- Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Detailed information on abdominal aortic aneurysms, including description of abdominal aortic aneurysm, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical and procedure illustrations
- About Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases
Arthritis, itself a group of more than 100 different diseases, is one category of rheumatic diseases.
- About Breast Cancer in Men
Breast cancer in men is rare—less than 1 percent of all breast carcinomas occur in men.
- About Clinical Trials: Information from the National Cancer Institute
Clinical trials are studies, managed by government agencies, educational institutions, private not-for-profit organizations, or commercial businesses, to develop, produce, and evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments and therapies for diseases.
- About Tamoxifen
Tamoxifen has been used to treat both advanced and early stage breast cancer. More recently, tamoxifen is being used as an additional therapy following primary treatment for early stage breast cancer.
- About Taxol
Taxol, or paclitaxel, is a drug used for treating certain women who have advanced breast or ovarian cancer. Paclitaxel is a compound that is extracted from the bark of the Pacific yew tree.
- Accomplishments of Environmental Medicine
One highlight: Exposure to fine particles, sulfur dioxide, and acid aerosols has been linked to an increase in respiratory symptoms and reduced lung capacity.
Achalasia is a disease that makes it hard to eat and drink normally. It affects your esophagus, which is the swallowing tube that connects the back of your throat to your stomach.
- Achilles Tendon Injuries
Your Achilles tendon withstands a lot of stress and pressure during everyday activities, as well as during athletic and recreational play.
Detailed information on acne, including causes, symptoms, and different types of treatment such as medication, dermabrasion, chemical peels, collagen injections, laser resurfacing, punch grafts, phototherapy/blue light therapy, and autologous fat transfer
- Acne Scar Removal
Detailed information on different techniques for acne scar removal, including dermabrasion, chemical peels, collagen injections, laser resurfacing, punch grafts, and autologous fat transfer
- Acoustic Neuroma
Acoustic neuroma is a noncancerous tumor that may develop from an overproduction of Schwann cells that press on the hearing and balance nerves in the inner ear.
- Acquired Brain Injury
Acquired brain injury occurs when a sudden, external, physical assault damages the brain. It is one of the most common causes of disability and death in adults.
Detailed information on acromegaly, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Actinic Keratosis (a precancerous condition)
Detailed information on actinic keratosis, including causes and treatment
Acupuncture is the practice of puncturing the skin with needles at certain anatomical points in the body to relieve specific symptoms associated with many diseases.
- Acute Bronchitis
Detailed information on acute bronchitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Acute Liver Failure
Acute liver failure is a rare condition that happens when your liver suddenly begins to lose its ability to function. This is frequently the immediate result of an overdose of medication or poisoning.
- Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
Detailed information on acute lymphocytic leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
Detailed information on acute myelogenous leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Acute Spinal Cord Injury
Many types of trauma can cause an acute spinal cord injury. The more common types occur when the area of the spine or neck is bent or compressed.
- Adjustment Disorders
Adjustment disorders are quite common in children and teens. They are characterized by an excessive reaction to stress.
- Adrenal Tumors / Pheochromocytoma
Detailed information on adrenal gland tumors and pheochromocytoma, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Advances in Therapeutic Radiology
One newer therapy combines radiation and chemotherapy, because in some cases, radiation may improve the effects of chemotherapy, and vice versa. Another therapy uses external beam radiation during surgery to treat cancerous tumors or certain other forms of cancer.
- African Trypanosomiasis (African Sleeping Sickness)
Detailed information on African trypanosomiasis, also called African sleeping sickness, including symptoms, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment
- After Surgery: Discomforts and Complications
Detailed information on postoperative discomforts and potential complications, including shock, hemorrhage, wound infection, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary complications, urinary retention, and reaction to anesthesia
- After You Return
Detailed information on health considerations after returning home from traveling abroad
- Age-Appropriate Speech and Hearing Milestones
A hearing problem may be suspected in a child who is not responding to sounds or who is not developing language skills appropriately.
- Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Age-related macular degeneration is a disease that affects an individual's central vision, making it difficult of read, drive, or perform other daily activities.
- Air Pollution
Detailed information on air pollution and air pollution prevention
- Air Travel
Detailed information on healthy considerations for air travel, including ways to prevent motion sickness and jet lag
- Airway Obstruction
Detailed information on airway obstruction and children, including choking, suffocation, and strangulation
- Alcohol and Pregnancy
Alcohol consumption by the mother is a leading cause of preventable birth defects in the fetus. In addition, the risk for miscarriage and stillbirth increases with alcohol consumption.
- Alcohol Use and People with Diabetes
Alcohol can lower blood sugar levels to the point of hypoglycemia. Keep careful track of your blood sugar levels when drinking alcohol, because certain diabetes medications also lower blood glucose levels.
- Alcoholic Hepatitis
Detailed information on alcoholic hepatitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease
Detailed information on alcohol induced liver disease, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- All About Allergy
Detailed information on allergy, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- All About Asthma
Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory lung disease with recurrent breathing problems.
- Allergen: Insect Stings
Detailed information on allergic reactions to insect bites and stings
- Allergens: Animals
Household pets, like cats and dogs, are the most common sources of animal allergens.
- Allergens: Chemical Sensitivity
Detailed information on synthetic and natural substances that cause sensitivity to the skin
- Allergens: Dust and Dust Mites
Dust mites are microscopic organisms that can live and thrive throughout homes and businesses.
- Allergens: Food
Detailed information on food allergy, including food intolerance and food allergy symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Allergens: Mold
Mold spores or fragments may be inhaled through the nose and into the lungs, where they cause allergic reactions or asthma.
- Allergens: Poison Ivy / Poison Oak
Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac can all cause bumps and blisters that itch. Teach your children what these plants look like and how to avoid them.
- Allergens: Pollen
Pollen is the most common cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis, sometimes known as "hay fever."
- Allergens: Triggers of Allergy Attacks
Detailed information on allergy triggers and symptom control
- Allergic Rhinitis
Pollen, dust mites, mold, and animal dander are the most common causes of allergic rhinitis.
Detailed information on allergies in children, including information on allergic rhinitis and food allergies
- Allergies and the Immune System
Most allergic reactions are a result of an immune system that responds to a "false alarm."
- Allergy and Asthma Statistics
More than 22 million Americans have been diagnosed with asthma. Find out other facts and figures on this chronic disease.
- Alpha Thalassemia
Detailed information on alpha thalassemia, including cause, diagnosis, and treatment
- Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, a disorder in which mental functions deteriorate and break down.
Amenorrhea is a menstrual condition in which a woman's menstrual periods are absent for more than three monthly cycles. Pregnancy is one possible cause of amenorrhea.
Detailed information on amputation, including causes and types of rehabilitation programs for amputations
- Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurological disorder marked by the progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain. It is often referred to as Lou Gehrig’s disease, after a famous baseball player who died from it.
- Anal Fissures
An anal fissure is a small, painful tear in the lining of the anus. Anal fissures may hurt and bleed during or after a bowel movement, but about 90 percent heal without surgery.
- Anal Fistula
An anal fistula is an abnormal opening in the skin near the anus that leads to the inside of the anal canal in the colon,
- Analgesic Nephropathy
Detailed information on analgesic nephropathy, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and acute kidney failure
- Anatomical Pathology
Detailed information on several of the different divisions of anatomical pathology, including biopsy, surgical pathology, cytology, and autopsy
- Anatomy and Development of the Mouth and Teeth
Children's teeth begin developing in the fetus. Good nutrition from the mother during pregnancy is important in the development of the teeth.
- Anatomy and Function of the Coronary Arteries
Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. There are two main coronary arteries: the right and the left.
- Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves
Detailed anatomical description of the heart valves, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration
- Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves
Heart valves prevent the backward flow of blood. They act as one-way inlets of blood on one side of a ventricle and one-way outlets of blood on the other side of a ventricle.
- Anatomy and Function of the Heart's Electrical System
The heart is a pump made of muscle tissue. Its pumping action is regulated by electrical impulses.
- Anatomy of a Joint
Joints are the areas where two or more bones meet. Most joints are mobile, allowing the bones to move.
- Anatomy of Female Pelvic Area
The female pelvic area contains a number of organs and structures: the endometrium, uterus, ovaries, cervix, vagina, and vulva.
- Anatomy of the Bone
A typical bone in your body contains three types of tissue—a hard outer tissue, a sponge-like inner tissue, and smooth tissue at the ends.
- Anatomy of the Brain
The brain is an important organ that controls thought, memory, emotion, touch, motor skills, vision, respiration, temperature, hunger, and every process that regulates your body.
- Anatomy of the Breasts
Each breast has 15 to 20 sections (lobes), which are arranged like the petals of a daisy. Each lobe has many smaller lobules, which end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk.
- Anatomy of the Endocrine System
The endocrine system includes not only the pancreas—the organ involved in the development of diabetes—but also the pituitary, thyroid, and other glands.
- Anatomy of the Eye
The structures of the eye include the cornea, iris, pupil, macula, retina, and the optic nerve.
- Anatomy of the Hand
Each of your hands has three types of bones: phalanges in your fingers; metacarpals in your mid-hand, and carpals in your wrist.
- Anatomy of the Prostate Gland
The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the neck of a man’s bladder and urethra—the tube that carries urine from the bladder.
- Anatomy of the Respiratory System
The respiratory system includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs.
- Anatomy of the Skin
The skin is the body's largest organ. It serves as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection.
- Anatomy of the Urinary System
Detailed anatomical description of the urinary system, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations
- Anatomy: Fetus in Utero
A thin-walled sac surrounds the fetus during pregnancy. The sac is filled with amniotic fluid, which protects the fetus from injury.
- Anemia of Folate Deficiency
Detailed information on anemia of folate deficiency, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on the different types of anemia, including aplastic anemia, anemia of folate deficiency, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, hemolytic anemia, iron deficiency anemia, megaloblastic anemia, and sickle cell disease
Detailed information on the dangers of aneurysm, how an aneurysm develops, and aneurysm diagnosis
- Angina Pectoris
Angina pectoris occurs when the heart muscle doesn't receive enough blood and oxygen for a given level of work.
- Angiogenesis Inhibitors
Sometimes called antiangiogenic therapy, this treatment may prevent the growth of cancer by blocking the formation of new blood vessels.
- Animal Bites and Rabies
Detailed information on animal bites and rabies, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
- Ankylosing Spondylitis
Detailed information on ankylosing spondylitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Anorectal Abscess
An anorectal abscess is a collection of pus under the skin in the area of the anus and rectum.
- Anorexia Nervosa
Anorexia nervosa (or simply anorexia) is an eating disorder that causes people to obsess about their weight and food.
Detailed information on the use of antibiotics and children
- Anxiety Disorders
Detailed information on the most common types of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias
Detailed information on aphasia, including cause, diagnosis, types, and treatment
- Aplastic Anemia
Detailed information on aplastic anemia, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on appendicitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart that can cause the heart to pump less effectively.
