailed information on common childhood external ear problems

    • Common Children's Digestive Problems

      Detailed information on common children's digestive problems, including colic, diarrhea, food allergies, and lactose intolerance

    • Common Conditions and Complications

      Detailed information on common conditions and complications of the high-risk newborn

    • Common Dental Problems and Concerns

      Detailed information on common dental problems and concerns in children

    • Common Skin Disorders in Children

      Detailed information on common skin disorders, including Bacterial Skin Infections, Fungal Skin Infections, Viral Skin Infections, Viral Exanthems (Rashes), and Parasitic Skin Infections

    • Common Types of Pediatric Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases

      Detailed information on the most common types of pediatric arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, including Juvenile Dermatomyositis, Fibromyalgia, Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriatic Arthritis, Rheumatic Fever, Scleroderma, Septic Arthritis, Infectious Arthritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Lupus, Vasculitis, Kawasaki Disease, and Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

    • Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)

      Detailed information on common variable immunodeficiency, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Communication Disorders

      Young children with communication disorders may not speak at all, or may have a limited vocabulary for their age. Some children with communication disorders have difficulty understanding simple directions or are unable to name objects.

    • Complex Heart Problems

      Detailed information on complex heart problems

    • Conduct Disorder

      A child with a conduct disorder has antisocial behaviors that violate the rights of others and age-appropriate social standards and rules.

    • Congenital and Hereditary Neurological Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common congenital and hereditary disorders in children

    • Congenital Heart Disease

      Heart problems are the most common kind of birth defects. While children with some heart defects can be monitored by a doctor and treated with medicine, others will need to have surgery.

    • Congenital Laryngeal Stridor

      Detailed information on congenital laryngeal stridor, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Congenital Limb Defects

      Congenital limb defects occur when a portion or the entire upper or lower limb fails to form normally when the baby is developing in the uterus.

    • Congenital Liver Defects

      Detailed information on congenital liver defects, including biliary atresia and choledochal cyst

    • Congenital Muscular Torticollis

      Detailed information on congenital muscular torticollis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Conjunctivitis (Newborn / Childhood)

      Conjunctivitis, or pink eye, is a very common problem in children. Large outbreaks of conjunctivitis are often seen in day-care settings and schools.

    • Constipation in Children

      Common causes of constipation in children: a low-fiber diet, not enough fluids, lack of exercise, and emotional issues.

    • Contact Dermatitis in Children

      Detailed information on contact dermatitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Corneal Abrasions

      A corneal abrasion is a scratch or injury to the cornea, the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye. This is a very common occurrence in children.

    • Craniosynostosis

      Craniosynostosis is a condition in which the fibrous joints between the skull’s bony plates close too early, causing problems with normal brain and skull growth.

    • Crohn's Disease in Children

      Detailed information on Crohn's disease, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Crossed-Eyes (Strabismus)

      A child with strabismus has one or both eyes that turn inward, outward, up, or down. At times, more than one of these conditions are present.

    • Croup

      Croup is most common in children younger than 5, with the peak age around 2. Croup occurs most often in winter.

    • Cuts and Wounds of the External Ear

      Any wound to the ear cartilage that is more than just a superficial cut or laceration should be seen by a doctor to decide if stitches are needed.

    • Cuts and Wounds of the Face

      Most minor cuts or wounds to the face can be handled at home with simple first-aid treatment.

    • Cuts and Wounds of the Mouth and Lips

      The gums, tongue, and lips have a rich blood supply and when cuts occur, these areas may bleed excessively.

    • Cuts and Wounds of the Nose

      Most minor nose wounds can be handled at home, but a wound or bruise that also involves one or both eyes requires immediate medical attention.

    • Cystic Fibrosis in Children

      Detailed information on cystic fibrosis, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and genetics

    • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

      CMV may be passed from a mother to her baby during pregnancy and is the most common congenital viral infection.

    • Defects in Metabolism of Amino Acids: PKU

      Before the simple blood test that checks for PKU became routine, the condition could go undetected long enough to cause severe intellectual disability. Now the disorder can be diagnosed before it leads to any damage.

    • Deformational Plagiocephaly

      Detailed information on deformational plagiocephaly, including symptoms and treatment

    • Delayed Puberty

      Detailed information on delayed puberty, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Dental Emergencies

      One type of dental emergency is a knocked-out tooth. If it's a permanent tooth, rinse it and place it back in the socket. Then immediately take your child to the dentist.

    • Dermatitis in Children

      Detailed information on dermatitis, including the different types of dermatitis such as atopic dermatitis (eczema), contact dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, localized scratch dermatitis, nummular dermatitis, perioral dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis

    • Dermatomyositis

      Dermatomyositis is a rare disease marked by increasing muscle weakness, skin rash and inflammation, and swelling of the eyelids.

    • Dermoid Cyst

      Detailed information on dermoid cyst, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Developmental Disorders

      Detailed information on developmental disorders in children

    • Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH)

      Detailed information on developmental dysplasia of the hip, including causes, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and cast care

    • Deviated Septum in Children

      Detailed information on deviated septum, including possible complications of nasal surgery

    • Diabetes and Pregnancy

      It's important for a woman with diabetes to keep her blood sugar under tight control while she's pregnant.

    • Diabetes Insipidus in Children

      Detailed information on diabetes insipidus, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Diagnosing Anemia in Children

      In most cases, anemia can be diagnosed with a few simple blood tests. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all infants be given a blood test to look for anemia at 6 months, 9 months, or 12 months of age.

    • Diamond Blackfan Anemia

      Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare blood disorder that is usually diagnosed in children during their first year of life. Children with DBA do not make enough red blood cells – the cells that carry oxygen to all other cells in the body.

    • Diaper Dermatitis

      Detailed information on diaper dermatitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Diapers/Diaper Rash

      You have two choices in diapers—cloth or disposable, and each type has advantages. You must decide which works best for your child and family.

    • Diaphragmatic Hernia

      A diaphragmatic hernia is a birth defect in which an opening is present in the diaphragm. Some of the organs that are normally found in the abdomen move up into the chest cavity through this abnormal opening.

    • Diarrhea in Children

      Diarrhea is defined either as watery stool or increased frequency of stool—or both—when compared with a normal amount. It is a common problem that may last a few days and disappear on its own.

    • Digestive and Liver Disorders

      Detailed information on digestive and liver disorders during pregnancy

    • Diphtheria

      Detailed information on diphtheria, including symptoms, transmission, treatment, and prevention

    • Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP)

      Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are serious illnesses. A combination vaccine is given to babies and children to provide protection against all three diseases.

    • Dislocations

      A dislocation occurs when extreme force is put on a ligament, allowing the ends of two connected bones to separate. Ligaments are flexible bands of fibrous tissue that connect various bones and cartilage.

    • Disorders Affecting Calcium Metabolism

      Detailed information on disorders affecting calcium metabolism, including juvenile osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and DiGeorge syndrome

    • Disorders Affecting the Adrenal Glands

      Detailed information on disorders affecting the adrenal glands, including underactive adrenal glands (Addison's disease), overactive adrenal glands (Cushing's syndrome), and pheochromocytoma

    • Disorders Affecting the Pituitary Gland

      Detailed information on disorders affecting the pituitary gland, including posterior anterior disorders and anterior pituitary disorders

    • Disorders Affecting the Thyroid

      Detailed information on disorders affecting the thyroid gland, including hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) and hypothyroidism

    • Disorders of Sex Development

      Detailed information on ambiguous genitalia, including determining gender and treatment

    • Disorders of the Immune System

      When your immune system doesn’t work the way it should, it is called an immune system disorder.

    • Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)

      Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that includes a combination of birth defects, including some degree of mental retardation, characteristic facial features and, often, heart defects.

    • Drug Rashes in Children

      Detailed information on different types of drug rashes, including acne, exfoliative dermatitis, fixed drug eruption, hives, morbilliform/maculopapular rash, purpuric eruptions, Stevens-Johnson syndrome

    • Dust Mites

      Detailed information on dust mite allergens

    • Dyskeratosis Congenita

      Dyskeratosis congenita is a congenital disease, meaning it is present at birth. It was initially thought to only affect the skin and nails, but today experts understand that dyskeratosis congenita in its most severe form causes bone marrow failure.

