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Diseases & Conditions : Pediatrics

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    • Acne in Children

      Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. With acne, the sebaceous glands are clogged, which leads to pimples and cysts.

    • Age-Appropriate Speech and Hearing Milestones

      A hearing problem may be suspected in a child who is not responding to sounds or who is not developing language skills appropriately.

    • Age-Appropriate Speech and Language Milestones

      Here are guidelines on speech and language development that may help you decide if your child is experiencing hearing problems.

    • Airway Obstruction

      Detailed information on airway obstruction and children, including choking, suffocation, and strangulation

    • All About Asthma in Children

      What causes asthma? It may be partially inherited, but many other environmental, infectious, and chemical factors are involved.

    • Allergic Rhinitis

      Pollen, dust mites, mold, and animal dander are the most common causes of allergic rhinitis.

    • Allergies

      Detailed information on allergies in children, including information on allergic rhinitis and food allergies

    • Anatomy and Development of the Mouth and Teeth

      Children's teeth begin developing in the fetus. Good nutrition from the mother during pregnancy is important in the development of the teeth.

    • Anorexia Nervosa

      Anorexia nervosa (or simply anorexia) is an eating disorder that causes people to obsess about their weight and food.

    • Antibiotics

      Detailed information on the use of antibiotics and children

    • Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children

      ADHD is a behavior disorder marked by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity.

    • Bedwetting (Enuresis)

      Detailed information on bedwetting (enuresis) in children, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment of urinary incontinence

    • Birthmarks in Infants

      Your baby may not have been delivered by stork, but some infants are left with “stork bites” on the backs of their necks. These pink or red patches are just one type of birthmark or variation in skin color that are common in babies.

    • Bites and Stings

      Detailed information on insect bites, including bee stings, flea bites, mite bites, chigger bites, spider bites, tick bites, and lyme disease

    • Bites and Stings: Animals

      Detailed information on animal bites and stings

    • Bites and Stings: Insects

      Detailed information on insect bites, including bee stings, flea bites, mite bites, chigger bites, spider bites, tick bites, and lyme disease

    • Blisters in Children

      Detailed information on blisters, including cause, first-aid, and treatment

    • Bottle-Feeding

      Detailed information on bottle-feeding, including information on the different types of baby formula

    • Breastfeeding

      Detailed information on breastfeeding and starting to breastfeeding

    • Bulimia Nervosa in Adolescents

      Bulimia nervosa is defined as uncontrolled episodes of overeating (bingeing) usually followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, enemas, or medications in an attempt to control weight.

    • Burns in Children

      Detailed information on burns, burn types, classification of burns, and burn treatment

    • Care of the Mouth and Teeth

      Detailed information on care of the mouth and teeth for children

    • Chickenpox

      Detailed information on chickenpox, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, complications, and immunity

    • Childhood Immunizations

      Your little one will need several immunization shots to help protect her from several childhood diseases, some of which can be deadly. Knowing which shots she needs, when, and what to do in the event of a minor reaction is important.

    • Circumcision

      Whether you decided to have your baby boy circumcised or not, it’s important to know how to care for his special needs. Find tips for caring for both circumcised and uncircumcised babies.

    • Colic

      Though the name sounds like a disease, colic is really just a term for excessive crying in an infant. Unfortunately, nobody knows for sure what causes colic, but there are several theories and possible risk factors for the condition.

    • Common Childhood Illness and Concerns

      Detailed information on common childhood illnesses and concerns

    • Conjunctivitis

      You had conjunctivitis as a child, now your baby has symptoms of it. Your first step should be a call to your doctor, who will make a diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment.

    • Constipation in Children

      Common causes of constipation in children: a low-fiber diet, not enough fluids, lack of exercise, and emotional issues.

    • Croup

      Croup is most common in children younger than 5, with the peak age around 2. Croup occurs most often in winter.