- Art, Dance, and Music
Detailed information on art therapy, dance therapy, and music therapy as a form of alternative therapy
Detailed information on arteriogram, also called angiogram, including information on how the procedure is performed
Arthritis and other rheumatic diseases are characterized by pain, swelling, and limited movement in joints and connective tissues in the body.
- Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases Statistics
Rheumatic diseases are the leading cause of disability among people ages 65 and older.
Orthopedic surgeons use arthroscopy to diagnose and treat joint problems. An arthroscope is a small, tube shaped instrument that is used to look inside a joint.
- Assistive Equipment for the Home
Assistive equipment includes shower seats and bathtub mats; walkers, canes, and wheelchairs; and telephones for the hearing-impaired.
Detailed information on asthma, including triggers of an asthma attack, symptoms, diagnosis, management, and treatment
- Asthma and Children
How asthma will affect a child throughout his/her lifetime varies, depending on the child.
- Asthma and Exercise
Exercise-induced asthma is different from the typical asthma that is triggered by allergens and/or irritants.
- Asthma and Pregnancy
With proper asthma management and good prenatal care, most women with asthma can have healthy pregnancies.
- Asthma Attacks
Detailed information on asthma attack triggers and avoidance of allergens and other irritants
- Asthma Triggers
Detailed information on asthma triggers
Ataxia is a symptom—not a disorder. It refers to a failure of muscle control in the arms and legs, resulting in a lack of balance, coordination, and possibly a disturbance in gait.
- Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T)
The risk for breast cancer may be increased for women who carry the A-T gene. Ataxia telangiectasia is a rare childhood disease that affects the nervous system and other body systems.
Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis caused by a build-up of plaque in the inner lining of an artery.
- Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema)
Atopic dermatitis is a hereditary and chronic skin disorder that mostly affects infants and young children, but may last until a child reaches adolescence or adulthood.
- Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation is a type of arrhythmia in which the electrical signals in the atria, or the two small chambers of the heart, are fired in a very fast and uncontrolled manner.
- Atrial Flutter
Atrial flutter is a common type of arrhythmia, where your atria beat more quickly than they should. Although usually not life-threatening, the condition makes it difficult for your heart to pump blood efficiently.
- Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children
ADHD is a behavior disorder marked by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity.
Audiologists measure and evaluate a person's ability to hear sounds, and specialize in the treatment of people with hearing disorders.
Audiologists address hearing and balance problems in people of all ages. They also help with the fitting and management of hearing aids.
- Autoimmune Hepatitis
Detailed information on autoimmune hepatitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Automated External Defibrillator
An AED is a small, portable, battery-powered machine with a computer in it. The machine detects heart activity. It can give an electric shock to someone if needed.
Detailed information on autopsy, including who performs the procedure and how an autopsy is performed
- Avascular Necrosis
Detailed information on avascular necrosis, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Avoiding Eye Injuries
Detailed information on eye safety and tips to avoid eye injury
Ayurveda is a system of medicine based on the idea that disease is caused by an imbalance or stress in a person's consciousness.
- Back and Neck Pain
Pain in the back or neck area can be acute, which comes on suddenly and intensely, or chronic, which can last for weeks, months, or even years. The pain can be continuous or intermittent.
- Bacterial Skin Infections
Detailed information on the most common bacterial skin infections, including cellulitis, folliculitis, boils, carbuncles, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
- Balance Disorders
Detailed information on balance disorders, including acoustic neurinoma and Ménière's disease
- Baldness (Alopecia)
Baldness is usually most noticeable on the scalp, but can occur anywhere on the body where hair grows. The condition is more common in men than in women.
- Barium X-Rays (Upper and Lower GI)
Detailed information on barium x-rays, also called upper and lower GI series, including information on how the procedure is performed
- Barrett's Esophagus
Detailed information on Barrett's esophagus, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Basal Cell Carcinoma
Detailed information on basal cell carcinoma, including risk factors and how the disease develops
- Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome)
The risk for ovarian cancer and skin cancer is increased with basal cell nevus syndrome, a rare genetic disorder.
- Basic Anatomy of the Heart
Located almost in the center of the chest, the adult human heart is about the size of two fists held side-by-side.
- Bed Sores
Detailed information on bed sores, including causes, prevention, and treatment
- Bedwetting (Enuresis)
Detailed information on bedwetting (enuresis) in children, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment of urinary incontinence
- Bee Stings
Detailed information on bee sting and other insect stings, including symptoms and treatment
- Behavior Disorders
Detailed information on behavior problems in adolescents, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder
- Being a Caregiver
"Formal" caregivers are paid for their services and have had training and education in providing care. "Informal" caregivers, also called family caregivers, are people who provide care to family or friends, usually without payment.
- Bell's Palsy
Bell's palsy is an unexplained weakness or paralysis of the facial muscle that begins suddenly and worsens over three to five days. It can strike at any age, but it occurs most often in pregnant women, and in people who have diabetes, influenza, or another upper respiratory ailment.
- Benign Bone Tumors
Detailed information on the most common benign bone tumors, including chondroblastoma, enchondroma, giant cell tumor, and osteochondroma
- Benign Prostate Problems
The prostate gland can develop several conditions that are not cancerous. Pain, inflammation, and impotency are common problems.
- Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
BPH is a condition in which the prostate gland becomes very enlarged and may cause problems associated with urination.
- Beta Thalassemia (Cooley's Anemia)
Detailed information on beta thalassemia, including diagnosis and treatment
- Biliary Cirrhosis / Bile Duct Cancer
Detailed information on biliary cirrhosis and bile duct cancer, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Binge Eating Disorder
Binge eating disorder is an illness that resembles bulimia nervosa and is characterized by episodes of uncontrolled eating or bingeing. It differs from bulimia because its sufferers do not purge their bodies of the excess food.
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
Detailed information on birthmarks and the different types, including vascular birthmarks, hemangiomas, and port-wine stains
- Bites and Stings
Detailed information on insect bites, including bee stings, flea bites, mite bites, chigger bites, spider bites, tick bites, and lyme disease
- Bladder Cancer
Detailed information on bladder cancer, including symptoms, types, causes, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on teeth bleaching, including potential risks and side effects
- Bleeding / Clotting Disorders
Detailed information on bleeding/clotting disorders, including hemophilia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and thrombosis
Detailed information on blisters, including cause, first-aid, and treatment
- Blood Disorders
Detailed information on the most common blood disorders, including hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, thrombocythemia, leukemia, and lymphoma
- Blood Donations / Blood Banking
Detailed information on blood donations and blood banking
- Blood Transfusions
Detailed information on blood transfusion, including the components of blood and potential risks involved in a blood transfusion
- Body Dysmorphic Disorder
If you have body dysmorphic disorder, you may be so upset about the appearance of your body, that it interferes with your ability to function normally.
- Body Movement
Tai chi and yoga are two forms of non-aerobic movement and controlled breathing that can be practiced to reduce stress and anxiety.
- Bone Cancers
Detailed information on bone cancers, including chondrosarcoma, ewings sarcoma, myeloma bone disease, multiple myeloma, and osteosarcoma
- Bone Density Test
A bone density test measures the strength and density of your bones as you approach menopause and, when the test is repeated sometime later, can help determine how quickly you are losing bone mass and density.
- Bone Disorders
Detailed information on bone disorders, including avascular necrosis, fibrous dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta, osteomyelitis, Paget's disease of the bone, and primary hyperparathyroidism
- Bone Marrow Transplantation
Detailed information on bone marrow transplant, including preparation, types of transplant, transplant team, and possible procedure-related complications or side effects
- Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline personality disorder is a type of mental illness. If you have BPD, you may have problems with daily tasks, obligations, and life events.
Detailed information on bottle-feeding, including information on the different types of baby formula
Brachytherapy is radiation treatment that is given inside the patient, as close to the cancer as possible. The radiation is delivered to the body site with radioactive isotopes inside wires, seeds, or rods. These devices are called implants.
- Brain Tumors
A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The tumor can either originate in the brain itself or come from another part of the body and travel to the brain.
- Breast Augmentation
Breast augmentation is a procedure to reshape the breast in order to make it larger. The procedure can also be performed to reconstruct the breast after breast surgery.
- Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT)
BCPT was a clinical trial that studied tamoxifen as a prevention therapy for those at high risk for breast cancer. Data showed the results of tamoxifen treatment to be "highly significant," with a 49 percent reduction in the number of invasive breast cancers seen across all age groups.
- Breast Cancer Statistics
Breast cancer ranks second among cancer deaths in women after lung cancer.
- Breast Health
Detailed information on breast health, including anatomy of the breast, normal breast development, breast cancer prevention, breast self-examination, mammography, breast conditions, mastalgia (breast pain), breast lump, fibrocystic breast changes, nipple
- Breast Health: Three-Step Plan for Preventive Care
To monitor your breast health, you should do a monthly breast self-exam, get a year clinical exam, and get mammograms as directed by your doctor.
- Breast Infections and Inflammations
The most common type of breast infection is lactational mastitis, which occurs when a woman is breastfeeding. The nipples become cracked and sore, allowing bacteria from the baby's mouth to enter the ducts and rapidly multiply in the milk.
- Breast Milk Is the Best Milk
Your milk contains just the right balance of nutrients, and it contains them in a form most easily used by the human baby's immature body systems.
- Breast Reconstruction
Breast reconstruction surgery involves creating a breast mound that comes as close as possible to the form and appearance of the natural breast.
- Breast Reduction in Men With Gynecomastia
Detailed information on gynecomastia, including causes, facts, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on breastfeeding and starting to breastfeeding
- Breastfeeding Chart
- Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby
Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the baby, including ineffective latch-on, ineffective sucking, slow infant weight gain, poor infant weight gain, mismanaged breastfeeding, over-active breast milk let down
- Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother
Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the mother, including sore nipples, low breast milk production, flat nipples, plugged milk ducts, and mastitis
- Breastfeeding Your Baby
Detailed information on breastfeeding, including information on breast milk, starting breastfeeding, breast milk production, effective breastfeeding, breastfeeding difficulties, sore nipples, insufficient breast milk production, delayed breast milk production, low breast milk production, flat nipples, inverted nipples, plugged milk ducts, mastitis, breastfeeding latch-on difficulties, and poor infant weight gain
Detailed information on healthcare for dental bridges
- Brugada Syndrome
Brugada syndrome is a disorder that causes an irregular heartbeat. A mutation in the SCN5A gene causes the genetic form of this condition.
- Brushing and Toothpaste
Detailed information on brushing and toothpaste
Detailed information on bruxism, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment
- BSE ('Mad Cow Disease') and vCJD
BSE is a cattle disease, and vCJD is the equivalent disease in humans. Both are fatal brain diseases. Researchers believe that people become infected by eating beef contaminated with BSE.
- Buerger’s Disease
Buerger’s disease (thromboangiitis obliterans) is one of many types of vasculitis. This is inflammation that involves your blood vessels.
- Bulimia Nervosa in Adolescents
Bulimia nervosa is defined as uncontrolled episodes of overeating (bingeing) usually followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, enemas, or medications in an attempt to control weight.