    • Dysmenorrhea in Adolescents

      Dysmenorrhea is a menstrual condition marked by severe and frequent menstrual cramps and pain. Dysmenorrhea can be either lifelong or caused by another medical condition.

    • Dysphagia

      Detailed information on dysphagia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Dysthymia in Children

      Detailed information on dysthymia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Ear Disorders

      Detailed information on ear disorders in children

    • Eating Disorders in Children

      Detailed information on adolescents and eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, and obesity

    • Ectopic Pregnancy

      Ectopic pregnancies nearly always occur in the fallopian tube. Rarely, an ectopic pregnancy will be located in an ovary or in the cervix, or even in the abdomen.

    • Eisenmenger's Syndrome

      Eisenmenger’s syndrome primarily affects adolescents and adults with congenital heart defects that were repaired after their first birthday or that were never repaired.

    • Electrical Burns

      Electrical burns occur when a child comes in contact with electricity, either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).

    • Encephalitis in Children

      Encephalitis refers to inflammation of the brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell, which leads to changes in the child's neurological condition, including mental confusion and seizures.

    • Encopresis

      Detailed information on encopresis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Epididymitis in Children

      In the male reproductive system, the epididymis is a tiny coiled tube that stores, matures, and carries sperm. When the epididymis gets infected for one reason or another, it leads to inflammation, known as epididymitis.

    • Epiglottitis

      Detailed information on epiglottitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Epilepsy and Pregnancy

      Epilepsy and the medications to treat it can have affect the mother, the pregnancy, and the fetus and newborn. Fortunately, most women are able to have a healthy pregnancy and baby.

    • Ewing Sarcoma

      Detailed information on Ewing sarcoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Exstrophy of the Bladder and Epispadias

      Detailed information on exstrophy of the bladder, including diagnosis and treatment

    • Eye Trauma

      Detailed information on eye trauma in children

    • Eyelid Lacerations

      Eyelid lacerations are cuts to the eyelid caused by trauma. Your child's doctor will examine the eye closely to make sure no damage has occurred to the eye itself.

    • Failure to Thrive

      Failure to thrive means that a child is not growing as he or she should. Psychological, social, or economic problems within the family almost always play a role in this condition.

    • Fanconi Anemia

      Fanconi anemia is a blood disorder in which the bone marrow doesn’t make enough blood cells or makes abnormal types of blood cells.

    • Femoral Anteversion

      Femoral anteversion is an inward twisting of the thigh bone. It is typically detected when a child is 4 to 6 years old.

    • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

      Fetal alcohol syndrome refers to a group of abnormalities in babies born to mothers who drink during pregnancy. The problems include small head and brain, facial abnormalities, and defects of other organs.

    • Fevers

      When your child has a fever, the body resets its thermostat at a higher temperature. This helps the body fight off invading microorganisms.

    • Fibromyalgia in Children

      Detailed information fibromyalgia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Fifth Disease

      Fifth disease is caused by the human parvovirus. It is most prevalent in the winter and spring and is usually seen in school-aged children.

    • First-Degree Burns

      First-degree burns affect only the epidermis, or outer layer of skin. The burn site is red, painful, and dry, with no blisters. Mild sunburn is an example.

    • Flat or Inverted Nipples

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and flat or inverted nipples

    • Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose, and Airway

      Children usually place things in their ears because they are bored, curious, or copying other children. Some objects may cause no symptoms, but other objects, such as food and insects, may cause pain in the ear, redness, or drainage.

    • Foreign Bodies in the Eye

      The foreign object may be in the conjunctiva—the thin membrane that covers the actual eye—or in the cornea, the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye.

    • Fractures in Children

      Fractures occur when more force is applied to the bone than the bone can absorb. Bones are weakest when they are twisted.

    • Fractures of the Orbit

      The orbit is the bony structure around the eye. A blow to the face can break one or more of these bones and can result in severe eye injury and damage.

    • Frostbite in Children

      Detailed information on frostbite, including symptoms and what to do if frostbite occurs

    • Fungal Infections

      Detailed information on fungal skin infections, including Candidiasis, Tinea Infections, and Tinea Versicolor

    • Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER)

      Hiccups. Belching. Stomachache. Sound like a case of heartburn? It isn’t an adults-only condition. If your baby has some of these symptoms, she may have gastroesophageal reflux. If feeding changes don’t bring relief, your doctor may prescribe medications to help.

    • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)/Heartburn in Children

      Detailed information on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Gastrointestinal Problems

      If your baby seems fussy and you’ve fed and changed him, he may have an upset stomach or colic. But don’t worry, there are lots of things you can do to make your little one more comfortable and keep both of you calm.

    • Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescents

      Children or teens with generalized anxiety disorder often worry a lot about future events, past behaviors, social acceptance, and school performance.

    • Genetics and Immune Disorders

      Severe immune disorders may be obvious right after birth. Other immune disorders may cause only mild symptoms and may not be noticed until later in childhood or early adulthood.

    • Germ Cell Tumors

      Detailed information on germ cell tumors, including causes, types, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Gestational Diabetes

      Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a pregnant woman has elevated glucose levels and other symptoms of diabetes—but did not have diabetes before she became pregnant.

    • Gestational Hypertension

      Pregnancy-induced hypertension is also called toxemia or preeclampsia. It occurs most often in young women with a first pregnancy.

    • Glomerulonephritis in Children

      Detailed information on glomerulonephritis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Gonadotropin-Independent Precocious Puberty

      Detailed information on gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Grief and Bereavement

      The process of grieving is often long and painful for parents, siblings, relatives, friends, peers, teachers, neighbors, and anyone that understands the loss of a child.

    • Group B Streptococcus

      You’ve probably never heard of group B streptococcus. That’s because you didn’t need to before you were pregnant. This bacterium generally doesn’t cause problems for healthy nonpregnant women. But it can cause illness in pregnant women and their babies. Here’s what you need to know.

    • Growth Hormone Deficiency

      Detailed information on growth hormone deficiency, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Growth Problems

      Detailed information on growth problems, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Guillain-Barre Syndrome in Children

      Guillain-Barré syndrome is a neurological disorder in which a child's immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. The disorder usually occurs a few days or weeks after the child has had symptoms of a respiratory or gastrointestinal viral infection.

    • Gynecological and Menstrual Conditions

      Detailed information on the most common gynecological and menstrual conditions that affect adolescents

    • Gynecological Infections

      Detailed information on gynecological problems in a child

    • Haemophilus Influenzae Infections

      Detailed information on Haemophilus influenzae, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, transmission, treatment, and prevention

    • Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib)

      Haemophilus influenzae type b is a serious bacterial disease that usually strikes children younger than 5. It is spread from person-to-person by coughing and sneezing.

    • Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease

      Detailed information on hand-foot-mouth disease, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Head Injury in Children

      The more common causes of head injury in children are falls, motor vehicle accidents—in which the child is either a passenger or a pedestrian—or a result of child abuse.

    • Headaches in Children

      Many headaches in children may be caused by tight muscles and dilated blood vessels in the head. Other headaches may be caused by an actual problem, such as a tumor or malformation of the brain, although this is much less common.

    • Health Promotion and Common Problems

      Detailed information on health promotion and common health problems in children

    • Hearing Loss in Babies

      Hearing loss in babies is rare in this country, but when it does occur, it's important to diagnose it early. Undetected hearing loss can delay speech and language development.

    • Hearing Loss in Children

      Sensorineural hearing loss involves the inner ear or its connection with the brain. Conductive hearing loss involves the middle or outer ear.

    • Heart Disease and Pregnancy

      In pregnancy, blood volume increases greatly. This extra fluid puts an increased workload on the heart and may cause problems for a woman with heart disease.

    • Heart Failure in Children

      Detailed information on congestive heart failure, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Heart Murmurs in Children

      Your doctor may have told you your child has a heart murmur. While that can sound scary, there are many different kinds of heart murmurs. Some heart murmurs are not even related to heart disease.