    • Dental Health

      Detailed information on dental health for children

    • Diaper Dermatitis

      Detailed information on diaper dermatitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Diarrhea in Children

      Diarrhea is defined either as watery stool or increased frequency of stool—or both—when compared with a normal amount. It is a common problem that may last a few days and disappear on its own.

    • Discipline

      Detailed information on disciplining a child, including information on time-out, temper tantrum, lying, stealing, and television and children

    • Ear, Nose, and Throat Conditions

      Detailed information on ear, nose, and throat conditions in children

    • Eating Disorders in Children

      Detailed information on adolescents and eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, and obesity

    • Eye Conditions

      Detailed information on eye conditions in children

    • Eye Injury (Black Eye)

      Detailed information on ecchymosis or bruising of the eye

    • Fevers

      When your child has a fever, the body resets its thermostat at a higher temperature. This helps the body fight off invading microorganisms.

    • Fifth Disease

      Fifth disease is caused by the human parvovirus. It is most prevalent in the winter and spring and is usually seen in school-aged children.

    • Firearm Safety for Parents

      Detailed information on firearm safety and prevention

    • First-Aid Kit

      Detailed list of recommended items for a household first-aid kit

    • Food Allergies in Children

      Detailed information on food allergy, including cause, symptoms, and treatment

    • For Parents: Bicycle, In-Line Skating, Skateboard Safety

      Detailed information on bicycle, in-line skating, and skateboarding safety

    • Fractures

      A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone. When a fracture occurs, it is classified as either open or closed.

    • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)/Heartburn in Children

      Detailed information on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Gastrointestinal Conditions

      Detailed information on gastrointestinal conditions in children

    • General Principles of Discipline

      Most children need to be given consistent, clear rules and expectations about behavior. Discipline needs to begin as soon as the child is mobile—pulling up and crawling.

    • Genitourinary Conditions

      Detailed information on genital and urinary conditions in children

    • Glossary - Pediatrics

      Glossary of terms relating to pediatrics

    • Head Injury in Children

      The more common causes of head injury in children are falls, motor vehicle accidents—in which the child is either a passenger or a pedestrian—or a result of child abuse.

    • Headaches in Children

      Many headaches in children may be caused by tight muscles and dilated blood vessels in the head. Other headaches may be caused by an actual problem, such as a tumor or malformation of the brain, although this is much less common.

    • Healthy Child Lifestyles

      Detailed information on healthy child lifestyles, including information on dental health, nutrition, vision, speech, hearing, sleep, toilet-training, and discipline

    • Healthy Eating During Adolescence

      Encourage your teen to eat three balanced meals a day, with fruits or vegetables as snacks.

    • Healthy Sleep Habits

      The normal amount of sleep varies depending on the age of your child. A 2-year-old needs 10 to 12 hours a night, plus naps during the day. By age 6, a child usually has dropped naps, but still needs 10 hours at night.

    • Heat-Related Illnesses (Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke)

      Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.

    • Home Page - Dental and Oral Health

      Detailed information on dental and oral health in children

    • Home Page - Pediatrics

      Detailed information on common childhood illnesses and concerns

    • Hordeolum (Stye)

      Detailed information on stye, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Household Safety Checklist

      Use this list as part of a thorough safety check of your home. It can help prevent accidents and injuries.

    • Impetigo

      Detailed information on impetigo, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Infant Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

      Detailed information on infant problems of the teeth and mouth

    • Infections

      Detailed information on infections in children

    • Infectious Mononucleosis

      Detailed information on infectious mononucleosis, including symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and transmission

    • Influenza (Flu) in Children

      Influenza is a highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory system. It's one of the most severe illnesses of the winter season, affecting up to 20 percent of Americans each year.

    • Inguinal and Umbilical Hernia

      Detailed information on hernia, including risks, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Learning Disorders

      Learning disorders are sometimes called learning disabilities. Most children with learning disorders have normal intelligence, but they have difficulty with reading, math, or another academic area.

    • Lying and Stealing

      Lying and stealing are common, but inappropriate, behaviors in school-aged children. Most of the time these behaviors will be outgrown.