- Burns in Children
Detailed information on burns, burn types, classification of burns, and burn treatment
A bursa is a fluid-filled sac that cushions a joint. When a bursa becomes inflamed, the condition is known as bursitis.
- Calculating a Due Date
First, determine the first day of your last menstrual period. Next, count back three calendar months and add one year and seven days to that date.
- Calculating Calories and Fat Grams
Here's a formula to help you figure out how many calories and fat grams you need each day to maintain your current weight.
- Calluses and Corns
Detailed information on calluses and corns
- Cancer Overview
Cancer cells don't function properly, and they can spread to many areas of the body. Tumors are clusters of cells that are capable of growing and dividing uncontrollably; their growth is not regulated.
- Cancer Rehabilitation
Detailed information on cancer rehabilitation, including members of the rehabilitation team
- Cancer Treatment Team
Your cancer treatment may involve several types of health care professionals who, with you, form the "cancer care team."
- Cancer Treatment: Overview
Detailed information on the most common types of cancer treatment, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, biological therapy, and cancer clinical trials
- Candidiasis (Yeast Infection)
Candidiasis is an infection caused by yeast on the skin and/or mucous membranes. The symptoms vary depending on the location of the infection.
- Car Safety
Detailed information on car safety
- Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Detailed information on carbon monoxide poisoning
- Cardiac Arrest
Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart suddenly stops functioning. With no heartbeat, the brain and other vital organs are deprived of blood, leading to death within minutes.
- Cardiac Arrest and Heart Disease
Victims of cardiac arrest typically have undiagnosed coronary artery disease (CAD)—the most common cause of the dangerous heart rhythm problems that can lead to this condition.
- Cardiac Catheterization
Cardiac catheterization is a procedure in which a catheter is moved through a blood vessel to the heart in order to better diagnose coronary heart disease, valvular heart disease, congestive heart failure and other heart conditions.
- Cardiac Conditions and Diseases
Detailed information on the most common cardiovascular diseases, including full-page descriptions detailing the most common types of heart disease, related symptoms, diagnostic, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, ICDs, and treatment information
- Cardiac Diagnostic Tests
Here's a look at just a few of the tests that have been used or are being used to understand and identify cardiovascular disease.
- Cardiac Procedures
These procedures are often used in the evaluation and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
- Cardiac Rehabilitation
Cardiac rehabilitation programs can be conducted while a person is a hospital inpatient or on an outpatient basis.
- Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) uses pulses of electricity to help the ventricles, or the two lower chambers of the heart, beat as they should.
- Cardiac Sarcoma
Cardiac sarcoma is a rare type of cancerous tumor that occurs in the heart.
Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.
- Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
Detailed information on cpr, including how to become properly trained in cpr
- Cardiovascular Disease Statistics
Heart disease is one of the most serious health problems in the United States. Find out more facts and figures on this topic.
- Care and Management of Multiple Pregnancy
A woman with a multiple pregnancy needs more calories and nutrients, more frequent prenatal visits, and more rest.
- Care of the Baby in the Delivery Room
A newborn baby is wet from the amniotic fluid and can easily become cold. Drying the baby and using warm blankets and heat lamps can help prevent heat loss. Often a knitted hat is placed on the baby's head.
- Care of the Mouth and Teeth
Detailed information on care of the mouth and teeth for children
- Care of the Uncircumcised Penis
In an uncircumcised boy, the foreskin will begin to separate from the glans, or the tip of the penis. This happens naturally while the male is an infant. This is called foreskin retraction.
- Caring for the Mother: Physically and Emotionally
Nap when your baby naps. Take warm, shallow baths several times a day if you had stitches after delivery. Wear a supportive bra and use warm compresses to help with milk letdown.
- Carotid Artery Disease
Carotid artery disease occurs when the carotid arteries, the main blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to the brain, become narrowed.
- Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Women develop carpal tunnel syndrome three times more frequently than men. It usually occurs only in adults.
- Cat Scratch Disease
Detailed information on cat scratch disease, including symptoms and treatment
- Cataracts and Cataract Surgery
A cataract is a clouding or opaque area over the lens of the eye—an area that's normally transparent. As less light reaches the retina, it becomes increasingly harder to see and vision may become dull and blurry.
- Causes of Skin Cancer
Detailed information on causes and risk factors for skin cancer, including heredity and environment
- Celiac Disease
Detailed information on celiac disease, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on cellulitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Cerebral Aneurysm
A cerebral aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of an artery in the brain. This weak spot raises the risk that the artery wall will burst open.
- Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer develops from abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix that spread deeper or to other tissues or organs. This type of cancer occurs most often in women older than 40.
Cervicitis is an irritation of the cervix. Acute cervicitis can be caused an infection such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, or herpes. Chronic cervicitis is common in women following childbirth.
- Chagas Disease
The parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis). The feces of insects called triatomine, or “kissing” bugs, transmits the parasite to people.
Chaplains act as spiritual counselors to help patients and families through periods of crisis.
- Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a group of conditions also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy. CMT develops because of a defective gene that causes abnormalities in the nerves that supply your feet, legs, hands, and arms.
- Checklist for Surgery/Consent Forms/Insurance Information
The decision to have surgery is an important one. Here is a checklist to help you prepare. You'll need to arrange a time for any preoperative lab tests and for an interview with the anesthesiologist. Check with your health plan regarding costs and coverage of the surgery.
- Chemical Peel
Detailed information on chemical peels, including potential complications and what substances are used for chemical peels
- Chemical Poisoning and Syrup of Ipecac
Detailed information on chemical poisoning and syrup of ipecac
Detailed information on chemotherapy for treatment of gynecological cancers
- Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Treatment
Your oncologist will determine how long and how often you will have chemotherapy treatments. Chemotherapy can be administered intravenously or by pill, and is usually a combination of drugs.
- Chemotherapy For Prostate Cancer
Chemotherapy may be used when the cancer has spread outside of the prostate gland, or it may be used in combination with other therapies.
Detailed information on chickenpox, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, complications, and immunity
- Chin, Cheek, or Jaw Reshaping / Facial Implants
Detailed information on chin reshaping, cheek reshaping, jaw reshaping, and facial implants, including possible facial implant complications
- Chinese Medicine
Detailed information on traditional Chinese medicine as a form of alternative therapy
- Chiropractic Medicine
Chiropractic medicine is based on the relationship between the alignment of the spine and the function of the body and the belief that the body can heal itself.
- Choking and the Heimlich Maneuver
Detailed information on choking, choking prevention, and the Heimlick maneuver
Detailed information on cholangitis, including symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on cholecystitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on cholera, including causes, prevention, and treatment
- Cholesterol in the Blood
The cholesterol in your blood comes from the foods you eat and your liver—but your liver makes all of the cholesterol your body needs.
A chondroblastoma is a rare type of benign bone tumor that originates from cartilage.
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant type of bone cancer that primarily affects the cartilage cells of the femur, arm, pelvis, knee, and spine.
- Choosing a Provider
When looking for a home health and hospice care provider, consider quality of care, availability of services, personnel training and expertise, and payer coverage.
- Choosing a Rehabilitation Unit/CARF
Rehabilitation services are provided in many different places, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, and community health centers.
- Chronic Bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis is a long-term inflammation of the bronchi, which results in increased production of mucus.
- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Detailed information on chronic fatigue syndrome, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune disorder, meaning the body attacks its own tissues. In CIDP, the myelin sheaths — the fatty covering on the fibers that insulate and protect your body’s nerves — are under attack.
- Chronic Liver Disease/Cirrhosis
Detailed information on cirrhosis, chronic liver disease, and fibrosis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Detailed information on chronic lymphocytic leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Detailed information on chronic myelogenous leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the two most common conditions of COPD.
- Chronic Pain
Chronic pain is longstanding pain that persists beyond the usual recovery period or occurs along with a chronic health condition, such as arthritis.
- Chronic Venous Insufficiency
Detailed information on chronic venous insufficiency, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical illustrations
Whether you decided to have your baby boy circumcised or not, it’s important to know how to care for his special needs. Find tips for caring for both circumcised and uncircumcised babies.
Detailed information on claudication, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and a labeled, full-color anatomical illustration
- Cleft Lip/Cleft Palate
Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including cleft lip and cleft palate
- Clinical Chemistry
Detailed information on clinical chemistry and the most common clinical chemistry tests
- Clinical Pathology
Detailed information on clinical pathology and its variety of laboratory specialties, including blood banking, clinical chemistry, hematology, immunology, serology, and microbiology
- Clinical Pathology Overview
Detailed information on clinical pathology and the specimens that are tested
- Clinical Social Worker
A clinical social worker is a professional counselor who helps alleviate problems related to personal, family, or social situations.
- Clinical Trials For Prostate Cancer
Several clinical trials to evaluate prostate cancer have been completed or are currently underway.
- Cluster Headaches
Cluster headaches occur in groups, or clusters, and individual attacks last one to three hours on average. They may occur every other day—or several times a day.
- Cold Sores
Detailed information on cold sores, including symptoms and treatment
- Collagen / Fat Injectable Fillers
Collagen/fat injectable fillers, also called soft-tissue augmentation, is a cosmetic plastic surgery procedure performed to correct wrinkles, depressions in the skin, and/or scarring.
- Colorectal Cancer
Most people who have colorectal cancer are older than 50. This type of cancer is also associated with a diet high in fat and calories and low in fiber.
- Common Benign Lumps
The two most common types of benign breast lumps are cysts and fibroadenomas. A cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops in the breast tissue. Fibroadenomas are solid, smooth, firm, benign lumps that are most commonly found in women in their late teens and early 20s.
- Common Breast Conditions
Detailed information on the most common breast conditions, including mastalgia (breast pain), benign breast lumps, fibrocystic breast changes, nipple problems, nipple discharge, breast infections, and breast inflammation
- Common Breast Lumps
Detailed information on common benign breast lumps, including breast cysts, fibroadenomas, fat necrosis, and sclerosing adenosis
- Common Characteristics of Liver Disease
Detailed information on liver diseases, including the most common characteristics of liver disease such as jaundice, cholestasis, liver enlargement, portal hypertension, esophageal varices, ascites, liver encephalopathy, and liver failure
- Common Childhood Illness and Concerns
Detailed information on common childhood illnesses and concerns
- Common Cold
Detailed information on the common cold, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Common Dermatological Procedures
Detailed information on common dermatological procedures, including acne scar removal, chemical peels, dermabrasion, dermaplaning, and laser skin surgery
- Common Discomforts During Pregnancy
Nausea and vomiting are common in the first trimester, as is fatigue. Other common discomforts are hemorrhoids and heartburn.
- Common Disorders of the Spine, Shoulder, and Pelvis
Detailed information on the most common disorders of the spine, shoulder, and pelvis, including arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, avascular necrosis, bursitis, hip problems, hip replacement, kyphosis, low back pain, neck problems, neck pain, torticollis,
- Common Eye Disorders
One common eye disorder is conjunctivitis, sometimes called pink eye. It's an inflammation of the blood vessels in the eye membrane. Another common disorder is a chalazion—a small bump that develops on the upper or lower eyelid.