    • Heat or Thermal Burns

      A heat-induced or thermal burn can occur when the skin comes in contact with any heat source, such as a cooking pan, an iron, a fire, a hot surface, or a hot, scalding liquid.

    • Heat-Related Illnesses (Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke)

      Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.

    • Helicobacter Pylori in Children

      Detailed information on H. pylori, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • HELLP Syndrome

      HELLP syndrome is a serious complication of severe pregnancy-induced high blood pressure. It usually develops before delivery, but may also occur after delivery.

    • Hemifacial Microsomia

      Detailed information on hemifacial microsomia, including types, causes, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Hemoglobin C Disease

      Most people carry hemoglobin A in their red blood cells. Those who carry hemoglobin C, considered an abnormal variation, may develop hemoglobin C disease. This blood disorder develops because the red blood cells break down earlier than they should, leaving too few in the blood and leading to mild anemia.

    • Hemoglobin E Trait

      Many people with hemoglobin E trait have no symptoms. Those with more severe hemoglobin E-related disorders may experience mild thalassemia, or anemialike symptoms, but even these are rare.

    • Hemolytic Anemia in Children

      Detailed information on aplastic anemia, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn

      This condition occurs when an incompatibility exists between the blood types of the mother and baby.

    • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Children

      Detailed information on hemolytic uremic syndrome, including cause, progression, treatment, and statistics

    • Hemophilia

      Detailed information on hemophilia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP)

      Detailed information on Henoch-Schönlein purpura, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Hepatitis B (HBV) in Children

      An infant or young child who contracts hepatitis B is at greater risk of staying infected with the virus and of having life-long liver problems, such as scarring of the liver and liver cancer.

    • Hepatitis in Children

      Six main types of the hepatitis virus that have been identified: A, B, C, D, E, and G. Vaccination can protect children from several forms of hepatitis.

    • Hepatoblastoma

      Detailed information on hepatoblastoma, including causes, stages, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Herpangina

      Detailed information on herpangina, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Herpes Simplex Virus/Cold Sores

      Detailed information on cold sores and herpes simplex virus 1

    • Herpes Zoster (Shingles)

      Detailed information on shingles, including symptoms, diagnosis, complications, and treatment

    • High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents

      Blood pressures vary depending on the age, height, weight, and gender of your child. Generally, blood pressure is low in infancy and rises slowly as children age.

    • Hirschsprung's Disease

      Detailed information on Hirschsprung's disease, including risks, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Hodgkin Lymphoma

      Detailed information on Hodgkin's lymphoma, including causes, symptoms, staging, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Horseshoe Kidney

      Detailed information on horseshoe kidney, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Human Bites

      Detailed information on human bites, including treatment for human bites

    • Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)

      Detailed information on human parainfluenza viruses, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Hyaline Membrane Disease/Respiratory Distress Syndrome

      This disease is one of the most common problems of premature babies. It can cause babies to need extra oxygen and help in breathing.

    • Hydrocele

      Detailed information on hydrocele, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Hydrocephalus

      Hydrocephalus is a condition in which a buildup of fluid in the brain causes the pressure inside of the head to increase and the skull bones to expand to a larger-than-normal appearance.

    • Hydrops Fetalis

      This is a life-threatening problem of severe swelling in the fetus and newborn. It develops when too much fluid leaves the bloodstream and goes into the tissues.

    • Hyperbilirubinemia and Jaundice

      A newborn with this condition has too much bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin causes a yellowing of the baby's skin and tissues. This is called jaundice.

    • Hyperemesis Gravidarum

      Vomiting—especially during the first trimester—is normal for many women during pregnancy. Constantly vomiting is not. Take action to prevent a serious complication.

    • Hyperparathyroidism in Children

      Detailed information on hyperparathyroidism, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Hyperthyroidism (Graves' Disease)

      Hyperthyroidism means that the thyroid gland is overactive, producing too much thyroid hormone. The excess hormone leads to an overactive metabolism.

    • Hypocalcemia

      A baby with this condition has too little calcium in the blood. Hypocalcemia is more common in premature and low birthweight babies.

    • Hypoglycemia in Children

      Causes of hypoglycemia in children with diabetes may include a missed meal, too much medication, or more exercise than usual.

    • Hypoglycemia in the Newborn

      Babies who are more likely to develop hypoglycemia include those born to women who have diabetes.

    • Hypoparathyroidism in Children

      Detailed information on hypoparathyroidism, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Hypopituitarism in Children

      Detailed information on hypopituitarism, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

      Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a combination of several abnormalities of the heart and great blood vessels.

    • Hypospadias

      Hypospadias is a disorder in newborn boys in which the opening of the urethra is not located at the tip of the penis.

    • Hypothyroidism in Children

      Hypothyroidism is the condition in which the thyroid is underactive—producing too little thyroid hormone.

    • Immune (Idiopathic) Thrombocytopenia Purpura

      Detailed information on idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Immune Disorders

      Detailed information on the immune system and immune disorders

    • Immunoglobulin A Deficiency

      Most people with an IgA deficiency don’t have any symptoms related to the disorder. In these cases, it’s found on a blood test, if it’s found at all.

    • Immunotherapy Overview

      Scientists have found a way to use the body's immune system to help treat or defend against a number of health problems. This treatment is known as immunotherapy.

    • Impetigo

      Detailed information on impetigo, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Ineffective Latch-on or Sucking

      Detailed information on ineffective latch-on or sucking during breastfeeding

    • Infant Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

      Detailed information on infant problems of the teeth and mouth

    • Infection in Babies

      Newborns are particularly susceptible to infections. One of the best ways to keep your baby infection-free is to wash your hands before and after handling him or her. Other preventive measures may also be necessary.

    • Infectious Diseases

      Detailed information on infectious diseases in children

    • Infectious Mononucleosis in Adolescents

      Infectious mononucleosis is caused by either the Epstein-Barr virus or the cytomegalovirus, both of which are members of the herpes simplex virus family.

    • Influenza (Flu) in Children

      Influenza is a highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory system. It's one of the most severe illnesses of the winter season, affecting up to 20 percent of Americans each year.

    • Inguinal and Umbilical Hernia

      Detailed information on hernia, including risks, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Inguinal Hernia in Children

      Detailed information on inguinal hernia, including causes, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Insect Bites and Children

      Detailed information on insect bites, including fleas, mites, chiggers, and ticks

    • Insect Stings and Allergic Reactions

      For most children, the reaction to a sting is short-lived, with redness and swelling followed by pain and itching. For others, however, the allergic reaction to an insect sting can be life threatening.

    • Insects in the Ear

      Don't attempt to remove the insect by poking it with a cotton swab. This may push the insect farther into the ear or cause damage to the middle ear and eardrum.

    • Insufficient or Delayed Milk Production

      Detailed information on insufficient or delayed milk production

    • Intestinal Malrotation and Volvulus

      Detailed information on intestinal malrotation and volvulus, including risk, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR)

      Newborn babies with this condition often appear thin, pale, and have loose, dry skin. The umbilical cord is often thin and dull-looking rather than shiny and fat.

    • Intraventricular Hemorrhage

      If your baby is born prematurely, there are many worries that likely go through your mind. One of the things that can happen is bleeding on the brain. Read on to learn about this and what doctors can do help your baby.

    • Intussusception

      Detailed information on intussusception, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Iron Deficiency Anemia

      Detailed information on aplastic anemia, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children

      Detailed information on irritable bowel syndrome, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

      Detailed information on juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Juvenile Dermatomyositis

      Detailed information on juvenile dermatomyositis, including causes, symptoms, phases, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Juvenile Osteoporosis

      Detailed information on juvenile osteoporosis, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

      Detailed information on juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Kawasaki Disease

      The main threat from Kawasaki disease comes from its effect on the heart and blood vessels.

    • Keratitis

      Keratitis is an inflammation or infection of the cornea of the eye. It is a medical emergency because it can lead to blindness if not treated.

    • Kyphosis

      Kyphosis is a forward curvature of the spine. It is a type of spinal deformity and should not be confused with poor posture.

    • Lacerations With Stitches

      Stitches, also called sutures, are special types of thread that hold the edges of a wound together while it heals.