    • Measuring a Baby's Temperature

      Most physicians recommend taking a baby's temperature rectally, by placing a thermometer in the baby's anus. This method is accurate and gives a quick reading of the baby's internal temperature.

    • Mental Health Conditions

      Detailed information on mental health disorders in children

    • Motor Vehicle Safety for Children

      Detailed information on motor vehicle safety and children

    • Neurological Conditions

      Detailed information on neurological disorders in children, including headaches, head injury and seizures/epilepsy

    • Nightmares and Night Terrors

      A night terror is a partial waking from sleep with behaviors such as screaming, kicking, panic, sleep walking, thrashing, or mumbling.

    • Nosebleeds

      Nosebleeds are fairly common in children, especially in dry climates or during the winter months, when dry heat inside homes and buildings can cause drying, cracking, or crusting inside the nose.

    • Nutrition Index

      Detailed nutrition information for mothers who are breastfeeding or bottle-feeding, and toddlers, preschool-aged children, school-aged children, and adolescents

    • Online Resources - Pediatrics

      List of online resources to find additional information on pediatrics

    • Orthodontics/Braces for Children

      Orthodontics is the dental specialty that focuses on the development, prevention, and correction of irregularities of the teeth, bite, and jaws.

    • Orthopedic Conditions

      Detailed information on orthopedic disorders in children, including fractures, sports injuries, overuse injuries, sprains, strains, and heat-related illness

    • Otitis Externa (Swimmer's Ear)

      Swimmer's ear is caused by fungi or bacteria that are encouraged to grow because of water that remains trapped in the ear canal after swimming.

    • Otitis Media

      Detailed information on otitis media, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Overuse Injuries

      Detailed information on overuse injuries in children, including jumper's knee, patellar tendonitis, little leaguers' elbow, little leaguers' shoulder, osteochondritis dissecans, Sever's disease, shin splints, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease, spondylolisthesis, and spondylolysis

    • Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis in Children

      Detailed information on pharyngitis and tonsillitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Poison Ivy / Poison Oak and Children

      Detailed information on poison ivy/poison oak, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Poisoning

      Detailed information on poisoning, including poison on the skin, in the eye, and poisonous fumes and gas

    • Preschooler Nutrition

      Preschool children are still developing their eating habits and need encouragement to eat healthy meals and snacks.

    • Respiratory Conditions

      Detailed information on respiratory conditions in children, including asthma, croup, the common cold, and the flu

    • Roseola

      Detailed information on roseola, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Safety and Injury Prevention for Children

      Detailed information on safety and injury prevention for children, including information on household safety, first-aid kit, airway obstruction, poisoning, bicycle safety, in-line skating safety, skateboarding safety, scooter safety, toy safety, sports sa

    • School-Aged Child Nutrition

      Eating healthy after-school snacks is important at this age, as these snacks may contribute up to one-third of the total calorie intake for the day.

    • Seborrheic Dermatitis (Cradle Cap)

      Cradle cap can occur on the scalp, diaper area, face, neck, and trunk. Symptoms include dry or greasy scales.

    • Seizures and Epilepsy in Children

      A seizure occurs when parts of the brain receive a burst of abnormal electrical signals that temporarily interrupts normal electrical brain function.

    • Sinusitis in Children

      Detailed information on sinusitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

    • Skin Conditions

      Detailed information on skin conditions in children, including acne, birthmarks, bites, stings, blisters, burns, contact dermatitis, cradle cap (seborrheic dermatitis), diaper rash, impetigo, lice, poison ivy, poison oak, sunburn, and warts

    • Sleep

      Detailed information on healthy sleep habits of children, including information on nightmares and night terrors

    • Sports Injuries and Children

      Detailed information on sports injuries in children, including overuse injuries, sprains, strains, and heat-related illnesses

    • Sports Safety for Children

      Because they are still growing, children are more susceptible to sports injuries. Half of those injuries could be prevented with proper safety gear, safer playing environments, and established safety rules.