- Common Health Problems Associated With Travel in Developing Countries
Detailed information on common health problems associated with travel in developing countries
- Common Infectious Diseases
Detailed information on the most common infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS, chickenpox, chronic fatigue syndrome, common cold, diphtheria, E. coli, giardiasis, infectious mononucleosis, influenza (flu), lyme disease, malaria, measles, meningitis, mum
- Common Liver Function Tests
Detailed information on the most common liver function tests, including serum bilirubin test, serum albumin test, serum alkaline phosphatase test, serum aminotransferases, prothrombin time test, alanine transaminase test, aspartate transaminase test, gamm
- Common Orthopedic Disorders
Detailed information on the most common orthopedic disorders, including arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, bursitis, elbow pain, elbow problems, cubital tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow), medial epicondylitis (golfers el
- Common Skin Disorders
Detailed information on common skin disorders, including acne, bed sore, dry skin, calluses, corns, keratosis pilaris, psoriasis, pityriasis rosea, rosacea, and sebaceous cysts
- Common Surgical Procedures
Detailed information on the most common surgical procedures, including appendectomy, breast biopsy, carotid endarterectomy, cataract surgery, cesarean section, cholecystectomy, coronary artery bypass surgery, debridement of wound, dilation and curettage,
- Common Tests During Pregnancy
Certain tests and screenings may be scheduled during your pregnancy. Your health care provider will advise you on which tests you'll need.
- Common Types of Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases
Detailed information on the most common types of arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, including ankylosing spondylitis, bursitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, fibromyalgia, gout, infectious arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, lyme disease, low back pa
- Community Re-Entry
One of the main goals of rehabilitation is to prepare the patient for life after discharge.
- Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Diabetes
Are you tempted to try herbal remedies that promise to “cure” diabetes without prescription medication? Be sure you understand the limitations.
- Complications of Diabetes
Detailed information on the most common types of diabetes complications and ways to prevent future problems
- Complications of Multiple Pregnancy
Having more than one baby is especially exciting—and complicated. Find out what to watch for, including a greater chance of anemia and preterm birth.
- Complications of Pregnancy
Some of the more common complications of pregnancy are miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and bleeding.
- Components of Food
When trying to make heart-healthy changes to your lifestyle and diet, it is helpful to know some basics about nutrition.
- Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation
A psychiatric evaluation will look at symptoms and when they occur, as well as what impact they have on family and work relationships.
- Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan
Detailed information on computed tomography scans, also called CT scan or CAT scan, including information on how the procedure is performed
- Conditions Commonly Treated By Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Detailed information on the conditions most commonly treated by physical medicine and rehabilitation, including acquired brain injury, arthritis, burns, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic pain, back pain, neck pain, multiple sclerosis, spinal
- Conditions Investigated by Environmental Medicine Programs
Allergies, asthma, heart disease, and cancer are among the long list of health conditions with ties to environmental factors.
- Conditions of Concern to Men
Detailed information on the most common health concerns for men, including male breast cancer, gynecomastia, colorectal cancer, erectile dysfunction (impotence), hair loss, heart attack, high blood pressure (hypertension), insomnia, low back pain, inferti
- Conduct Disorder
A child with a conduct disorder has antisocial behaviors that violate the rights of others and age-appropriate social standards and rules.
- Congenital Hand Deformities
When one of those precious little hands isn’t as perfectly formed as it should be, an early visit to a hand surgeon should be at the top of your agenda for your newborn.
- Congenital Heart Defects
When the heart or blood vessels near the heart do not develop normally before birth, a condition called congenital heart defect occurs.
- Congenital Liver Defects
Detailed information on congenital liver defects, including biliary atresia and choledochal cyst
You had conjunctivitis as a child, now your baby has symptoms of it. Your first step should be a call to your doctor, who will make a diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment.
Constipation is a condition in which a person has uncomfortable or infrequent bowel movements. Generally, a person is considered to be constipated when bowel movements result in passage of small amounts of hard, dry stool.
- Contact Dermatitis
Detailed information on contact dermatitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Contraception / Birth Control
You have a lot of options when it comes to birth control. Some methods don't require a doctor's visit, but others, like oral contraceptives, are available only by prescription.
- Controlling Asthma Triggers at Work
Many people with asthma have symptoms from triggers in the workplace. This is called occupational asthma.
- Coping with Prostate Cancer
Detailed information for family members coping with prostate cancer, including how to help the man in your life cope with a diagnosis of prostate cancer
- Coping with Swallowing Difficulties
Swallowing difficulties can occur for reasons ranging from dehydration to illness. Most cases are short-lived, but sometimes you might need medical treatment or special home care.
- Coping with the Diagnosis of Cancer
Learn as much as possible about your disease. Arm yourself with information in order to lessen frustration. Don't hesitate to ask questions about your disease. Consider keeping a notebook with all of the medical records and information about your diagnosis.
- Coronary Heart Disease
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.
- Correcting or Improving Vision Problems
Detailed information on correcting or improving vision problems
- Corrective Eye Surgery for Refractive Errors
Detailed information on the most common types of corrective eye surgery for refractive errors, including lasik surgery, photorefractive keratectomy surgery, radial keratotomy surgery, astigmatic keratotomy surgery, and automated lamellar keratoplasty surg
- Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Overview
Cosmetic plastic surgery is performed in order to change one's appearance. For some, it may mean redesigning the body's contour and shape or the elimination of wrinkles. Others may choose varicose vein treatment or breast augmentation.
- Cosmetic Safety for Contact Lens Wearers
Detailed information on cosmetic safety for contact lens wearers
- Cowden Syndrome
The risk for breast cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and thyroid cancer is increased with Cowden syndrome, a rare genetic disorder.
- Cradle Cap/Seborrheic Dermatitis
Detailed information on cradle cap, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Craniosynostosis is a condition in which the fibrous joints between the skull’s bony plates close too early, causing problems with normal brain and skull growth.
- Creeping Eruption
Detailed information on creeping eruption, including symptoms and treatment
- Crohn's Disease
Detailed information on Crohn's disease, including symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment
- Cruise Ships
Detailed information on traveling healthy while on cruise ships
Detailed information on cryptosporidiosis, including transmission, location, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
Cubital tunnel syndrome feels similar to the pain that occurs from hitting the "funny" bone in your elbow. The condition may occur if you frequently bend your elbows, constantly lean on your elbows, or sustain a direct injury to the area.
- Current Investigations in Environmental Medicine
Listing of current investigations in environmental medicine
- Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma
Detailed information on cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Cystic Fibrosis
Detailed information on cystic fibrosis, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and genetics
- Cystocele (Fallen Bladder)
Cystocele is the name for a hernia-like disorder in women that occurs when the wall between the bladder and the vagina weakens, causing the bladder to drop or sag into the vagina.
Detailed information on cytology, the study of individual cells to detect abnormal cells
- Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Thrombophlebitis
Detailed information on deep vein thrombosis and thrombophlebitis, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical illustrations
- Dehydration and Heat Stroke
Dehydration and heat stroke are two very common heat-related diseases that can be life threatening if left untreated.
In preparation of the delivery, you may be moved into a birthing room or delivery room, or you may remain in the same room for both labor and delivery.
- Dengue Fever
Detailed information on dengue fever, including symptoms, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment
- Dental Care for Infants and Children
Detailed information on dental care for infants and children
- Dental Health
Detailed information on dental health for children
- Dental Implants
Detailed information on dental implants, including types and potential risks
- Dental Procedures
Detailed information on the most common dental procedures, including braces, bleaching, bridges, dentures, dental implants, fillings, root canal, sealants, and wisdom teeth extraction
- Dental Sealants
Detailed information on dental sealants
Detailed information on the most common types of dentures
Depression involves the body, mood, and thoughts, and affects the way a person eats and sleeps, feels about himself or herself, and thinks about things.
- Depression and Suicide
More than 90 percent of people who commit suicide have a diagnosable mental disorder—most commonly a depressive disorder or a substance abuse disorder.
- Dermabrasion / Dermaplaning
Dermabrasion involves a surgeon using a high speed rotating brush to remove the top layer of skin. This is done to remove fine wrinkles or minimize scars.
Detailed information on dermatitis, including the different types of dermatitis such as atopic dermatitis (eczema), contact dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, localized scratch dermatitis, numm
- Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Detailed information on dermatitis herpetiformis, including symptoms, triggers, diagnosis, and treatment
- Describing a Skin Condition
Detailed information on questions a physician may ask you in describing your dermatological condition and its location
- Designing an Exercise Program
To improve your heart and lung fitness, aim for 30 to 60 minutes of aerobic exercise three to four times a week.
- Determining Your Body Mass Index
Your BMI gives a fairly accurate assessment of how much of your body is composed of fat.
- Deviated Septum
Detailed information on deviated septum and septoplasty, a reconstructive plastic surgery performed to correct an improperly formed nasal septum
- Diabetes (Type 1, 2, and Gestational)
Detailed information on type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes, including causes, symptoms, complications, risk factors, and treatment
- Diabetes and Heart Disease
Diabetes affects the cardiovascular system, but many problems aren't apparent until a person has a heart attack or stroke.
- Diabetes and High Blood Pressure
If you have diabetes, you are twice as likely to have high blood pressure. Untreated, high blood pressure can raise your risk for heart disease.
- Diabetes and Periodontal (Gum) Disease
Poorly controlled diabetes can lead to gum disease, which is an infection of the gums and bone that hold the teeth in place.
- Diabetes Insipidus
Detailed information on diabetes insipidus, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Diabetes Statistics
Looking for vital diabetes facts and figures? Here are statistics for both patients and consumers.
- Diabetic Foot Problems
Diabetes can damage the nerves in your feet, as well as lead to blood vessel disease. These conditions make it more difficult to notice when you injure your foot or develop a sore.
- Diabetic Nephropathy (Kidney Disease)
Nephropathy is the deterioration of the kidneys. The final stage of nephropathy is called end-stage renal disease, or ESRD.
- Diabetic Neuropathy (Nerve Problems)
The risk of developing nerve damage, or neuropathy, increases the longer a person has diabetes. About half of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy.
- Diabetic Retinopathy and Other Eye Problems
Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness in American adults. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of the retina.
- Diagnosing Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases
Diagnosing arthritis and other rheumatic diseases is often difficult, as many symptoms are similar among the different diseases.
- Diagnosing Benign (Noncancerous) Breast Conditions
To diagnose a breast condition, your doctor will examine your breasts and may order imaging tests or a biopsy.
- Diagnosing Diabetes
If you're older than 45, you should be tested for diabetes. If you are younger, you should be tested if you are at high risk.
- Diagnosing Hand Conditions
In some cases, a diagnosis can be made simply based on a physical examination. In other cases, though, tests may be needed to help confirm the diagnosis.
- Diagnosis and Staging of Melanoma
Detailed information on diagnosis and staging of melanoma, including use of excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
- Diagnosis and Treatment for Migraines
To help diagnose a migraine, your doctor may ask you when your headaches occur, how long they last, and what they feel like.