    • Lacerations Without Stitches

      A laceration is tear or opening in the skin caused by an injury. Some lacerations are small and need only minor treatment at home.

    • Lactose Intolerance in Children

      Detailed information on lactose intolerance, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

      Langerhans cell histiocytosis most often strikes young children and causes damage to tissues throughout the body.

    • Language Disorders in Children

      A child with a language disorder may have a difficult time understanding written and spoken words and trouble speaking.

    • Large for Gestational Age (LGA)

      The average baby weighs about 7 pounds at birth. About 10 percent of all babies weigh more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces. Rarely do babies weigh over 10 pounds.

    • Latex Allergy

      Symptoms of latex allergy include watery or itchy eyes, wheezing, hives, flushing or a skin rash, itching, or swelling.

    • Lead Poisoning in Children

      Lead poisoning is a totally preventable disease. Children ages 1 to 3 who live in low-income housing built before 1978 are especially at risk.

    • Learning Disorders

      Learning disorders are sometimes called learning disabilities. Most children with learning disorders have normal intelligence, but they have difficulty with reading, math, or another academic area.

    • Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease

      This disease is a temporary condition that causes the hip joint to become painful and stiff.

    • Leukemia

      Detailed information on leukemia in childhood, including symptoms, staging, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Lice

      Detailed information on lice, including diagnosis and treatment

    • Listeriosis

      You’ve probably been warned not to eat brie cheese or order your steak cooked to anything less than medium. Why do you have to take these precautions? Listeriosis. Learn more about this food-borne illness and how to avoid it.

    • Lordosis

      A spine affected by lordosis has a curve in the vertebrae in the lower back area, giving the child a "swayback" appearance.

    • Low Birthweight

      If your baby’s birthweight was lower than normal due to premature birth or some other factor, don’t worry. With proper medical attention and your loving care, your baby will soon catch up with the other children in the nursery.

    • Low Milk Production

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and low breast milk production

    • Lying and Stealing

      Lying and stealing are common, but inappropriate, behaviors in school-aged children. Most of the time these behaviors will be outgrown.

    • Lyme Disease in Children

      Lyme disease is the leading cause of all insect-borne illness in the United States. It is a year-round problem, although April through October is considered tick season.

    • Lymphadenopathy

      Detailed information on lymphadenopathy, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Lymphatic Malformations

      Detailed information on lymphatic malformation, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Major Depression in Adolescents

      Depression is a mood disorder that involves a adolescent's body, mood, and thoughts. It can affect and disrupt eating, sleeping, or thinking patterns.

    • Malocclusion

      Detailed information on malocclusion, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Managing Alopecia in Children

      Hair loss is a common side effect of most forms of chemotherapy. Younger children may not be bothered by hair loss, but the school-aged child or teenager may be devastated.

    • Managing Bone Marrow Suppression in Children

      Nearly all chemotherapy drugs affect the number of blood cells in the body. When the number drops, the risk for anemia, fatigue, infection, and bleeding increases.

    • Managing Mucositis in Children

      Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.

    • Manic Depression/Bipolar Disorder in Adolescents

      Manic depression, also known as bipolar disorder, is a type of affective disorder that goes beyond the day's ordinary ups and downs. It is becoming an important health concern in this country.

    • Marfan Syndrome

      Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder involving the body's connective tissue, including the heart, lungs, and spinal cord.

    • Mastitis

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and mastitis

    • Mastoiditis

      Detailed information on mastoiditis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Maternal and Fetal Infections

      In pregnancy, infections are a common complication—but women may not have obvious symptoms, or they may show different symptoms of an infection.

    • Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR)

      The MMR vaccine is given in two doses—at 12 to 15 months and at 4 to 6 years, or at least one month after the first dose.

    • Meckel's Diverticulum

      Detailed information on Meckel's diverticulum, including risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Meconium Aspiration

      Meconium aspiration occurs when a baby breathes in amniotic fluid containing meconium (the baby's first stools).

    • Medical Conditions and Pregnancy

      With proper medical care, most women can enjoy a healthy pregnancy, despite medical challenges such as diabetes or high blood pressure.

    • Megaloblastic (Pernicious) Anemia in Children

      Detailed information on megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Megaureter

      Detailed information on megaureter, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Meningitis in Children

      Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. Bacteria or viruses are the more common causes.

    • Meningococcal Infections

      Detailed information on meningococcal infections, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Metatarsus Adductus

      Metatarsus adductus is a common foot deformity noted at birth that causes the front half of the foot, or forefoot, to turn inward.

    • Microcephaly

      An infant with microcephaly has a head that is much smaller than normal for an infant of that age and gender. Most children with microcephaly also have a small brain and mental retardation.

    • Micropenis

      Detailed information on micropenis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Migraine Headache

      Many women experience migraine headaches while pregnant. The good news is that you don’t have to give in to the pain when it strikes. Know what pain-relief options are safest for you.

    • Minor Cuts, Scrapes, and Skin Wounds

      Detailed information on minor cuts, scrapes, and skin wounds in children

    • Miscarriage

      Ultrasound is usually used to diagnose miscarriage. If the fetus is no longer in the uterus, or there is no longer a fetal heartbeat, miscarriage is diagnosed.

    • Mismanaged Breastfeeding

      Detailed information on mismanaged breastfeeding, including information on breastfeeding positions

    • Mitochondrial Inheritance: Leber's Optic Atrophy

      Detailed information on mitochondrial inheritance and Leber's optic atrophy

    • Mold

      Detailed information on mold allergy, including potential sources of mold inside and outside the home

    • Molluscum Contagiosum in Children

      Detailed information on molluscum contagiosum, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Monoclonal Gammopathies

      These conditions cause no symptoms. In fact, monoclonal protein in the blood is often found by accident when doing other routine blood work.

    • Mood Disorders in Children and Adolescents

      Detailed information on the most common types of mood disorders, including major depression, manic depression (bipolar disorder), dysthymia, seasonal affective disorder, and suicide

    • Mosaic Down Syndrome

      Detailed information on mosaic Down syndrome, including the chances for it to happen again in a family

    • Mosaicism

      Detailed information on mosaicism, including a mosaicism diagram

    • MRSA and Children: What You Should Know

      MRSA infections generally begin as skin infections. The germ invades the skin through an open sore or scrape. For children, the most common source of infection is a simple cut.

    • Multifactorial Inheritance and Birth Defects

      Detailed information on multifactorial inheritance, including different multifactorial traits and diseases

    • Multiple Sclerosis and Pregnancy

      Pregnancy does not appear to speed up the course or worsen the effects of MS. Some studies have found that MS symptoms decrease in pregnancy and increase after delivery.

    • Mumps

      Mumps is a highly contagious viral illness that usually occurs in childhood. It is no longer common in the United States because children are now vaccinated against it.

    • Muscular Dystrophy

      Muscular dystrophy causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time.

    • Mushroom Poisoning in Children

      Early symptoms of mushroom poisoning include stomach cramps, vomiting, and watery or bloody diarrhea. If your child has any of these symptoms, call your child's doctor immediately.

    • Myasthenia Gravis and Pregnancy

      Pregnant women with MG often have more weakness and fatigue because of the added weight and effort of pregnancy. Preterm labor (labor before 37 weeks of pregnancy) is more likely.

    • Natal Teeth

      Natal teeth are teeth that are present when the infant is born. They are usually the infant's primary teeth (or baby teeth) that have come in early.

    • Neck Abscess

      Detailed information on neck abscess, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Necrotizing Enterocolitis

      This condition appears to develop when the intestines are weakened by too little oxygen or blood. The weakened tissues can become severely damaged and die, which causes a hole in the intestinal wall.

    • Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

      Neonatal abstinence syndrome is a term for a group of problems a baby experiences when withdrawing from exposure to narcotics.

    • Nephrotic Syndrome in Children

      Detailed information on nephrotic syndrome, including types, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Neuroblastoma

      Neuroblastoma is a cancerous tumor that begins in nerve tissue of infants and very young children. The abnormal cells are often found in the nerve tissue that is present in the unborn baby and later develops into a detectable tumor.

    • Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children

      Neurocutaneous syndrome is a broad term for a group of disorders. These diseases are life-long conditions that can cause tumors to grow inside the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin, and skeletal bones.