    • Sprains and Strains in Children

      Strains, sprains, and bruises make up the majority of sports injuries. Treatment for a strain or sprain depends on the child's age and the extent of the injury.

    • Sunburn

      Detailed information sunburn, including symptoms and treatment

    • Teething

      A baby's first tooth usually appears between 5 and 7 months of age. Often, the two middle bottom teeth come through the gums first, followed by the middle four upper teeth.

    • Television and Children

      Detailed information on television and children, including suggestions for helping set good television viewing habits

    • Temper Tantrums

      These fits of rage—the stomping, screaming, and falling on the floor—are a normal part of childhood development. Temper tantrums often occur only with a parent. They are a way for the child to communicate his or her feelings.

    • The Growing Child: 1 to 3 Months

      At this stage of growth, your baby will gain 1-1/2 to 2 pounds in weight and more than an inch in height each month.

    • The Growing Child: 10 to 12 Months

      Your child can now says da-da and ma-ma, and possibly two other words, as well. He or she can also make a simple gesture such as shaking the head.

    • The Growing Child: 1-Year-Olds

      Your child is a toddler now and very active! He or she can climb stairs while holding on and play with push and pull toys.

    • The Growing Child: 2-Year-Olds

      Speech at this age is becoming clearer. Your child has a vocabulary of 200 to 300 words and can tell his or her age and name.

    • The Growing Child: 3-Year-Olds

      Most 3-year-olds have lost the rounded tummy of a toddler. Your child can use a spoon well and can wash and dry his or her hands.

    • The Growing Child: 4 to 6 Months

      This age is very social, and babies begin moving in much more purposeful ways.

    • The Growing Child: 7 to 9 Months

      A baby of this age rolls over easily from front to back and back to front, and bounces when supported to stand.

    • The Growing Child: Adolescent (13 to 18 Years)

      Adolescence is a time for growth spurts and puberty changes. Sexual maturation may occur gradually or several signs may become visible at the same time.

    • The Growing Child: Newborn

      In the first month of life, babies usually catch up and surpass their birthweight, then steadily continue to gain weight.

    • The Growing Child: Preschool (4 to 5 Years)

      Children at this age begin to understand concepts and can compare abstract ideas.

    • The Growing Child: School-Age (6 to 12 Years)

      Although friendships become more important at this age, children are still fond of their parents and like being part of a family.

    • The Pediatrician

      You take your kids to the pediatrician for tummy aches and fevers, but a pediatrician does a lot more than care for sick children. This doc is responsible for your child’s physical, mental, and emotional well-being—in sickness and in health.

    • Thumb Sucking

      Thumb sucking is normal in infants and young children. It shouldn't cause any permanent problems if your child stops by age 5.

    • Time-Out

      Detailed information on child discipline and time-out

    • Toddler Nutrition

      Mealtime with a toddler can be challenging, because children at this age are striving for independence and control. It's best to provide structure and set limits.

    • Toilet-Training

      Detailed information on toilet-training your child

    • Tooth Decay (Caries or Cavities) in Children

      Tooth decay first appears as white spots on the teeth. The cavity then turns a light brown color and progressively becomes darker.

    • Topic Index - Pediatrics

      Detailed information on common childhood illnesses and concerns

    • Toy Safety

      Detailed information on toy safety and injury prevention in children

    • Upper Respiratory Infection (URI, or Common Cold)

      The common cold is one of the most common illnesses, leading to more doctor visits and absences from school each year than any other illness.

    • Urinary Tract Infection

      Detailed information on urinary tract infections, including causes, symptom, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    • Vision Milestones

      Detailed information on a child's vision milestones

    • Vision, Hearing and Speech Overview
    • Vision, Hearing, and Speech Milestones

      Detailed information on a child's vision, hearing, and speech milestones

    • Warts in Children

      Detailed information on the most common types of warts, including foot warts, flat warts, genital warts, and filiform warts

    • Well-Care Visits

      Detailed information on well-care visits and children, including when well-care visits should be scheduled

    • Your Child's Growth and Development

      Detailed information on growth and development of children