- Diagnostic and Evaluation Procedures
Your doctor may evaluate possible prostate problems with an annual physical and a digital rectal exam or a test for prostate-specific antigen.
- Diagnostic Procedures for Allergy
Detailed information on allergy testing, including blood testing (rast testing) and scratch testing
- Diagnostic Procedures for Bone Disorders
Detailed information on diagnostic procedures for bone disorders, including bone densitometry, radionuclide bone scan, and biopsy
- Diagnostic Procedures for Breast Cancer
It is important to remember that a lump or other changes in the breast, or an abnormal area on a mammogram, may be caused by cancer or by other, less serious problems.
- Diagnostic Procedures for Cancer: Overview
Detailed information on the most common diagnostic procedures for cancer
- Diagnostic Radiology
Detailed information on the most common procedures used for diagnostic radiology, including arteriogram, barium x-ray, computed tomography scan, fluoroscopy, intravenous pyelogram, magnetic resonance imaging, mammogram, ultrafast CT scan, ultrasound, x ra
- Diagnostic Tests for Neurological Disorders
Evaluating and diagnosing damage to the nervous system is complicated and complex. Many of the same symptoms occur in different combinations among the different disorders.
Detailed information on diarrhea, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Diarrheal Diseases
Detailed information on the most common types of diarrheal diseases, including cryptosporidiosis, diarrhea, traveler's diarrhea, salmonella infection, and giardiasis
- Diet and Cardiovascular Disease
The Choose My Plate plan from the federal government is a guideline to help you eat a healthy diet.
- Diet for Lactose Intolerance
Detailed information on lactose intolerance, including a list of foods that contain lactose
- Dietary Changes for Celiac Disease
Celiac disease is a digestive disorder that damages your small intestine and keeps it from absorbing the nutrients in food. A protein found in wheat, barley, and rye called gluten is what causes the damage to the intestinal tract.
- Dietary Supplements
Adding anything to your regular diet to improve your health or healing is considered a dietary supplement.
- Digestive Diagnostic Procedures
Detailed information on the most common procedures used to diagnosis digestive disorders
- Digestive Disorders
Detailed information on the most common types of digestive disorders, including appendicitis, Barrett's esophagus, celiac disease, constipation, crohn's disease, diarrhea, diverticular disease, gas, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastr
Detailed information on diphtheria, including symptoms, transmission, treatment, and prevention
- Discharge Planning
Detailed information on discharge planning after surgery
- Disorders of the Adrenal Glands
Detailed information on disorders of the adrenal glands
- Disorders of the Biliary System
Detailed information on the most common disorders of the biliary system, including gallstones, cholangitis, cholecystitis, biliary cirrhosis, and biliary duct cancer
- Disorders of the Liver
Detailed information on disorders of the liver, including alcohol-induced liver disease, chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, congenital defects, hepatitis, liver tumors, and liver transplantation
- Disorders of the Pancreas
Detailed information on pancreas disorders, including pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer
- Disorders of the Parathyroid Glands
Detailed information on disorders of the parathyroid gland
- Disorders of the Pituitary Gland
Detailed information on pituitary gland disorders, including acromegaly, diabetes insipidus, empty sella syndrome, hypopituitarism, and pituitary gland tumors
- Disorders of the Thyroid
Detailed information on disorders of the thyroid, including hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, toxic nodular goiter, thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, thyroid tumor, hypothyroidism and pregnancy, postpartum thyroiditis, and thyroid horm
- Diverticular Disease
Detailed information on diverticular disease, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Doctors and Specialists
Detailed information on the physicians and specialists that treat disorders of the spine, shoulder, and pelvis
- Domestic Violence
Abuse often begins with verbal behaviors such as name-calling, threats, and hitting or throwing objects. It can become worse, including pushing, slapping, and holding against the victim's will.
- Drug Rashes
Detailed information on different types of drug rashes, including acne, exfoliative dermatitis, fixed drug eruption, hives, morbiliform/maculopapular rash, purpuric eruptions, Stevens-Johnson syndrome
- Drug-Induced Hepatitis
Detailed information on drug-induced hepatitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Dry Skin
Detailed information on dry skin, including treatment
- Dupuytren's Contracture
This disease usually begins with a thickening of the skin in the palm of the hand. This may develop into a hard lump or thick band that eventually causes the fingers to contract.
Dysmenorrhea is a menstrual condition marked by severe and frequent menstrual cramps and pain. Dysmenorrhea can be either lifelong or caused by another medical condition.
Dysthymia is a mood disorder similar to major depression. It has less severe symptoms than depression, but the symptoms linger for several years.
- Ear Infections
Detailed information on ear infections, including otitis externa (swimmer's ear) and otitis media
- Ear Pinning
Detailed information on ear pinning surgery, including who might be a candidate for the procedure and possible complications of the procedure
- Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
Detailed information on ear, nose, and throat disorders, including hearing disorders, balance disorders, smell disorders, taste disorders, chemosensory disorders, speech disorders, voice disorders, language disorders, vocal cord disorders, and laryngeal cancer.
- Ear, Nose, and Throat Facts
The ear consists of three areas—the outer, middle, and inner ear. The nose is the organ of smell and is part of the peripheral nervous system. The throat is a ring-like muscular tube that acts as the passageway for air, food, and liquid.
- Ears and Airplane Travel, Ear Wax, and Ear Cleaning
Detailed information on ears and airplane travel, ear wax, and ear cleaning
- Eating Disorders
Detailed information on the most common types of eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder
- Eating Well for Digestive Health
If you're like most people, you may have gas, constipation, or heartburn every now and then.
Ebola is a virus that causes problems with how your blood clots. It is known as a hemorrhagic fever virus. This is because the clotting problems lead to internal bleeding, as blood leaks from small blood vessels in your body.
An echocardiogram is a procedure in which ultrasonic sound waves are used to assess the heart's function and structures.
- Effective Breastfeeding
Think there’s only one way to breast-feed? Think again! Moms can position their babies in several positions during feeding time that can be comfortable for both.
- Effective Sucking
It’s important for your baby’s health to be able to effectively remove milk from your breast during nursing. To do this, your baby must learn the proper way to suck. But how do you know if your baby is actually getting the nutrition he/she needs? Here’s a guide to help you.
- Effects of Rehabilitation on the Family
One of the most important factors in a patient's recovery is family involvement and support in his or her rehab.
- Effects of Stroke (Brain Attack)
When an area of the brain is damaged, which typically occurs with a stroke, an impairment may result. An impairment is the loss of normal function of part of the body. Sometimes, an impairment may result in a disability, or inability to perform an activity in a normal way.
- Effects of UV Exposure
Detailed information on the effects of ultraviolet light and the increased risk of skin cancer, premature aging, cataracts, and immune system damage
- Egg Allergy Diet
Detailed information on egg allergy, a type of food allergy, including egg-free recipes and egg substitutes
- Elbow Pain and Problems
Detailed information on elbow pain and problems
- Elder Care
Elder care encompasses a wide variety of issues, including choosing an appropriate doctor to care for an aging patient, and making decisions about moving an elderly adult from the home environment to a residential care setting.
- Electric and Magnetic Fields
Detailed information on electric and magnetic fields
- Electrocardiogram (EKG) / Stress Test / Holter Monitor
Detailed information on an electrocardiogram (EKG) procedure, including how the procedure is performed, reasons for the procedure, and pre- and post-evaluation instructions
- Electromagnetic Therapy
Detailed information on electromagnetic therapy, also called bioelectricity, magnetobiology, magnetic field therapy, and magnetic healing, as a form of alternative therapy
- Emergency Information Form
In an emergency, it is easy to "forget" even the most well-known information. That's why it is crucial for you to complete the information in this form for each member of your household.
- Emerging Infectious Diseases
Detailed information on emerging infectious diseases and how travelers can minimize their risk of infectious diseases
- Emotions and Heart Health
Since ancient times, the heart has been a symbol of our emotions. But in recent years, scientists have uncovered a clear physical link between emotions and heart health.
- Empty Sella Syndrome
Detailed information on empty sella syndrome, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Encephalitis is a term used to describe inflammation of the brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell, which leads to changes in a person's neurologic condition, including mental confusion and seizures.
Enchondromas are the most common type of hand tumor. Although they may affect people of any age, they are most common between ages 10 and 20.
- End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
Detailed information on end-stage renal disease, including renal failure symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Endocrinology Statistics
Statistics relating to endocrine disorders
- Endometrial Cancer
Cancer of the endometrium is a disease in which cancerous cells are found in the lining of the uterus. It is highly curable when found early.
Women with endometriosis develop tissue that looks and acts like endometrial tissue outside the uterus, usually on other reproductive organs inside the pelvis or in the abdominal cavity.
- Environmental Disease Factors
Detailed information on environmental disease factors, including mold, air pollution, asthma triggers, carbon monoxide poisoning, lead poisoning, radon, multiple chemical sensitivity, electric and magnetic fields, and Gulf war syndrome
- Eosinophilic Esophagitis
When you think of allergic reactions, you probably envision itchy eyes and a runny nose. But an allergic reaction can occur in the esophagus – your food pipe – as well.
Epidemiology is the study of the occurrence of disease in people, and applying that information from the study to the control of health problems.
- Epilepsy and Seizures
Epilepsy is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system and affects people of all ages, races, and ethnic backgrounds.
- Erythema Multiforme
Detailed information on erythema multiforme, including symptoms and treatment
- Erythema Nodosum
Detailed information on erythema nodosum, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Escherichia coli 0157:H7
This particular strain of E. coli causes a severe intestinal infection. You can get this infection by eating contaminated meat or by drinking unpasteurized juice or milk that has been contaminated.
- Esophageal Cancer
Detailed information on esophageal cancer, including symptoms, stages, types, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
Esophagitis is the irritation and inflammation of the lining of your esophagus, or food pipe. Because the lining of the esophagus is sensitive, many things can cause swelling and irritation.
- Estrogen's Effects on the Female Body
In addition to regulating the menstrual cycle, estrogen affects the reproductive tract, the urinary tract, the heart and blood vessels, bones, breasts, skin, hair, mucous membranes, pelvic muscles, and the brain.
- Evaluation Procedures
To help the orthopedist determine your treatment, you'll need a physical exam, a medical history profile, and a description of symptoms.
- Evaluation Procedures for Stroke
Tests that may be used to help diagnose a stroke include a CT scan or MRI, and an electroencephalogram.
- Ewing Sarcoma in Adults
Ewing sarcoma can occur in any bone, but is most often found in the extremities and can involve muscle and the soft tissues around the tumor site.
- Excessive Hairiness (Hirsutism)
Detailed information on excessive hairiness, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment
- Excessive Sweating
Detailed information on excessive sweating, including symptoms and treatment
Exercise doesn't have to be vigorous to offer health benefits. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity daily, or on most days of the week.
- Exercise and the Aging Person
Exercise is good for people of all ages. It helps lower blood pressure, reduces the risks for falls and serious injuries, and slows the body's loss of muscle and bone mass.