    • Neurogenic Bladder in Children

      In children a neurogenic bladder may be secondary to a birth defect such as spina bifida or it may be acquired as the result of a different problem.

    • Neurological Disorders in the Newborn

      Detailed information on the most common neurological disorders in the newborn

    • Neuromuscular Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common neuromuscular disorders in children

    • Newborn Complications

      Detailed information on the most common types of newborn complications

    • Newborn Metabolic Screening

      Because some potential problems aren’t readily seen at birth, all newborns are tested for certain conditions, including metabolic disorders.

    • Newborn-Crying

      Crying is the way babies communicate. They cry because of hunger, discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and even loneliness.

    • Nightmares and Night Terrors

      A night terror is a partial waking from sleep with behaviors such as screaming, kicking, panic, sleep walking, thrashing, or mumbling.

    • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children

      Detailed information on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, including causes, staging, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Noninfectious Skin Conditions

      Detailed information on non-infectious skin conditions, including dermatitis, acne, drug rashes, poison ivy/poison oak, and toxic epidermal necrolysis

    • Nontraditional Inheritance

      Detailed information on nontraditional inheritance, including uniparental disomy and Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome, trinucleotide repeats and Fragile-X Syndrome, and mitochondrial inheritance and Leber's Optic Atrophy

    • Nosebleeds

      Nosebleeds are fairly common in children, especially in dry climates or during the winter months, when dry heat inside homes and buildings can cause drying, cracking, or crusting inside the nose.

    • Numerical Abnormalities: Overview of Trisomies and Monosomies

      Detailed information on numerical abnormalities, including an overview on trisomies and monosomies

    • Nursemaid's Elbow

      Nursemaid's elbow occurs when the radius—one of the bones in the forearm—slips out of place from where it normally attaches to the elbow joint.

    • Nursing Bottle Caries

      Did you know that babies can get cavities? They can—usually when they go to bed with a bottle filled with milk or juice. Find out how to prevent this type of tooth decay, which is also called nursing bottle caries.

    • Obesity in Adolescents

      Children who are inactive—spending time watching TV or sitting at a computer—are at higher risk for obesity, especially when their diet contains lots of high-calorie foods and beverages.

    • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children

      Rituals and obsessive thoughts are a normal part of a teen's development. An adolescent with OCD has obsessive thoughts that are unwanted and related to fears.

    • Obstructive Sleep Apnea

      Detailed information on obstructive sleep apnea, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Omphalocele

      An infant with an omphalocele has a portion of the abdominal organs protruding through an opening in the muscles near the umbilical cord.

    • Oppositional Defiant Disorder

      This behavior disorder is characterized by uncooperative, defiant, negativistic, irritable, and annoying behaviors toward parents, peers, teachers, and other authority figures.

    • Orthopedic Problems

      Detailed information on orthopedic problems and teens

    • Osgood-Schlatter Disease

      Osgood-Schlatter disease is an overuse condition or injury of the knee that causes pain and swelling below the knee area over the shin bone.

    • Osteogenesis Imperfecta in Children

      Osteogenesis imperfecta is also known as brittle-bone disease because it is characterized by bones that break easily without a specific cause.

    • Osteomyelitis in Children

      Detailed information on osteomyelitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Osteosarcoma

      Detailed information on osteosarcoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Other Arrangements: Rings and Inversions

      Detailed information on other chromosome arrangements, including rings and inversions

    • Other Benign Skin Growths in Children

      Detailed information on benign skin growths, including dermatofibromas, dermoid cyst, freckles, keloids, lipomas, moles, atypical moles, pyogenic granulomas

    • Otitis Externa (Swimmer's Ear)

      Swimmer's ear is caused by fungi or bacteria that are encouraged to grow because of water that remains trapped in the ear canal after swimming.

    • Otitis Media (Middle Ear Infection)

      Otitis media is inflammation in the middle ear. Otitis media can occur as a result of a cold, sore throat, or respiratory infection.

    • Overactive Adrenal Glands/Cushing's Syndrome in Children

      Detailed information on Cushing's syndrome and overactive adrenal glands, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Over-Active Let-Down

      Many nursing mothers worry if their babies aren’t getting enough milk—but what if the opposite were true? Here’s what you can do to make sure your aren’t overwhelming your baby during feeding time.

    • Overuse Injuries

      Detailed information on overuse injuries in children, including jumper's knee, patellar tendonitis, little leaguers' elbow, little leaguers' shoulder, osteochondritis dissecans, Sever's disease, shin splints, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease, spondylolisthesis, and spondylolysis

    • Overview of Birth Defects

      A "birth defect" is a health problem or physical change that is present in a baby at the time he/she is born.

    • Overview of Craniofacial Anomalies

      Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including cleft lip, cleft palate, craniosynostosis, hemifacial microsomia, vascular malformation, hemangioma, and deformational plagiocephaly

    • Overview of Genitourinary Disorders

      Detailed information on genitourinary disorders in children

    • Overview of Nervous System Disorders in Children

      The most common symptoms of nervous system disorders in children include delays in developmental milestones, an increase or lack of growth in head size, and a lack of coordination.

    • Parasitic Skin Infections

      Detailed information on parasitic skin infections, including scabies and lice

    • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

      PDA is a heart problem in which the connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery remains open after birth, instead of closing as it should.

    • Pericarditis in Children

      Pericarditis is inflammation or infection of the pericardium, the thin sac that surrounds the heart.

    • Periodontal Disease

      Periodontal diseases, also called gum diseases, are serious bacterial infections that destroy the gums and the surrounding tissues of the mouth.

    • Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL)

      The head is one of the most fragile parts on your baby, especially after birth. Sometimes, damage can occur, particularly if your baby is born prematurely. One type of brain damage is called periventricular leukomalacia. Read on to better understand what this diagnosis means for you and your baby, and what doctors can do to help.

    • Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension

      In this condition, a newborn's circulation changes back to the circulation of a fetus, where much of the blood flow bypasses the lungs.

    • Pervasive Developmental Disorders

      Children with PDD have difficulty with language, communication, socialization, and motor behaviors. Autism is an example of a PDD.

    • Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis in Children

      Detailed information on pharyngitis and tonsillitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Pheochromocytoma

      Detailed information on pheochromocytoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Phimosis and Paraphimosis

      Detailed information on phimosis and paraphimosis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Phobias in Children and Adolescents

      Common phobias include fear of animals, blood, heights, closed spaces, or flying. In teens, the fear must last at least six months to be considered a phobia.

    • Physical Abnormalities

      Detailed information on physical abnormalities of high-risk newborns

    • Pilomatrixoma

      Detailed information on pilomatrixoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Pityriasis Rosea in Children

      Detailed information on pityriasis rosea, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Plugged Milk Ducts

      For mothers who breastfeed, some may be more susceptible to plugged ducts than others. Get some quick tips on how to avoid and manage this concern, so you can keep you and your baby happy and healthy!

    • Pneumococcus

      Pneumococcus bacteria can cause serious illness in children, including pneumonia, infection in the blood, and meningitis.

    • Pneumonia in Children

      Detailed information on pneumonia, including different types, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Pneumothorax

      Pneumothorax is a lung disorder in which air in the lungs leaks out through holes in the lung tissue into the spaces outside the lung airways.

    • Poison Ivy / Poison Oak and Children

      Detailed information on poison ivy/poison oak, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Poisons and Children

      Detailed information on poisoning, preventing poisoning and how to respond in an emergency

    • Polio (IPV)

      The poliovirus destroys the nervous system, causing paralysis. Today, polio is extremely rare in the United States because of the polio vaccine. It's still common in other countries, though, so children still need to be immunized.

    • Poliomyelitis (Polio)

      Detailed information on poliomyelitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Pollen and Children

      Detailed information on pollen allergy, also called hay fever, including information on which plants produce the most pollen and allergic rhinitis prevention during pollen season

    • Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)

      Detailed information on the different types of polycystic kidney disease, including autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, and acquired cystic kidney disease

    • Polycythemia

      Mild polycythemia may not cause problems, but too many red blood cells can increase the blood volume or thicken the blood, making it harder to circulate through the blood system and to the organs.