- Exercise During Pregnancy
If you exercised before pregnancy, you can safely continue exercising. If you were inactive or you have medical complications, talk with your doctor before beginning to exercise.
- Exercise: Before Starting an Exercise Program
It is always important to talk with your doctor before starting an exercise program, particularly if you have certain health conditions.
- Exercise: The Right Program and the Right Preparation
You don't have to exercise for long periods of time—or even vigorously—to become fit. You do need to aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate activity most days of the week.
- Exercise-Related Heat Exhaustion
Exercise-related heat exhaustion is an illness caused by getting too hot when you exercise. During heat exhaustion, your body temperature rises above normal.
- Expectant Therapy
Expectant therapy is to "watch and wait" while carefully observing and monitoring the prostate cancer.
- External Beam Therapy
External beam therapy is a type of therapeutic radiology that is delivered externally from a machine directed to the cancer inside the patient. Examples of external beam therapy machines include linear accelerators, cobalt machines, or orthovoltage X-ray machines.
- Eye Care Specialists
An ophthalmologist is either a medical doctor (M.D.) or an osteopathic physician (D.O.). An optometrist is a doctor of optometry (O.D.) but is not a medical doctor. An optician is a technician who fits eyeglasses.
- Eye Conditions
Detailed information on eye conditions in children
- Eye Disorders
Detailed information on the most common eye disorders, including age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, refractive errors, and retinitis pigmentosa
- Eye Examinations
During an eye exam, an eye doctor reviews your medical history and completes a series of tests to determine the health of your eyes.
- Eye Injury (Black Eye)
Detailed information on ecchymosis or bruising of the eye
- Eye Safety
Detailed information on eye safety and tips to avoid eye injury
- Eye Safety at the Computer
Detailed information on eye safety at the computer and ways to avoid eye strain
- Eyeglasses and Contact Lenses
Eyeglasses are the most common form of eyewear used to correct or improve many types of vision problems. Contact lenses are worn directly on the cornea of the eye.
- Eyelid Lift
This procedure can remove puffiness or bags under the eyes, and can also correct droopy eyelids.
During a facelift procedure, excess facial fat is removed, facial muscles are tightened, and the skin is stretched to make a smoother appearance.
- Facts About Blood
Detailed information on blood, including components of blood, functions of blood cells and common hematology tests
- Facts About Diabetes
Diabetes affects the way the body metabolizes, or uses, digested food to make glucose, the main source of fuel for the body.
- Facts About Skin Cancer
Statistics relating to skin cancer
- Facts About the Spine, Shoulder, and Pelvis
Detailed anatomical description of the spine, shoulder, and pelvis, including full-color, labeled illustrations
Detailed information on fever, including when to call your physician
- Fibrocystic Breast Changes
Detailed information on common fibrocystic breast changes, including what fibrocystic changes feel like
Detailed information on fibromyalgia, including cause, triggers, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Fibrous Dysplasia
Fibrous dysplasia is a chronic disorder in which bone expands because of abnormal development of fibrous tissue.
- Fifth Disease
Fifth disease is caused by the human parvovirus. It is most prevalent in the winter and spring and is usually seen in school-aged children.
- Fire Safety
Detailed information on fire and burn safety
- Firearms Safety
Detailed information on firearm safety and prevention
- First-Aid for Eyes
Detailed information on first-aid for eyes and eye safety
- First-Aid Kit
Detailed list of recommended items for a household first-aid kit
- Fish Poisoning
At certain times of the year, various species of fish and shellfish contain toxins, even if well cooked. The most common type of fish poisoning in travelers is ciguatera fish poisoning.
- Flat or Inverted Nipples
Detailed information on breastfeeding and flat or inverted nipples
- Fleas, Mites, and Chiggers
Detailed information on flea, mite, and chiggers bites
Detailed information on the importance of proper flossing technique
- Fluency Disorder
A person with fluency disorder has trouble speaking in a fluid or flowing way. They may repeat parts of words (stutter) or speak fast and jam words together (clutter).
Detailed information on fluoride
- Fluoroscopy Procedure
Fluoroscopy is a study of moving body structures—similar to an X-ray "movie."
- Folliculitis, Boils, and Carbuncles
Detailed information on folliculitis, boils, and carbuncles
- Food Allergies
Detailed information on food allergy, including food intolerance and food allergy symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Food Allergies
Detailed information on food allergy, including food intolerance and food allergy symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Food Allergies in Children
Detailed information on food allergy, including cause, symptoms, and treatment
- Food Poisoning
Detailed information on food poisoning, including causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention
- Food-Drug Interactions
A food-drug interaction can occur when the food you eat affects the ingredients in a medication you are taking, preventing the medicine from working the way it should.
- Foot Pain and Problems
Foot pain is often caused by improper foot function. Improperly fitted shoes can worsen and, in some cases, cause foot problems.
- For Family Members Coping With Prostate Cancer
What can you do to help the man in your life with prostate cancer? Keep the lines of communication open.
- For Parents: Bicycle, In-Line Skating, Skateboard Safety
Detailed information on bicycle, in-line skating, and skateboarding safety
- Forehead Lift
A forehead lift can correct sagging brows or deep furrows between the eyes. It is often done in conjunction with a facelift, in order to create a smoother facial appearance overall.
- Forms of Diabetes
Detailed information on the three forms of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes
A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone. When a fracture occurs, it is classified as either open or closed.
- Frequently Asked Questions About Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs)
Do cell phones interfere with pacemakers? Do ICDs need to be adjusted? Here are answers to these and other questions.
- Frequently Asked Questions: Mammograms
Timing your mammogram when your breasts are not tender is important. In premenopausal women, this is usually one week after a menstrual period.
- Friedreich’s Ataxia
Friedreich’s ataxia (FA) is a degenerative disease that damages your spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and the cerebellum portion of your brain.
Detailed information on frostbite, including symptoms and what to do if frostbite occurs
- Fungal Infections of the Skin
Detailed information on fungal infections of the skin, including candidiasis (yeast infection), tinea infection (ringworm), and tinea versicolor
- G6PD (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) Deficiency
Detailed information on g6pd deficiency, including cause, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on gallstones, including symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
- Gas in the Digestive Tract
Detailed information on gas in the digestive tract, including a list of foods that cause gas, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
- Gastric Bypass (Malabsorptive) Surgery
Gastric bypass surgery involves bypassing a part of the small intestine that absorbs nutrients. For this reason, these surgeries are referred to as malabsorptive procedures.
- Gastric Sleeve Surgery
Gastric sleeve surgery is a form of bariatric, or weight-loss, surgery. Your doctor may recommend this procedure if you have severe health problems related to obesity.
- Gastric Stapling (Restrictive) Surgery
Gastric stapling surgery is a type of weight loss surgery that limits the amount of food a person can eat.
Detailed information on gastritis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)/Heartburn
Gastroesophageal reflux is the return of acidic stomach juices, or food and fluids, back up into the esophagus.
- Gastrointestinal Conditions
Detailed information on gastrointestinal conditions in children
Detailed information on gastroparesis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Gaucher Disease
Gaucher disease is an inherited metabolic disorder known as a lipid storage disease. When you have gaucher disease, you’re missing an enzyme needed to break down lipids normally.
- General Information About Breast Cancer
Ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, and Paget's disease are several types of breast cancer.
- General Information About Cancer: Overview
Detailed information on cancer, including cancer diagnosis, cancer staging, cancer grading, cancer treatment, cancer surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, biological therapy, and cancer clinical trials
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder
A person with generalized anxiety disorder often worries excessively about health, money, family, or work, and continually anticipates disaster.
- Generalized Exfoliative Dermatitis
Detailed information on generalized exfoliative dermatitis, including symptoms, causes, and treatment
- Genetics of Breast Cancer
Detailed information on the genetics of breast cancer, including information on hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome, brca1, brca2, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden syndrome, and ataxia telangiectasia
- Genetics of Ovarian Cancer
Detailed information on the genetics of ovarian cancer, including hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, ovarian cancer and hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer, and basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)
- Genitourinary Conditions
Detailed information on genital and urinary conditions in children
- Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a pregnant woman has elevated glucose levels and other symptoms of diabetes—but did not have diabetes before she became pregnant.
- Getting Started
The first weeks of breastfeeding should be considered a learning period for both you and your baby. Don't expect to work as a coordinated team immediately.
- Giant Cell Tumor
Giant cell tumors most often appear in the knee, but they can also involve the bones of the arms and the legs, or the flat bones such as the breastbone or pelvis.
Detailed information on giardiasis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
Glaucoma is a condition in which the normal fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises because the fluid aqueous humor is not able to drain properly. This pressure damages the optic nerve.
Detailed information on glomerulonephritis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on glomerulosclerosis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Glucose Monitoring
You can monitor your blood sugar at home with one of a variety of devices that use a small sample of blood.
- Glycogen Storage Disease
Glycogen storage disease is an inherited condition that changes the way your body uses glycogen, a form of glucose, or sugar.
- Goodpasture Syndrome
Detailed information on Goodpasture syndrome, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Gout is marked by inflamed, painful joints because of the formation of crystal deposits in them.
- Grading and Staging of Cancer
Grading and staging cancer helps determine the best treatment.
- Grading of Prostate Cancer
The cancer grading system is based on a number range. The lower the number, the lower the grade, and the slower the cancer is growing.
- Granuloma Annulare
Detailed information on granuloma annulare, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Grief and Loss
Grief moves in and out of stages from disbelief and denial, to anger and guilt, to finding a source of comfort, to eventually adjusting to the loss.
- Growth and Development
Children with congenital heart disease often grow and develop more slowly than other children.
- Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Guillain-Barré syndrome is a neurological disorder in which the body's immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. The disorder usually occurs a few days or weeks after a person has had symptoms of a respiratory or gastrointestinal viral infection.
- Gulf War Syndrome
Detailed information on Gulf war syndrome, including symptoms, causes, treatment, and research
- Gynecologic Inflammations and Infections
Detailed information on the most common gynecological inflammations and infections, including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease
- Gynecological Anatomy
Detailed anatomical description of the female pelvis, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations
- Gynecological Cancers
Detailed information on the most common types of gynecological cancers, including symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
- Gynecological Concerns
Detailed information on the most common gynecological concerns, including sexually transmitted diseases, endometriosis, pelvic pain, menstrual conditions, premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, gynec
- Gynecological Conditions
Detailed information on the most common gynecological conditions
- Gynecological Inflammations and Infections
Detailed information on the most common gynecological inflammations and infections, including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease
- Hair Loss
Hair loss is believed to be primarily caused by a combination of factors, including aging, changing hormones, illness, and family history.
- Hair Problems
Detailed information on hair problems, including baldness (alopecia), excessive hairiness (hirsutism), and ingrown hairs
- Hair Replacement Surgery
Detailed information on hair loss and hair replacement surgery
- Halitosis (Bad Breath)
Detailed information on halitosis (bad breath), including causes and treatment
- Hand Pain and Problems
Common hand problems include arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and ganglion cysts.