    • Posterior Pituitary Disorders

      Detailed information on posterior pituitary disorders

    • Posterior Urethral Valves (PUV)

      Detailed information on posterior urethral valves, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Postmaturity

      The most common symptoms of postmaturity in a baby are dry, peeling skin; overgrown nails; and abundant scalp hair.

    • Postpartum Hemorrhage

      Postpartum hemorrhage is excessive bleeding after the birth of a baby. Most postpartum hemorrhage occurs right after delivery, but it can occur later as well.

    • Postpartum Thyroiditis

      Postpartum thyroiditis is a temporary but fairly common condition that results in either an overactive or underactive thyroid.

    • Post-Term Pregnancy

      A pregnancy that lasts more than 42 weeks is considered post-term. Post-term pregnancy is associated with longer labors and the need for cesarean delivery.

    • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children

      A serious accident such as a car wreck, or a natural disaster such as a flood can cause PTSD in a child. Physical or sexual abuse and neglect can be other causes.

    • Precocious Puberty (Early Puberty)

      Detailed information on precocious puberty, including causes, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Pregnancy

      Detailed information on pregnancy and childbirth, including information on birth statistics, pregnancy planning, preconception care, prenatal care, pregnancy discomforts, pregnancy tests, pregnancy risks, pregnancy warning signs, labor and delivery, breas

    • Pregnancy Complications

      Detailed information on the most common complications during pregnancy

    • Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM)/Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM)

      Rupture of the membranes near the end of pregnancy may be caused by a natural weakening of the membranes or from the force of contractions.

    • Prematurity

      Other terms often used for prematurity are preterm and "preemie." Many premature babies also weigh less than 5.5 pounds and may be referred to as low birthweight.

    • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

      Most females experience some unpleasant or uncomfortable symptoms during their menstrual cycle. The type and intensity of symptoms vary.

    • Preschool and School-Aged Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

      Detailed information on preschool and school-aged problems of the teeth and mouth

    • Preterm Labor

      Preterm birth is the greatest problem associated with preterm labor. Although most babies are born after 37 weeks, those born preterm are at increased risks for many complications.

    • Problems Affecting the Lower Digestive Tract

      Detailed information on problems affecting the lower digestive tract of children

    • Problems Affecting the Upper Digestive Tract

      Detailed information on problems affecting the upper digestive tract of children

    • Problems in Prenatal Development of the Digestive Tract

      Detailed information on problems in prenatal development of the digestive tract

    • Problems in Puberty

      Detailed information on problems in puberty, including precocious puberty, gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, and delayed puberty

    • Problems Involving Heart Rhythm

      Detailed information on problems involving heart rhythm

    • Problems With Vision

      Eye disorders in children are either refractive or non-refractive errors. Refractive errors are those caused by the shape of the eye. Non-refractive errors are caused by disease.

    • Prune Belly Syndrome

      Detailed information on prune belly syndrome, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Psoriatic Arthritis in Children

      Detailed information on psoriatic arthritis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Puberty: Adolescent Female

      Girls experience puberty as a sequence of events, and their pubertal changes usually begin before boys of the same age. The first pubertal change in girls usually is breast development.

    • Puberty: Adolescent Male

      Detailed information on puberty and the adolescent male

    • Pulmonary Atresia (PA)

      PA is a serious heart defect in which the pulmonary valve does not allow blood to flow from the heart to the lungs to pick up oxygen.

    • Pulmonary Stenosis

      Pulmonary stenosis affects the leaflets of the pulmonary valve, making it difficult for blood to flow from the right ventricle to the lungs.

    • Puncture Wounds

      A puncture wound is a deep wound made by a sharp object. This type of wound may become infected easily because dirt and germs are carried deep into the tissues.

    • Pyloric Stenosis

      Pyloric stenosis is a problem that affects babies between 2 and 8 weeks of age and causes forceful vomiting that can lead to dehydration.

    • Rabies in Children

      Rabies occurs mainly in skunks, raccoons, foxes, coyotes, and bats. In some areas, these wild animals infect domestic cats, dogs, and livestock.

    • Refractive Errors in Children

      The most common refractive errors in children are nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.

    • Renal Failure

      Detailed information on renal failure, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and diet

    • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

      RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis—inflammation of the lower airways—and pneumonia in babies.

    • Retinoblastoma

      Detailed information on retinoblastoma, including causes, stages, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Retinopathy of Prematurity

      A premature baby comes with many special concerns, and eye health is an important one. Some premature babies develop retinopathy of prematurity, or abnormal blood vessel development in the retina of the eye. Learn about this complication and find out why screenings are so important.

    • Reye Syndrome

      Reye syndrome is a rare condition that can affect children between ages 4 and 12. The more common cases occur in conjunction with a previous viral infection, such as the flu or chicken pox.

    • Rh Disease

      Rh disease occurs during pregnancy when there is an incompatibility between the blood types of the mother and baby.

    • Rhabdomyosarcoma

      Detailed information on rhabdomyosarcoma, including causes, stages, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Rheumatic Fever

      Detailed information on rheumatic fever, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Rheumatic Heart Disease in Children

      Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which permanent damage to heart valves is caused by rheumatic fever.

    • Risks to Pregnancy

      Detailed information on the most common risks to pregnancy, including information on alcohol and pregnancy, smoking and pregnancy, drugs and pregnancy, medications during pregnancy, and pre-existing conditions and pregnancy

    • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Children

      This infection is caused by a tick bite. Common symptoms are fever and a non-itchy rash that usually starts on the hands, arms, feet, and legs seven to 10 days after the bite.

    • Roseola

      Detailed information on roseola, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Rotavirus Infections

      Detailed information on rotavirus, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Roundworm Infections in Children

      Children are more likely to be infected with roundworms because they are more likely to put their contaminated fingers in their mouths.

    • Rubella (German Measles)

      Detailed information on rubella, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Rubeola (Measles)

      Detailed information on measles, including symptoms, complications, prevention, and treatment

    • Rumination Syndrome

      Rumination syndrome is a rare disorder in which the child eats meals normally, but after about an hour or two, undigested food comes back up into his or her mouth.

    • Scabies in Children

      Detailed information on scabies, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Scarlet Fever

      Detailed information on scarlet fever, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Schizophrenia in Children

      Detailed information on schizophrenia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • School Refusal

      School phobia can be seen in young children going to school for the first time, in older children who fear a bully or mean teacher, and in children who are anxious about leaving their parents.

    • Scleroderma in Children

      Detailed information on scleroderma, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Scoliosis in Children

      Detailed information on scoliosis, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Scrotal Swelling in Children

      Scrotal swelling is a common problem seen in young boys and baby boys. It can have many causes. These are usually divided into painless and painful scrotal swelling.

    • Seborrheic Dermatitis (Cradle Cap)

      Cradle cap can occur on the scalp, diaper area, face, neck, and trunk. Symptoms include dry or greasy scales.

    • Second-Degree Burns

      Second-degree burns involve the outer and middle layers of skin. The burn site appears red and blistered, and may be swollen and painful.

    • Seizures and Epilepsy in Children

      A seizure occurs when parts of the brain receive a burst of abnormal electrical signals that temporarily interrupts normal electrical brain function.

    • Separation Anxiety Disorder

      All children and teens experience some anxiety—it's a normal part of growing up. When worries and fears abnormally focus on separation from home or family, the child may have separation anxiety disorder.

    • Sepsis

      Sepsis is a term for severe infection that spreads throughout the body. Sepsis in a newborn is more likely to develop when the mother has had pregnancy complications that increase the likelihood of infection.

    • Septic (Infectious) Arthritis

      Detailed information on infectious arthritis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

      Detailed information on SARS, including symptoms, prevention, and treatment

    • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

      Detailed information on severe combined immunodeficiency, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Adolescents

      STDs are among the most common infectious diseases in this country—the United States has the highest rates of STDs in the industrialized world.

    • Sickle Cell Disease in Children

      Sickle cell disease involves the red blood cells, or hemoglobin, and their ability to carry oxygen.