- Hand Surgery
Detailed information on hand surgery for different hand conditions
- Hand Washing
Use warm water to wet your hands, then apply soap. Rub your hands together for at least 10 seconds. Rinse thoroughly to remove all soap.
- Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
Detailed information on Hashimoto's thyroiditis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Head Injury in Children
The more common causes of head injury in children are falls, motor vehicle accidents—in which the child is either a passenger or a pedestrian—or a result of child abuse.
Headaches vary greatly in terms of pain location, pain intensity, and how frequently they occur.
- Health Promotion and Prevention
Detailed information on health promotion and disease prevention for women, including information on breast health, breast cancer prevention, breast self-examination, mammography, birth control, pap test, preconception care, heart disease prevention, safer
- Healthcare Guidelines For Men
Use these guidelines as a reminder to take care of your personal health care needs, and also as a list of topics to discuss with your doctor.
- Healthy Child Lifestyles
Detailed information on healthy child lifestyles, including information on dental health, nutrition, vision, speech, hearing, sleep, toilet-training, and discipline
- Healthy Cooking Tips for People with Diabetes
Steam vegetables in low-fat broth or water, and use vegetable oil spray instead of oil, shortening, or butter.
- Healthy Eating During Adolescence
Encourage your teen to eat three balanced meals a day, with fruits or vegetables as snacks.
- Healthy Sleep Habits
The normal amount of sleep varies depending on the age of your child. A 2-year-old needs 10 to 12 hours a night, plus naps during the day. By age 6, a child usually has dropped naps, but still needs 10 hours at night.
- Hearing Aids
Hearing aids are electronic or battery-operated devices that can amplify and change sound. A microphone receives the sound and converts it into sound waves. The sound waves are then converted into electrical signals.
- Hearing and Speech Communication Services and Devices
In addition to hearing aids, many other devices are available to help improve communication in daily life. These range from telephone amplifiers to visual alarm systems.
- Hearing Disorders
Detailed information on the most common types of hearing disorders, including hearing loss, presbycusis, tinnitus, usher syndrome, and noise-induced hearing loss
- Hearing Loss
In some people, hearing loss can be surgically corrected. For others, medical devices and rehabilitation therapies often can help reduce hearing loss.
- Heart Attack
A heart attack occurs when the blood supply is cut off from the heart muscle, usually because of a blood clot. Without blood and oxygen, the muscle cells are damaged and die.
- Heart Block
When you have heart block, there is interference with the electrical signals that usually move from the top chambers of your heart (the atria) to the bottom chambers of your heart (the ventricles), telling it when to beat. This is known as a conduction disorder.
- Heart Failure
Heart failure, also called congestive heart failure, is a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body's other organs.
- Heart Murmurs
Heart murmurs may be caused by a number of factors or diseases, including defective heart valves, fever, and pregnancy.
- Heart Valve Diseases
Heart valves can malfunction on one of two ways: They can fail to close completely, allowing blood to flow backward, or they can become damaged, limiting blood flow.
- Heat-Related Illnesses (Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke)
Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.
- Helicobacter Pylori
Detailed information on helicobacter pylori, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on hematology, the study of blood and its disorders
- Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)
Detailed information on hematuria, including cause, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on hemochromatosis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Hemolytic Anemia
Detailed information on aplastic anemia, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment
- Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Detailed information on hemolytic uremic syndrome, including cause, progression, treatment, and statistics
- Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocystosis
If you have hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, your immune system does not work normally. Certain white blood cells — histiocytes and lymphocytes — attack your other blood cells. These abnormal blood cells accumulate in your spleen and liver, causing these organs to enlarge.
Detailed information on hemophilia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Hemorrhoids are blood vessels normally present in and around the anus and lower rectum that have become swollen because of stretching under pressure. Hemorrhoids are very common in both men and women.
Detailed information on the different types of hepatitis, including viral hepatitis, hepatitis a, hepatitis b, and hepatitis c
- Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A is a highly contagious and sometimes serious liver disease. The hepatitis A virus is transmitted by eating food or drinking water contaminated with infected feces.
- Hepatitis B
Detailed information on hepatitis B, including causes, symptoms, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment
- Hepatitis C
Detailed information on hepatitis C, including causes, symptoms, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment
- Herbal Medicine
Detailed information on herbal medicine and warnings for use of herbal supplements, including Black cohosh, Echinacea, Evening primrose, Feverfew, Garlic, Gingko biloba, Ginseng, Goldenseal, Green tea, Hawthorn, Saw palmetto, and St. John's wort
- Herbal Remedies For Prostate Cancer
Talk with your health care provider before using any type of dietary or herbal supplements in the treatment or prevention of prostate cancer.
- Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (BRCA1 / BRCA2)
A woman with this syndrome may develop breast cancer before age 50 and is at higher risk for developing cancer in both breasts or in both the breasts and ovaries.
- Hiatal Hernia
Detailed information on hiatal hernias, including causes and treatment
- Hidradenitis Suppurativa
Hidradenitis suppurativa, or acne inversa, is a condition that causes deep, painful boils or abscesses in your skin.
- High Blood Pressure/Hypertension
High blood pressure, or hypertension, increases the risk for coronary heart disease (heart attack) and stroke (brain attack).
- High-Risk Diseases for Travelers
Detailed information on the most common high risk diseases for travelers, including African trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness), mad cow disease, HIV, AIDS, cholera, e. coli, dengue fever, diarrheal disease, cryptosporidiosis, diarrhea, traveler's
- Hip Fracture
A hip fracture is classified by the specific area of the break and the type of break(s) in the bone. It is a serious injury and requires immediate medical attention.
- Hip Problems
Detailed information on the most common types of hip problems, including arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, traumatic arthritis, avascular necrosis, bursitis, trochanteric bursa, ischial bursa, and hip pointer
- Hip Replacement Surgery
This surgery may be considered as treatment after a hip fracture or for someone who has severe arthritis.
- History of Stroke
Hippocrates, the father of medicine, first recognized stroke over 2,400 years ago. At this time stroke was called apoplexy, which means "struck down by violence" in Greek.
- HIV and AIDS
AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, which kills or impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers.
- Hodgkin Disease
Detailed information on Hodgkin's lymphoma, including symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment
- Home Health Care Overview
Many types of medical and social home health care services are available: nursing care, physical therapy, pharmacy services, transportation, and home-delivered meals.
- Home Health Care Statistics
Medical conditions that most frequently require home health care include diabetes, heart failure, chronic ulcer of the skin, osteoarthritis, and hypertension.
Detailed information on homeopathy as a form of alternative therapy
- Hordeolum (Stye)
Detailed information on stye, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Hormone Therapy
If you use or are considering using hormone therapy, discuss the possible benefits and risks with your health care provider.
- Hormone Therapy
Detailed information on hormone therapy as one type of cancer treatment
- Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer
The goal of hormone therapy is to lower the level of male hormones in the body, particularly testosterone.
- Hormones and the Endocrine System
Detailed information on hormones and their role in the workings of the endocrine system
- Hormones During Pregnancy
Many hormone levels are affected in the body during pregnancy, with several hormones playing major roles.
- Hospice Care Overview
Hospice care usually involves relieving symptoms and providing psychological and social support for the patient and family. The goal of hospice care is to provide the terminally ill patient peace, comfort, and dignity.
- Hospice Care Statistics
Less than half of hospice recipients are cancer patients. The five leading non-cancer conditions admitted to hospice are end-stage heart disease, dementia, feebleness, lung disease, and end-stage renal disease.
- Household Safety Checklist
Use this list as part of a thorough safety check of your home. It can help prevent accidents and injuries.
- How a Migraine Happens
One theory says that migraine pain occurs because of waves of activity by groups of excitable brain cells, which trigger chemicals, such as serotonin to constrict blood vessels.
- How Genes Cause Cancer
Genes that have alterations, or mutations, can cause cells to become cancerous. Some mutations are inherited and others are "acquired," occurring by chance over time.
- How Milk Is Made
Detailed information on how breast milk is made for breastfeeding
- How to Perform a Breast Self-Examination (BSE)
By doing BSE regularly, you get to know how your breasts normally feel so that you are more apt to detect any change.
- Human Bites
Detailed information on human bites, including treatment for human bites
Detailed information on hyperparathyroidism, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on hyperthyroidism, including symptoms, types, diagnosis, and treatment
Hypnosis is an altered, relaxed state of mind, often used to help learn to control bad habits, pain, and stress.
- Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)
Hypoglycemia is most often seen as a complication of diabetes and is sometimes referred to as "insulin reaction."
Detailed information on hypoparathyroidism, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on hypopituitarism, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Hypothermia is an abnormally low body temperature brought on by staying in cold temperatures for a long period of time. This lowered body temperature affects the brain, thus affecting a person's ability to think clearly or move well.
Hypothyroidism is the condition in which the thyroid is underactive—producing too little thyroid hormone.
- Hypothyroidism and Pregnancy
Signs of an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) may be masked by pregnancy. But the thyroid is important for your baby’s brain development. Learn if you should be screened for hypothyroidism.
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. Different portions of the uterus, as well as other organs, may be removed at the same time.
- Ice Packs vs. Warm Compresses For Pain
It can sometimes be confusing whether to use heat or cold when treating sore muscles or an injury. Here are facts to keep in mind.
- Illegal Drug Use and Pregnancy
Almost every drug passes from the mother's bloodstream through the placenta to the fetus. Illicit substances that cause drug dependence and addiction in the mother also cause the fetus to become addicted.
- Illustration of the Mouth
Detailed anatomical description of the mouth, including a full-color, labeled illustration
By creating images in the mind, a person can reduce pain and symptoms associated with his or her condition.
- Immune (Idiopathic) Thrombocytopenic Purpura
Detailed information on idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on immunizations for adults and children, including a current immunization schedule
- Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Nephropathy
Detailed information on IgA nephropathy, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Immunology and Serology
Detailed information on immunology, the study of the body's immune system and its functions and disorders, and serology, the study of blood serum
- Immunotherapy / Biological Therapy
Detailed information on biological therapy, also called immunotherapy, biological response modifier therapy, or biotherapy
Detailed information on impetigo, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Impotence / Erectile Dysfunction
For most men, erectile dysfunction is caused by physical problems, usually related to the blood supply of the penis. Many advances have occurred in both diagnosis and treatment of erectile dysfunction.
Although indigestion may be the result of a disease or an ulcer in the digestive tract, most often it is caused by eating too much, eating too quickly, eating high-fat foods, or eating during stressful situations.
- Ineffective Latch-on or Sucking
Detailed information on ineffective latch-on or sucking during breastfeeding
Detailed information on infections in children
- Infectious Arthritis
Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint fluid and tissues. Different bacteria and viruses can infect a joint and usually are associated with a person's age.
- Infectious Diseases on the Job
Detailed information on infectious diseases on the job
- Infectious Esophagitis
Infectious esophagitis is swelling and irritation of your esophagus, triggered by an infection.