    • Signs of Respiratory Distress in Children

      Detailed information on the signs of respiratory distress

    • Single Gene Defects

      Detailed information on single gene defects and patterns of inheritance

    • Sinusitis in Children

      Detailed information on sinusitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Sjögren’s Syndrome

      Sjögren’s syndrome is estimated to be one of the most common autoimmune disorders in the U.S. About 4 million Americans are affected by Sjögren’s syndrome. About 90 percent are women.

    • Skin Cancer in Children

      Detailed information on skin cancer, including causes, types, risk factors, and prevention

    • Skin Color Changes

      The color of a baby's skin can often help identify possible problems in another area of the body. It is important for you to call your doctor if certain skin color changes occur.

    • Skin Injury in Children

      Detailed information on skin injuries, including blisters, burns, sunburn, and bites

    • Skin Pigment Disorders

      Detailed information on the most common types of skin pigment disorders, including albinism, melasma, vitiligo, and skin pigment loss following sun damage

    • Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

      Detailed information on slipped capital femoral epiphysis, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Slow or Poor Infant Weight Gain

      Are you concerned that your little one has slow or poor weight gain? Unsure? This article will help you sort out your questions and concerns.

    • Small Cuts and Scrapes

      Wash the cut area well with soap and water, but do not scrub the wound. A dirty cut or scrape that is not thoroughly cleaned can cause scarring.

    • Small for Gestational Age

      Although some babies are small because of genetics (their parents are small), most SGA babies are small because of fetal growth problems that occur during pregnancy.

    • Snake Bites and Children

      Treat all bites as if they were from a venomous snake and get your child to a hospital emergency room as quickly as possible.

    • Sore Nipples

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and sore nipples

    • Speech Sound Disorders in Children

      A child with a speech sound disorder may have trouble saying certain sounds and words beyond the age expected.

    • Spina Bifida

      Spina bifida can occur in the early weeks of pregnancy, before you even know you are expecting. That’s why your baby is depending on you to have healthy habits in place from the start. Learn more about the prevention and treatment of this birth defect.

    • Spinal Muscular Atrophy

      Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease that affects the spinal cord and nerves, resulting in muscle wasting and weakness.

    • Splinters

      A splinter is a sharp sliver of wood, glass, or other debris that is lodged underneath the skin. Removal of small, superficial splinters can usually be done at home.

    • Sports Injuries and Children

      Detailed information on sports injuries in children, including overuse injuries, sprains, strains, and heat-related illnesses

    • Sprains and Strains in Children

      Strains, sprains, and bruises make up the majority of sports injuries. Treatment for a strain or sprain depends on the child's age and the extent of the injury.

    • Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome

      Detailed information on staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Stillbirth

      Stillbirth is a common term for death of a baby while still in the uterus. Common causes are high blood pressure or infection in the mother, or placental or cord problems.

    • Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers (Peptic Ulcers) in Children

      Detailed information on ulcers, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Stridor

      Detailed information on stridor, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Stroke in Children

      Stroke is much more common in adults than children, but children get strokes, too. The good news is that a child has a better ability to recover from stoke than an adult because a child's brain is still developing.

    • Structural Abnormalities: Deletions (Cri du Chat) and Duplications (Pallister Killian)

      Detailed information on structural abnormalities, including chromosome deletions and duplications

    • Stuttering

      Stuttering may occur in a child with normal developmental speech problems who is pressured to speak better. The child's struggle to improve speech actually makes the problem worse.

    • Stye (Hordeolum)

      A stye is caused by an infection in the oil-producing or sweat glands in the eyelid. The infection is usually caused by bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus.

    • Substance Abuse / Chemical Dependence in Adolescents

      Substances frequently abused by adolescents include alcohol, marijuana, and amphetamines. Some teens are at higher risk of developing substance-related disorders.

    • Substance Exposure

      Detailed information on substance exposure of newborns

    • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

      SIDS stands for sudden infant death syndrome. It is a leading cause of infant death in the U.S. The causes of SIDS are unknown, but researchers have learned more about factors that can put your baby at risk. Learn which ones parents can prevent.

    • Sunburn and Children

      Protect your child from the sun. Up to 80 percent of total lifetime sun exposure occurs in the first 18 years of life.

    • Superficial Injuries to the Face and Head

      Children are more likely to end up with a cut or scrape on the head or face. One reason is that children's sense of balance isn't completely adjusted.

    • Syncope

      Detailed information on syncope, also called fainting, including causes, symptoms, diagnostic, and treatment information

    • Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH)

      Detailed information on syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE, or Lupus) in Children

      Lupus is a disease characterized by periodic episodes of inflammation of and damage to the joints, tendons, other connective tissues, and organs.

    • Teen Suicide

      Suicide is the third leading cause of death in 15- to 24-year-olds. The strongest risk factors for attempted suicide in youth are depression, substance abuse, and aggressive or disruptive behaviors.

    • Teens and Diabetes

      During adolescence, blood sugar levels become harder to control, resulting in levels that swing from too low to too high.

    • Teething

      A baby's first tooth usually appears between 5 and 7 months of age. Often, the two middle bottom teeth come through the gums first, followed by the middle four upper teeth.

    • Temper Tantrums

      These fits of rage—the stomping, screaming, and falling on the floor—are a normal part of childhood development. Temper tantrums often occur only with a parent. They are a way for the child to communicate his or her feelings.

    • Tennis Elbow

      Tennis elbow is a repetitive stress injury of the elbow that occurs when the muscles and tendons in the elbow area are torn or damaged.

    • Testicular Torsion

      Detailed information on testicular torsion, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Tetanus in Children

      Tetanus is an acute, sometimes fatal, disease of the central nervous system, caused by the toxin of the tetanus bacterium, which usually enters the body through an open wound.

    • Tetralogy of Fallot

      Tetralogy of Fallot is a complex condition of several congenital heart defects.

    • The First Trimester

      A healthy first trimester is crucial to the normal development of your baby. You may not be showing much on the outside, but inside, all the major body organs and systems of the fetus are forming.

    • The Second Trimester

      During this trimester, the weight of your growing baby will multiply more than seven times—and you will start showing more.

    • The Third Trimester

      The third trimester marks the home stretch for your pregnancy. You may feel more uncomfortable now as you continue to gain weight. You also may have false labor contractions (called Braxton-Hicks contractions).

    • Thermal Injuries

      Detailed information on thermal injuries in children

    • Third-Degree Burns

      This type of burn destroys the top two layers of skin. Treatment for third-degree burns depends on the amount of body surface area affected.

    • Thrombocytopenia

      Thrombocytopenia is a condition in which a baby has too few platelets—the blood cells needed for clotting.

    • Thrush or Candidiasis

      Candidiasis is an infection caused by yeast on the skin and mucous membranes. When the infection occurs in the mouth, it is called thrush.

    • Thumb Sucking

      Thumb sucking is normal in infants and young children. It shouldn't cause any permanent problems if your child stops by age 5.

    • Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

      Detailed information on thyroglossal duct cyst, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Tibial Torsion

      Tibial torsion causes a child's feet to turn inward, or to have what is also known as a "pigeon-toed" appearance.

    • Tinea Infections (Ringworm) in Children

      Detailed information on the most common types of ringworm, including diagnosis and treatment

    • Tinea Versicolor in Children

      Detailed information on tinea versicolor, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Toddler Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

      Detailed information on toddler problems of the teeth and mouth

    • Tooth Decay (Caries or Cavities) in Children

      Tooth decay first appears as white spots on the teeth. The cavity then turns a light brown color and progressively becomes darker.

    • Toothache (Pulpitis)

      Detailed information on toothache, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Topic Index - Pregnancy and Childbirth

      Detailed information on pregnancy and childbirth, including information on birth statistics, pregnancy planning, preconception care, prenatal care, pregnancy discomforts, pregnancy tests, pregnancy risks, pregnancy warning signs, labor and delivery, breas

    • Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

      In this condition, the four pulmonary veins are connected somewhere besides the left atrium.

    • Tourette's Disorder

      A person with Tourette's disorder develops multiple repeated tics. The tics are abrupt, purposeless, and involuntary vocal sounds or muscular jerks.

    • Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Children

      Detailed information on toxic epidermal necrolysis, including symptoms and treatment

    • Toxic Shock Syndrome

      Detailed information on toxic shock syndrome, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Toxoplasmosis

      Toxoplasmosis is not only harmful to moms-to-be, but also to their unborn babies. If you haven’t heard of toxoplasmosis, you’ll definitely want to brush up on this new word.

    • Tracheoesophageal Fistula and Esophageal Atresia

      Detailed information on tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

      Transient tachypnea of the newborn is a term for a mild respiratory problem of babies that begins after birth and lasts about three days.

    • Translocation Down Syndrome

      Detailed information on translocation Down syndrome

    • Translocations

      Detailed information on chromosome translocations, including reciprocal translation and Robertsonian translocation

    • Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA)

      Because of abnormal development of the fetal heart, the large vessels that take blood away from the heart to the lungs, or to the body, are improperly connected.

    • Trauma

      Detailed information on neurological trauma in children

    • Trichomoniasis in Teens

      Most people who have a trichomoniasis infection don’t have symptoms. If symptoms occur, they may begin anywhere from a few days to months after infection.

    • Tricuspid Atresia (TA)

      In tricuspid atresia, the tricuspid valve, normally located between the right atrium and the right ventricle, does not develop properly.

    • Trinucleotide Repeats: Fragile X Syndrome

      Detailed information on trinucleotide repeats, including fragile X syndrome

    • Trisomy 18 and 13

      Trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 are genetic disorders that present a combination of birth defects including severe mental retardation, as well as health problems involving nearly every organ system in the body.

    • Truncus Arteriosus

      Truncus arteriosus occurs when the aorta and the pulmonary artery fail to separate completely during fetal development.

    • Tuberculosis (TB) in Children

      Detailed information on tuberculosis, including risks, symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Turner Syndrome

      Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder seen in girls that causes them to be shorter than others and to not mature sexually as they grow into adulthood.

    • Type 1 Diabetes in Children

      Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but can start at any age.

    • Type 2 Diabetes in Children

      Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder resulting from the body's inability to produce enough, or to properly use, insulin.

    • Types of Chromosome Abnormalities

      Detailed information on the different types of chromosome abnormality

    • Types of Genetic Diseases

      Genetic diseases are classified by type: chromosomal abnormalities, single gene defects, problems caused by exposure to certain substances, or a combination of these.

    • Ulcerative Colitis in Children

      Detailed information on ulcerative colitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Underactive Adrenal Glands/Addison's Disease in Children

      Detailed information on Addison's disease, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Undescended Testes (Cryptorchidism)

      Detailed information on undescended testes, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Uniparental Disomy: Prader-Willi Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome

      Detailed information on uniparental disomy

    • Upper Respiratory Infection (URI, or Common Cold)

      The common cold is one of the most common illnesses, leading to more doctor visits and absences from school each year than any other illness.

    • Ureterocele and Ureteral Duplication

      Detailed information on ureterocele and ureteral duplication, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Urinary Incontinence (Enuresis)

      Enuresis is the medical term for bedwetting, or accidental urination in children who should be able to control their bladder. Girls usually have bladder control before boys do. The diagnosis of enuresis is for girls older than 5 and for boys older than 6.

    • Urinary Tract and Kidney Infections

      During pregnancy, the kidney enlarges and the bladder is compressed by the growing uterus. These and other factors make it more likely for a woman to develop a urinary tract infection.

    • Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)

      Detailed information on urinary tract infections, including causes, symptom, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Urticaria/Hives in Children

      Detailed information on urticaria, also called hives, including what food and medicines commonly cause hives

    • Varicella (Chickenpox)

      Chickenpox is a very common childhood disease. It is usually mild, but can be serious, especially in young infants and adults.

    • Varicoceles

      Varicoceles are enlargements of veins in the scrotum. Varicoceles most often occur during puberty and affect as many as 10 to 15 percent of all boys.

    • Vascular Malformations and Hemangiomas

      The term “birthmark” may be a misnomer. These usually harmless skin discolorations can appear any time in the first few months after birth. They’re generally nothing to worry about. But, in some cases, they may need treatment. Here are the most common birthmarks and what to do if they show up on your child.

    • Vasculitis

      Detailed information on the most common types of vasculitis, including Kawasaki Disease and Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

    • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

      A ventricular septal defect is an opening in the dividing wall between the two lower chambers of the heart known as the right and left ventricles.

    • Very Low Birthweight

      Very low birthweight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 3 pounds, 4 ounces. Only a few babies are born this tiny.

    • Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)

      Detailed information on vesicoureteral reflux, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Viral Exanthems (Rashes)

      Detailed information on viral exanthems (rashes)

    • Viral Skin Infections

      Detailed information on viral skin infections, including Herpes Zoster (Shingles), Pityriasis Rosea, Warts, and Molluscum Contagiosum

    • Viruses, Bacteria, and Parasites in the Digestive Tract

      Detailed information on viruses, bacteria, and parasites in the digestive tract

    • Vision and Hearing

      Detailed information on vision and hearing in newborns

    • Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding (Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn)

      Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is a bleeding problem that occurs during the first few days of life.

    • Von Willebrand Disease

      Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is an inherited disorder that affects the blood’s ability to clot. People with VWD may experience heavy bleeding after an injury, leading to physical damage or even death.

    • Walking Pneumonia in Children

      Mycoplasma pneumoniae is extremely common in school-aged children. It's the most common cause of pneumonia in this age group.

    • Warts in Children

      Detailed information on the most common types of warts, including foot warts, flat warts, genital warts, and filiform warts

    • Wegener’s Granulomatosis

      Wegener’s granulomatosis is a condition of the immune system that causes swelling and irritation in blood vessels and other tissues. This inflammation reduces or stops the flow of blood to organs in the body.

    • West Nile Virus in Children

      Detailed information on West Nile virus, including symptoms, prevention, and treatment

    • What Are Platelets?

      If one of your blood vessels gets damaged, it sends out signals that are picked up by platelets. The platelets then rush to the site of damage and form a plug, or clot, to repair the damage.

    • What Are Red Blood Cells?

      Red blood cells play an important role in your health by carrying fresh oxygen throughout the body. The oxygen gives your blood its bright red color.

    • What Are Stem Cells?

      Stem cells are special human cells that have the ability to develop into many different cell types, from muscle cells to brain cells. In some cases, they also have the ability to repair damaged tissues.

    • What Are White Blood Cells?

      Think of white blood cells as your immunity cells. In a sense, they are continually at war. They flow through your bloodstream to battle viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders that threaten your health.

    • What Is Plasma?

      White blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets are essential to body function, but plasma also plays a crucial, and mostly unrecognized, job, carrying these blood components throughout the body as the fluid in which they travel.

    • When Your Baby Needs a Test, Procedure, or Surgery

      Talk with your baby’s health care provider about being present as much as possible for the test or procedure. Child development experts say it’s best to keep to a minimum the amount of time your child is separated from you at this age.

    • When Your School-Aged Child Needs a Test, Procedure, or Surgery

      By age 7 or 8, school-aged children are starting to develop coping skills as they think more logically and begin to understand cause and effect—if this happens, then that may happen. This way of thinking helps them find ways to cope with scary or stressful experiences.

    • When Your Teen Needs a Test, Procedure, or Surgery

      During the adolescent years, abstract thinking begins and teens can fully understand how parts of the body function, the medical problem he or she is experiencing, and the reason for the test, procedure, or surgery.

    • When Your Toddler or Preschooler Needs a Test, Procedure, or Surgery

      Your toddler or preschooler is able to grasp on some level what is going on if you keep explanations simple and short.

    • Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

      Whooping cough, or pertussis, mainly affects infants and young children. It is characterized by intense coughing spells that end with a characteristic whoop as air is inhaled.

    • Wilms Tumor

      Detailed information on Wilms tumor, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • X-linked Agammaglobulinemia

      Detailed information on X-linked agammaglobulinemia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • X-linked Dominant: Incontinentia Pigmenti

      Detailed information on x-linked dominant inheritance

    • X-linked Recessive: Red-Green Color Blindness, Hemophilia A

      Detailed information on x-linked recessive inheritance