- Infectious Mononucleosis
Detailed information on infectious mononucleosis, including symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and transmission
Many different factors and problems can cause infertility, including problems in the female reproductive system, the male reproductive system, or a combination of the two.
- Infertility Risk Factors for Men and Women
Age, chronic diseases, and endometriosis are common factors for women. For men, they are STDs, toxic substances at work, and cigarette smoking.
- Influenza (Flu)
How do you know if you have the flu? Symptoms: abrupt onset of fever, muscle aches, sore throat, and a nonproductive cough.
- Ingrown Hairs
Detailed information on ingrown hairs, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Inguinal Hernia in Children
Detailed information on inguinal hernia, including causes, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
- Inhalers and Nebulizers
Inhalers deliver medication directly to the lungs with less side effects than medication taken by mouth or injection.
- Insect Bites
Detailed information on insect bites, including bee stings, flea bites, mite bites, chigger bites, spider bites, tick bites, and lyme disease
If you experience difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or enjoying a restful night's sleep, you may be suffering from insomnia.
Insomnia, the term for having trouble sleeping at night, is one of the most common sleep complaints. About one in three adults has bouts of insomnia that last a few days at a time.
- Insufficient or Delayed Milk Production
Detailed information on insufficient or delayed milk production
- Insulin Replacement Therapy
Insulin is classified according to the speed of its action, the length of time when it's most effective, and its duration.
Insulinomas are tumors in your pancreas that produce excess insulin. These tumors are rare and usually do not spread to other parts of your body.
- Interstitial Cystitis
Interstitial cystitis is a complex, chronic disorder marked by an inflamed or irritated bladder wall. It can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder and decreased bladder capacity.
- Interstitial Lung Disease (Pulmonary Fibrosis)
Detailed information on interstitial lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease causes, interstitial lung disease treatment
- Interventional Radiology
Detailed information on interventional radiology, including what procedures interventional radiologists perform
- Intraoperative Care
Detailed information on intraoperative management
- Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
Detailed information on intravenous pyelogram, including information on how the procedure is performed
- Introduction to Menopause
When a woman permanently stops having menstrual periods, she has reached the stage of life called menopause. This stage signals the end of a woman's ability to have children.
- Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Detailed information on aplastic anemia, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
A person with IBS has a colon that is more sensitive and reactive than usual, so it responds strongly to stimuli that would not affect other people.
- Joint Replacement Surgery
Joint replacement is a surgical procedure to remove and replace an arthritic or damaged joint with an artificial joint, called a prosthesis.
- Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
Detailed information on juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment
- Keratosis Pilaris
Detailed information on keratosis pilaris, including treatment
- Kidney Cancer
Detailed information on renal cell cancer, the most common type of kidney cancer, including symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment
- Kidney Disorders
Detailed information on kidney disorders
- Kidney Stones
Detailed information on kidney stones, including types, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Kidney Transplantation
Detailed information on kidney transplantation
- Knee Pain and Problems
Common knee problems include sprains, strains, torn cartilage, and arthritis.
- Knee Replacement Surgery
When a knee is severely damaged by disease or injury, an artificial knee replacement may be considered.
- Knowing When to Seek Treatment
Families, spouses, or friends are often the first to suspect that their loved one is challenged by feelings, behaviors, and/or environmental conditions that cause them to act disruptive, rebellious, or sad.
Kyphosis is a forward curvature of the spine. It is a type of spinal deformity and should not be confused with poor posture.
Labor usually starts two weeks before or after the estimated date of delivery. No one knows exactly what triggers the onset of labor.
- Labor and Delivery
Detailed information on labor and delivery
- Lactose Intolerance
Detailed information on lactose intolerance, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
- Landau-Kleffner Syndrome
Detailed information on Landau-Kleffner syndrome, including signs, diagnosis, and treatment
- Language Disorders
Detailed information on the most common types of language disorders, including aphasia and Landau-Kleffner syndrome
- Laryngeal Cancer (Cancer of the Larynx)
Detailed information on laryngeal cancer (cancer of the larynx), including symptoms, cause, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
- Laser Surgery for Skin Conditions
Detailed information on laser surgery for skin conditions
- Laser Surgery Overview
Detailed information on laser surgery and what types of surgeries may be performed with lasers
- Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow)
The pain of tennis elbow is caused by damage to the tendons that bend the wrist backward away from the palm.
- Latex Allergy
Symptoms of latex allergy include watery or itchy eyes, wheezing, hives, flushing or a skin rash, itching, or swelling.
- Lead Poisoning
Detailed information on lead poisoning
- Learning Disorders
Learning disorders are sometimes called learning disabilities. Most children with learning disorders have normal intelligence, but they have difficulty with reading, math, or another academic area.
- Leukemia Index
Detailed information on leukemia in childhood, including symptoms, staging, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on lice, including diagnosis and treatment
- Lichen Planus
Lichen planus is a common disease that causes inflammation (swelling and irritation) on your skin or inside your mouth. On your skin, lichen planus causes a rash that is usually itchy. Inside your mouth, it may cause burning or soreness.
- Lifestyle Changes
Living a healthier lifestyle can help to prevent heart disease. This means eliminating all tobacco, following a heart-healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
- Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
Li-Fraumeni syndrome raises the risk for breast cancer and many other types of cancer.
- Ligament Injuries to the Knee
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common ligaments to be injured. Learn about the four major ligaments of the knee.
A liposarcoma is a rare type of cancer that develops in your fatty tissue. This type of tumor can grow anywhere in your body. Common places include your abdomen, thigh, and behind your knee.
Liposuction removes excess body fat through a suctioning process. It is not a substitute for weight loss, but it does change the body's shape and contour.
- Liver Disease Statistics
Statistics relating to liver, biliary, and pancreatic disorders
- Liver Transplantation
Detailed information on liver transplantation, including donor lists, organ rejection, details of the procedure, and long-term outlook following a liver transplant
- Liver Tumors
Detailed information on liver tumors, including types, symptoms, staging, diagnosis, and treatment
- Liver, Biliary, and Pancreatic Diagnostic Procedures
Detailed information on the most common diagnostic procedures for liver, biliary, and pancreatic disorders
- Living with a Pacemaker or Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)
With advances in technology, pacemakers and ICDs generally last several years and, in most cases, allow a person to lead a normal life.
- Living with a Rheumatic Disease
With proper management, a rheumatic disease often does not have to hinder your daily activities.
- Long QT Syndrome
Your heartbeat is a complex bodily function — many systems must work in unison. Disruptions in the electrical activity of your heart can lead to problems. Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is one of them.
- Low Back Pain
Low back pain can range from mild, dull, and annoying to persistent, severe, and disabling pain. Pain in the lower back can restrict mobility and interfere with normal functioning.
- Low Milk Production
Detailed information on breastfeeding and low breast milk production
- Low-Vision Devices
Low-vision devices are categorized as either optical or nonoptical. Optical devices are magnifying lenses or closed circuit TV. Nonoptical devices are large-print books and talking computers.
- Lumbar Disk Disease (Herniated Disk)
Lumbar disk disease is caused by a change in the structure of a spinal disk. Most of the time, disk disease is a result of aging and the degeneration that occurs within the disk.
- Lumbar Strain (Weight Lifter's Back)
A lumbar strain is an injury to the lower back, which results in damaged tendons and muscles that spasm and feel sore.
- Lung Cancer
Detailed information on lung cancer, lung cancer symptom, lung cancer treatment, lung cancer sign, lung cancer medication, malignant lung tumor, lung cancer cause, benign lung tumor, lung cancer risk factor, lung cancer prevention
- Lung Disorders and Diseases
Detailed information on lung disorders and diseases, signs of respiratory distress, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD), Asthma, Chronic Bronchitis, Pulmonary Emphysema, Acute Bronchitis, Cystic Fibrosis, Occupational Lung Diseases, Pneumonia, Primary Pulmonary Hypertension, Pulmonary Embolism, Pulmonary Sarcoidosis, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Tuberculosis
- Lyme Disease
Detailed information on Lyme disease, including ticks that transmit Lyme disease, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
Lymphadenitis is the medical term for an infection in one or more lymph nodes. When lymph nodes become infected, it’s usually because an infection started somewhere else in your body.
- Lymphedema Following a Mastectomy
Whenever the normal drainage pattern in the lymph nodes is disturbed or damaged—often during surgery to remove the lymph nodes—the arm may swell. This swelling, caused by too much fluid, is called lymphedema.
Detailed information on lymphomas, including Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Detailed information on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including information on how the procedure is performed
- Maintaining Weight Loss
Keeping extra weight off requires effort and commitment, just as losing weight does.
- Major Depression
You may have depression if you have a persistent sad or "empty" mood, or if you find it difficult to concentrate or make decisions.
- Making the Home Environment Safe
Here are some suggestions: Make sure lighting in hallways and on stairs is adequate. Secure area rugs to prevent falls and slips. Outdoors, make certain railings, gates, and fences are secure and in good repair.
Detailed information on malaria, including symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and information for travelers
- Male Factor Infertility
Problems with the production and maturation of sperm are the most common causes of male infertility.
- Male Growth and Development
Detailed information on male growth and development
- Manage Your Medications
Detailed information on learning to manage your medication, especially if you are taking several, and treating different conditions
- Management After Surgery
Detailed information on recovering from hand surgery
- Management of Asthma
One part of asthma management is to identify and avoid the things that trigger your asthma. You also need to understand how to take your asthma medications.
- Managing Stress
A nutritious, well-balanced diet and exercise can keep your body fit and able to resist disease, and exercise is an excellent way to elevate your mood.
- Manic Depression/Bipolar Disorder
Manic depression, also known as bipolar disorder, is a type of affective disorder that goes beyond the day's ordinary ups and downs. It is becoming an important health concern in this country.
Detailed information on massage therapy as a form of alternative therapy
- Mastalgia (Breast Pain)
The most common type of breast pain is associated with the menstrual cycle and is nearly always hormonal.
Detailed information on breastfeeding and mastitis
- Meal Planning
Detailed information on healthy cooking tips for persons with diabetes
Detailed information on measles, including symptoms, complications, prevention, and treatment
- Measuring a Baby's Temperature
Most physicians recommend taking a baby's temperature rectally, by placing a thermometer in the baby's anus. This method is accurate and gives a quick reading of the baby's internal temperature.
- Medial Epicondylitis (Golfer's and Baseball Elbow)
Other activities that can cause this condition include carrying a heavy suitcase, chopping wood, and using a chainsaw.
- Medical Conditions and Pregnancy
With proper medical care, most women can enjoy a healthy pregnancy, despite medical challenges such as diabetes or high blood pressure.
- Medical Information for Americans Traveling Abroad
Detailed medical information for Americans traveling abroad
- Medical Management of Vascular Conditions
Detailed information on the medical management of vascular conditions, including description of the vascular system, risk factors for vascular conditions, causes of vascular conditions, medical management of risk factors, and full-color anatomical illustrations
- Medical Treatment for Obesity
Medical treatment can help with weight loss if your own efforts are unsuccessful—or if you have a medical condition that makes it crucial to lose weight.
- Medications and Pregnancy